SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Antiquarian

An antiquarian or antiquary is an aficionado or student of antiquities or things of the past. More the term is used for those who study history with particular attention to ancient artifacts and historic sites, or historic archives and manuscripts; the essence of antiquarianism is a focus on the empirical evidence of the past, is best encapsulated in the motto adopted by the 18th-century antiquary Sir Richard Colt Hoare, "We speak from facts, not theory." The Oxford English Dictionary first cites "archaeologist" from 1824. "Archaeology", from 1607 onwards meant what is now seen as "ancient history" with the narrower modern sense first seen in 1837. Today the term "antiquarian" is used in a pejorative sense, to refer to an excessively narrow focus on factual historical trivia, to the exclusion of a sense of historical context or process. Few people today would self-describe themselves as an "antiquary" although the term "antiquarian bookseller" remains current for dealers in more expensive old books, some institutions such as the Society of Antiquaries of London retain their historic names.

During the Song Dynasty, the scholar Ouyang Xiu analyzed alleged ancient artifacts bearing archaic inscriptions in bronze and stone, which he preserved in a collection of some 400 rubbings. Patricia Ebrey writes; the Kaogutu or "Illustrated Catalogue of Examined Antiquity" compiled by Lü Dalin is one of the oldest known catalogues to systematically describe and classify ancient artifacts which were unearthed. Another catalogue was the Chong xiu Xuanhe bogutu or "Revised Illustrated Catalogue of Xuanhe Profoundly Learned Antiquity", commissioned by Emperor Huizong of Song, featured illustrations of some 840 vessels and rubbings. Interests in antiquarian studies of ancient inscriptions and artifacts waned after the Song Dynasty, but were revived by early Qing Dynasty scholars such as Gu Yanwu and Yan Ruoju. In ancient Rome, a strong sense of traditionalism motivated an interest in studying and recording the "monuments" of the past. Books on antiquarian topics covered such subjects as the origin of customs, religious rituals, political institutions.

Annals and histories might include sections pertaining to these subjects, but annals are chronological in structure, Roman histories, such as those of Livy and Tacitus, are both chronological and offer an overarching narrative and interpretation of events. By contrast, antiquarian works as a literary form are organized by topic, any narrative is short and illustrative, in the form of anecdotes. Major antiquarian Latin writers with surviving works include Varro, Pliny the Elder, Aulus Gellius, Macrobius; the Roman emperor Claudius published antiquarian works, none of, extant. Some of Cicero's treatises his work on divination, show strong antiquarian interests, but their primary purpose is the exploration of philosophical questions. Roman-era Greek writers dealt with antiquarian material, such as Plutarch in his Roman Questions and the Deipnosophistae of Athenaeus; the aim of Latin antiquarian works is to collect a great number of possible explanations, with less emphasis on arriving at a truth than in compiling the evidence.

The antiquarians are used as sources by the ancient historians, many antiquarian writers are known only through these citations. Despite the importance of antiquarian writing in the literature of ancient Rome, some scholars view antiquarianism as emerging only in the Middle Ages. Medieval antiquarians sometimes made collections of inscriptions or records of monuments, but the Varro-inspired concept of antiquitates among the Romans as the "systematic collections of all the relics of the past" faded. Antiquarianism's wider flowering is more associated with the Renaissance, with the critical assessment and questioning of classical texts undertaken in that period by humanist scholars. Textual criticism soon broadened into an awareness of the supplementary perspectives on the past which could be offered by the study of coins and other archaeological remains, as well as documents from medieval periods. Antiquaries formed collections of these and other objects; the importance placed on lineage in early modern Europe meant that antiquarianism was closely associated with genealogy, a number of prominent antiquaries held office as professional heralds.

The development of genealogy as a "scientific" discipline went hand-in-hand with the development of antiquarianism. Genealogical antiquaries recognised the evidential value for their researches of non-textual sources, including seals and church monuments. Many early modern antiquaries were chorographers:, to say, they recorded landscapes and monuments within regional or national descriptions. In England, some of the most important of these took the form of county histories. In the context of the 17th-centur

Hohenstein, Hesse

Hohenstein is a community in the Rheingau-Taunus-Kreis in the Regierungsbezirk of Darmstadt in Hesse, Germany. Hohenstein lies on both sides of the river Aar between Limburg and Wiesbaden. Hohenstein borders in the north on the community of Aarbergen, in the northeast on the community of Hünstetten, in the east and south on the town of Taunusstein, in the southwest on the town of Bad Schwalbach, in the west on the community of Heidenrod. Hohenstein’s Ortsteile are Breithardt, Burg-Hohenstein, Holzhausen über Aar, Strinz-Margarethä, Born and Steckenroth. In 1184, Strinz-Margarethä had its first documentary mention, making it the earliest of Hohenstein’s constituent communities to have its name appear in the historical record; the other centres followed in 14th centuries. In the course of municipal reform in Hesse, the current greater community of Hohenstein was founded out of the self-governing communities of Breithardt, Holzhausen über Aar, Strinz-Margarethä, Born and Steckenroth on 1 July 1972.

The constituent community of Hohenstein was thereafter known as Burg-Hohenstein. The municipal election held on 26 March 2006 yielded the following results: At Hohenstein Castle, built about 1190 by the Counts of Katzenelnbogen and the Counts of Nassau-Laurenburg, are found a hotel and a restaurant. In the woods near Hennethal is found a late mediaeval border earthwork, built in the late 14th century to guard the Limburger Straße. In the summer months there are theatrical productions on an open-air stage in the castle courtyard; each year in late summer or early autumn, most constituent communities hold their traditional Kerb, which have been organized by youth for several generations. Hohenstein Christmas Market The centres in the community, whose livelihood was once based on agriculture, have built themselves into residential communities. There are the usual businesses in Hohenstein, but no true industry. Hohenstein lies on Bundesstraße 54 between Limburg. In the constituent community of Breithardt is a primary school.

The nearest comprehensive schools are to be found in Taunusstein. The latter offers a Gymnasium upper level; the nearest Gymnasium is to be found in Taunusstein. Hohenstein at Curlie Community’s official webpage

Chitarra Italiana

Chitarra Italiana is a lute-shaped plucked instrument with four or five single strings, in a tuning similar to that of the guitar. It was common in Italy during the Renaissance era. According to Renato Meucci, the designation of'Italiana' followed the introduction to Italy of the flat-backed development of the instrument – referred to as chitarra alla spagnola, it is believed to have descended from panduras, the Mediterranean lutes of Antiquity, to be related to north African quitra. Its bass variety was known as chitarrone. Musicologist Laurence Wright talked about the chitarrone in a letter to the Early Music journal, saying it implied "large guitar", that it had a rounded back and was do be taken for a smaller lute, that it was found from the 13th century to the 18th century, but was much more rare in the latter centuries, he said that in latter years, when the mandola was popular, the chitarrone was "sometimes confused with the mandola". Cithara Italica Chitarra battente Mandore Gittern considered ancestral to Spanish guitar and closely related to mandore.

Kwitra: Also spelled'kouitra','kaitara', and'quitra'. This is a North African 4 course lute, similar to the oud, related to the chitarra Italiana. Renato Meucci. Francesca Seller. "Da "chitarra italiana" a "chitarrone": una nuova interpretazione". Enrico Radesca di Foggia e il suo tempo. Strumenti della ricerca musicale collana della Società Italiana di Musicologia 5. Lucca, Italy: Libreria Musicale Italiana, 2001: 37–57; the theorboed guitar - the Chitarrone Francese?, "11. Renaissance and Baroque guitars". Catalogue and Price List 2014. London: Stephen Barber & Sandi Harris, Lutemakers. "Roberto Meucci wrote about small lutes, revealing that in Italy they were called chitarra, so as not to confuse them with the chitarra alla spagnola. Sources from the early 18th Century declare that the chitarra italiana or chitarrino is in reality a small lute."