World War II
World War II, known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although related conflicts began earlier. It involved the vast majority of the worlds countries—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing alliances, the Allies and the Axis. It was the most widespread war in history, and directly involved more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. Marked by mass deaths of civilians, including the Holocaust and the bombing of industrial and population centres. These made World War II the deadliest conflict in human history, from late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, and formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. In December 1941, Japan attacked the United States and European colonies in the Pacific Ocean, and quickly conquered much of the Western Pacific.
The Axis advance halted in 1942 when Japan lost the critical Battle of Midway, near Hawaii, in 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained all of its territorial losses and invaded Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in South Central China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy, thus ended the war in Asia, cementing the total victory of the Allies. World War II altered the political alignment and social structure of the world, the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The victorious great powers—the United States, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union and the United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the Cold War, which lasted for the next 46 years. Meanwhile, the influence of European great powers waned, while the decolonisation of Asia, most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic recovery.
Political integration, especially in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities, the start of the war in Europe is generally held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland and France declared war on Germany two days later. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or even the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred simultaneously and this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935. The British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the forces of Mongolia and the Soviet Union from May to September 1939, the exact date of the wars end is not universally agreed upon.
It was generally accepted at the time that the war ended with the armistice of 14 August 1945, rather than the formal surrender of Japan
Alberta is a western province of Canada. With an estimated population of 4,196,457 as of July 1,2015, it is Canadas fourth-most populous province and its area is about 660,000 square kilometres. Alberta and its neighbour Saskatchewan were districts of the Northwest Territories until they were established as provinces on September 1,1905, the premier has been Rachel Notley since May 2015. Alberta is bounded by the provinces of British Columbia to the west and Saskatchewan to the east, the Northwest Territories to the north, and the U. S. state of Montana to the south. Alberta is one of three Canadian provinces and territories to only a single U. S. state and one of only two landlocked provinces. About 290 km south of the capital is Calgary, the largest city in Alberta and Edmonton centre Albertas two census metropolitan areas, both of which have populations exceeding one million, while the province has 16 census agglomerations. Tourist destinations in the province include Banff, Drumheller, Alberta is named after Princess Louise Caroline Alberta, the fourth daughter of Victoria, Queen of Canada, and Albert, Prince Consort.
Princess Louise was the wife of John Campbell, Marquess of Lorne, Lake Louise and Mount Alberta were named in her honour. Alberta, with an area of 661,848 km2, is the fourth largest province after Quebec and British Columbia. To the south, the borders on the 49th parallel north, separating it from the US state of Montana. The province extends 1,223 km north to south and 660 km east to west at its maximum width, with the exception of the semi-arid steppe of the south-eastern section, the province has adequate water resources. There are numerous rivers and lakes used for swimming, there are three large lakes, Lake Claire in Wood Buffalo National Park, Lesser Slave Lake, and Lake Athabasca which lies in both Alberta and Saskatchewan. The longest river in the province is the Athabasca River which travels 1,538 km from the Columbia Icefield in the Rocky Mountains to Lake Athabasca, the largest river is the Peace River with an average flow of 2161 m3/s. The Peace River originates in the Rocky Mountains of northern British Columbia and flows through northern Alberta and into the Slave River, Albertas capital city, Edmonton, is located approximately in the geographic centre of the province.
It is the most northerly city in Canada, and serves as a gateway. The region, with its proximity to Canadas largest oil fields, has most of western Canadas oil refinery capacity, Calgary is located approximately 280 km south of Edmonton and 240 km north of Montana, surrounded by extensive ranching country. Almost 75% of the population lives in the Calgary–Edmonton Corridor. The land grant policy to the served as a means to populate the province in its early years
Chicago, officially the City of Chicago, is the third-most populous city in the United States. With over 2.7 million residents, it is the most populous city in the state of Illinois, and it is the county seat of Cook County. In 2012, Chicago was listed as a global city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network. Chicago has the third-largest gross metropolitan product in the United States—about $640 billion according to 2015 estimates, the city has one of the worlds largest and most diversified economies with no single industry employing more than 14% of the workforce. In 2016, Chicago hosted over 54 million domestic and international visitors, landmarks in the city include Millennium Park, Navy Pier, the Magnificent Mile, Art Institute of Chicago, Museum Campus, the Willis Tower, Museum of Science and Industry, and Lincoln Park Zoo. Chicagos culture includes the arts, film, especially improvisational comedy. Chicago has sports teams in each of the major professional leagues. The city has many nicknames, the best-known being the Windy City, the name Chicago is derived from a French rendering of the Native American word shikaakwa, known to botanists as Allium tricoccum, from the Miami-Illinois language.
The first known reference to the site of the current city of Chicago as Checagou was by Robert de LaSalle around 1679 in a memoir, henri Joutel, in his journal of 1688, noted that the wild garlic, called chicagoua, grew abundantly in the area. In the mid-18th century, the area was inhabited by a Native American tribe known as the Potawatomi, the first known non-indigenous permanent settler in Chicago was Jean Baptiste Point du Sable. Du Sable was of African and French descent and arrived in the 1780s and he is commonly known as the Founder of Chicago. In 1803, the United States Army built Fort Dearborn, which was destroyed in 1812 in the Battle of Fort Dearborn, the Ottawa and Potawatomi tribes had ceded additional land to the United States in the 1816 Treaty of St. Louis. The Potawatomi were forcibly removed from their land after the Treaty of Chicago in 1833, on August 12,1833, the Town of Chicago was organized with a population of about 200. Within seven years it grew to more than 4,000 people, on June 15,1835, the first public land sales began with Edmund Dick Taylor as U. S.
The City of Chicago was incorporated on Saturday, March 4,1837, as the site of the Chicago Portage, the city became an important transportation hub between the eastern and western United States. Chicagos first railway and Chicago Union Railroad, and the Illinois, the canal allowed steamboats and sailing ships on the Great Lakes to connect to the Mississippi River. A flourishing economy brought residents from rural communities and immigrants from abroad and retail and finance sectors became dominant, influencing the American economy. The Chicago Board of Trade listed the first ever standardized exchange traded forward contracts and these issues helped propel another Illinoisan, Abraham Lincoln, to the national stage
Henry Ford was an American industrialist, the founder of the Ford Motor Company, and the sponsor of the development of the assembly line technique of mass production. Although Ford invented neither the nor the assembly line, he developed and manufactured the first automobile that many middle class Americans could afford. In doing so, Ford converted the automobile from an expensive curiosity into a practical conveyance that would impact the landscape of the 20th Century. His introduction of the Model T automobile revolutionized transportation and American industry, as the owner of the Ford Motor Company, he became one of the richest and best-known people in the world. He is credited with Fordism, mass production of inexpensive goods coupled with high wages for workers, Ford had a global vision, with consumerism as the key to peace. Ford left most of his vast wealth to the Ford Foundation, Ford was widely known for his pacifism during the first years of World War I, and for promoting antisemitism through his newspaper The Dearborn Independent and the book The International Jew.
Henry Ford was born July 30,1863, on a farm in Greenfield Township, Henry Fords siblings were Margaret Ford, Jane Ford, William Ford and Robert Ford. His father gave him a watch in his early teens. At 15, Ford dismantled and reassembled the timepieces of friends and neighbors dozens of times, at twenty, Ford walked four miles to their Episcopal church every Sunday. Ford was devastated when his mother died in 1876 and his father expected him to eventually take over the family farm, but he despised farm work. He wrote, I never had any love for the farm—it was the mother on the farm I loved. In 1879, Ford left home to work as an apprentice machinist in Detroit, flower & Bros. and with the Detroit Dry Dock Co. In 1882, he returned to Dearborn to work on the family farm and he was hired by Westinghouse to service their steam engines. During this period Ford studied bookkeeping at Goldsmith, Bryant & Stratton Business College in Detroit, Ford married Clara Jane Bryant on April 11,1888 and supported himself by farming and running a sawmill.
They had one child, Edsel Ford, in 1891, Ford became an engineer with the Edison Illuminating Company. After his promotion to Chief Engineer in 1893, he had enough time and these experiments culminated in 1896 with the completion of a self-propelled vehicle which he named the Ford Quadricycle. He test-drove it on June 4, after various test drives, Ford brainstormed ways to improve the Quadricycle. Also in 1896, Ford attended a meeting of Edison executives, Edison approved of Fords automobile experimentation
The A-segment is a car classification defined by the European Commission as the first segment in the European market car classification. It is a significant niche in Europe with 10. 4% market share in 2015, in recent years, the segment opened to premium cars with success, like the Mini and the Fiat 500. Vauxhall/Opel entered the segment with a model, the Adam. Vauxhall/Opel have had a presence in the A-segment since the launch of its Agila in 2000, the New York Times described the segment in 2012, saying today’s small cars actually span three main segments in the global vehicle market. A-segment cars are dominated by European models Mini and Fiat 500
History of the automobile
The early history of the automobile can be divided into a number of eras, based on the prevalent means of propulsion. Later periods were defined by trends in exterior styling, size, in 1807 François Isaac de Rivaz designed the first car powered by an internal combustion engine fueled by hydrogen. Marcus created the two-cycle combustion engine, the cars second incarnation in 1880 introduced a four-cycle, gasoline-powered engine, an ingenious carburetor design and magneto ignition. He created an additional two models further refining his design with steering, a clutch and brakes, the four-stroke petrol internal combustion engine that still constitutes the most prevalent form of modern automotive propulsion was patented by Nikolaus Otto. The similar four-stroke diesel engine was invented by Rudolf Diesel, the hydrogen fuel cell, one of the technologies hailed as a replacement for gasoline as an energy source for cars, was discovered in principle by Christian Friedrich Schönbein in 1838. The battery electric car owes its beginnings to Ányos Jedlik, one of the inventors of the motor, and Gaston Planté.
In 1886, Karl Benz developed a petrol or gasoline powered automobile and this is considered to be the first production vehicle as Benz made several other identical copies. The automobile was powered by a single two stroke engine. The early history of the automobile was concentrated on the search for a portable power unit to propel the vehicle. Ferdinand Verbiest, a member of a Jesuit mission in China and it was small scale and could not carry a driver but it was, quite possibly, the first working steam-powered vehicle. Steam-powered self-propelled vehicles large enough to people and cargo were first devised in the late 18th century. Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot demonstrated his fardier à vapeur, an experimental steam-driven artillery tractor, as Cugnots design proved to be impractical, his invention was not developed in his native France. The center of innovation shifted to Great Britain, by 1784, William Murdoch had built a working model of a steam carriage in Redruth and in 1801 Richard Trevithick was running a full-sized vehicle on the roads in Camborne.
The first automobile patent in the United States was granted to Oliver Evans in 1789, during the 19th century attempts were made to introduce practical steam powered vehicles. Innovations such as brakes, multi-speed transmissions and better steering developed. This effectively halted road auto development in the UK for most of the rest of the 19th century, the law was not repealed until 1896, although the need for the red flag was removed in 1878. In 1816, a professor at Prague Polytechnic, Josef Bozek, walter Hancock and operator of London steam buses, in 1838 built a four-seat steam phaeton. In 1867, Canadian jeweller Henry Seth Taylor demonstrated his 4-wheeled steam buggy at the Stanstead Fair in Stanstead, the basis of the buggy, which he began building in 1865, was a high-wheeled carriage with bracing to support a two-cylinder steam engine mounted on the floor
An antique is a collectable item, at least 100 years old. It is collected or desirable because of its age, rarity, utility, personal emotional connection and it is an object that represents a previous era or time period in human society. It is common practice to define antique as applying to objects at least 100 years old, antiques are usually objects that show some degree of craftsmanship—or a certain attention to design, such as a desk or an early automobile. They are bought at shops, estate sales, auction houses, online auctions. Antique dealers often belong to trade associations, many of which belong to CINOA. Motor vehicles are an exception to the 100-year rule, the customary definition of antique requires that an item be at least 100 years old and in original condition. In the United States, the 1930 Smoot-Hawley Tariff Act defined antiques as,1830 was the approximate beginning of mass production in the United States. These definitions were intended to allow people of that time to distinguish between genuine antique pieces, vintage items, and collectible objects, commonly refers to the remains of ancient art and everyday items from antiquity, which themselves are often archaeological artifacts.
An antiquarian is a person who collects and studies antiquities or things of the past, Chinese antiques are marked by a red seal, known as a chop, placed there by an owner. Experts can identify previous owners of an antique by reading the chops, the pre-revolution Chinese government tried to assist collectors of Chinese antiques by requiring their Department of Antiquities to provide a governmental chop on the bottom of a Chinese antique. This chop is visible as a piece of red sealing wax that bears the government chop to verify the date of the antique, the government of the Peoples Republic of China has its own definitions of what it considers antique. As of the Cultural Revolution and Chinas opening trade to other countries, antiquing is the act of shopping, negotiating, or bargaining for antiques. People buy items for use, gifts, or profit. Sources for antiquing include garage sales and yard sales, estate sales, resort towns, antique districts, note that antiquing means the craft of making an object appear antique through distressing or applying an antique-looking paint applications.
Often, individuals get confused between these handmade distressed vintage or modern items and true antiques, if you can not tell the difference between the two, you may find yourself paying a high amount of money for something that has little value in the antiquing industry. Antique furniture is an area of antiques because furniture has obvious practical uses as well as collector value. Many collectors use pieces in their homes, and care for them with the hope that they hold their value or appreciate and this is in contrast to buying new furniture, which typically depreciates from the moment of purchase. Antique furniture includes dining tables, bureaus, chests etc, the most common woods are mahogany, pine and rosewood
Charles Brady King
Charles Brady King was an American engineer and entrepreneur remembered as an automotive pioneer, etcher, poet, mystic and inventor. King was the first person in Detroit to design, the Detroit Journal of March 7,1896, reports that King drove his motor-powered vehicle down Woodward Avenue – being the first person in Detroit to build and drive such a vehicle. The Journal reports King made and sold the first complete automobile in Detroit, King was born February 2,1868, at Camp Reynolds on Angel Island, California. His father was a Civil War Union Army general, General John Haskell King, from the New England family line of Davenports that settled in Detroit. King was first sent to Trinity College in Port Hope for two years, went to Cascadilla School in Ithaca, New York, for preparation for entrance to Cornell University, in 1887 he entered Cornell, but was only there for two years. He moved to Detroit around 1888 or 1889 at the age of 20 and his first full-time job was as a draftsman at Michigan Car Company in Detroit.
King started designing and building his first car from the time of the Chicago Worlds Fair of 1893 and he test drove his first car in Detroit in front of hundreds of spectators on March 6,1896, at speeds up to seven miles per hour. It was powered by a Sintz engine, the time was just before 11 P. M. The route that King did started from a building on St. Antoine Street, when he arrived at Jefferson Avenue he turned right. After passing by several businesses he arrived at Woodward Avenue and he turned right again onto that street. He again passed by several businesses and stopped for a time at Cadillac Square at the Russell House hotel. Henry Ford was present when King demonstrated his horseless carriage, riding a bicycle behind, King showed to the Detroit public his car, which probably was the first in Michigan, however not the first in the world nor even the first in the United States. King served as a mentor to Henry Ford, Ransom E. Olds and their gasoline powered automobiles came out months later.
He did secret road tests in 1895, prior to public display. King joined the Olds Motor Works around 1900, but resigned after their plant burned down and he joined the Northern Manufacturing Company in 1902 and in 1903 became their chief engineer until 1908. One well known car he designed was the two-cylinder Silent Northern – the automobile with the first integrated motor and transmission assembly, the 1907 Northern car model had three-point engine suspension, air brakes, an air-controlled clutch and other innovations new to the auto industry of the time. King went to Europe for two years to study design in 1908. When he came back in 1910 he started the King Motor Car Company with the knowledge he acquired and he was the first automaker to make cars with left-hand steering
Preservation and restoration of automobiles
Automobile restoration is the process of repairing the degraded aspect of an automobile to return it to an overall authentic condition. Restorations should be accurate as a representative example of the production model. In the U. S. a non-original restored car may be termed a restomod, a vehicle restoration is the process of reconditioning it from a used condition in an effort to return it to like-new condition. Can be refurbished using either original or reproduction parts and techniques, the objective is to preserve the historical aspects of the vehicle, its components, and assembly. Restoration is sometimes confused with the term restomod, a restomod has portions of the car as they were when the car was first offered for sale as well as significant changes. If any part of the car is updated, the car has been restomodded, and not restored, such as a nearly stock-appearing vehicle that has been fitted with late-model chassis and conveniences. An original restoration puts a car in the condition as when it was first offered for sale.
Another process is the re-creation, a vehicle that has modified to appear like another car or truck entirely. Examples include taking a popular model and restoring it to a more desirable, high demand for some special automobiles has led to sophisticated fake replica versions. Repairs are made to correct problems, as well as for cosmetic reasons. Pressure treatment with preservative may be considered to safeguard against future wood rot and trim may require stripping and repair/refinishing. Fasteners with tool marks, damaged threads, or corrosion need re-plating or replacement-unless the car was sold that way. The frame must be cleaned and repaired if necessary. Abrasive blasting using less abrasive soda or crushed walnut shells is less likely than sandblasting to cause damage to fragile items, the interior of the vehicle should be examined and repaired or replaced to match those that were available from the factory. The seats must be repaired before being re-upholstered and the coil springs repaired, developments in technology have made it possible to salvage the original automobiles interior by various restoration processes.
Examples of this include leather seat, console, steering wheel, door panel, as part of the automotive restoration process, repair of the cars frame is important since in serves as the foundation for the entire car. Any problems must be repaired, which can be a costly process, for many popular cars, replacement frames can be purchased from parts suppliers specializing in that make of vehicle. This is often a better option than investing money into a severely damaged frame, depending on the frame construction and water can make their way inside the frame and cause rusting from the inside out, so it can be seriously weakened with little or no external sign
A vintage car is, in the most general sense, an old automobile, and in the narrower senses of car enthusiasts and collectors, it is a car from the period of 1919 to 1930. Such enthusiasts have categorization schemes for ages of cars that enforce distinctions between antique cars, vintage cars, classic cars, and so on, the classification criteria vary, but consensus within any country is often maintained by major car clubs. The vintage era in the world was a time of transition. The car started off in 1919 as still something of a rarity, in fact, automobile production at the end of this period was not matched again until the 1950s. In todays terms, a car is defined the same as a classic. Cars became much more practical and comfortable during this period, car heating was introduced, as was the in-car radio. Four-wheel braking from a foot pedal was introduced, as was the use of hydraulically actuated brakes. Towards the end of the era, the system of octane rating of fuel was introduced. Alfred P. Sloan and Harley Earl of General Motors, Chrysler capitalized on advertising the automobile’s role in the life of the consumer for more than just the utilitarian value compared with the horse.
The stock market crash of 1929 started the layoff of workers and many new companies went bankrupt. The Federal Aid Road Act of 1916 was the first federal highway act and lack of funding hampered any positive results of this act. The Federal Aid Highway Act of 1921 started a 50/50 matching fund to states for road building and resulted in the creation of new, during this period as well as the car adapting to society, there were better roads, and society began to adapt to the car. From 1919 to 1929, many changes took place. General Motors went into a crisis that lasted until after Alfred Sloan became president in 1923. Hudson produced the Essex in 1919 that, by 1925, had propelled the company to third in sales behind Ford. Ford was in the process of building a new plant, buying back stock, in 1921 Maxwell failed and Walter P. Chrysler, formerly of General Motors, was brought in to reorganize it and, in 1925, the Chrysler Corporation was formed. There were other automakers that made it past the 1920-1921 depression only to fail during the Great Depression, Antique automobiles and early to middle era classic cars do not have the safety features that are standard on modern cars.
The most rudimentary of safety features, front wheel brakes and hydraulic brakes, for the average person car collecting is a hobby
World War I
World War I, known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. More than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, were mobilised in one of the largest wars in history and it was one of the deadliest conflicts in history, and paved the way for major political changes, including revolutions in many of the nations involved. The war drew in all the worlds great powers, assembled in two opposing alliances, the Allies versus the Central Powers of Germany and Austria-Hungary. These alliances were reorganised and expanded as more nations entered the war, Japan, the trigger for the war was the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, by Yugoslav nationalist Gavrilo Princip in Sarajevo on 28 June 1914. This set off a crisis when Austria-Hungary delivered an ultimatum to the Kingdom of Serbia. Within weeks, the powers were at war and the conflict soon spread around the world.
On 25 July Russia began mobilisation and on 28 July, the Austro-Hungarians declared war on Serbia, Germany presented an ultimatum to Russia to demobilise, and when this was refused, declared war on Russia on 1 August. Germany invaded neutral Belgium and Luxembourg before moving towards France, after the German march on Paris was halted, what became known as the Western Front settled into a battle of attrition, with a trench line that changed little until 1917. On the Eastern Front, the Russian army was successful against the Austro-Hungarians, in November 1914, the Ottoman Empire joined the Central Powers, opening fronts in the Caucasus and the Sinai. In 1915, Italy joined the Allies and Bulgaria joined the Central Powers, Romania joined the Allies in 1916, after a stunning German offensive along the Western Front in the spring of 1918, the Allies rallied and drove back the Germans in a series of successful offensives. By the end of the war or soon after, the German Empire, Russian Empire, Austro-Hungarian Empire, national borders were redrawn, with several independent nations restored or created, and Germanys colonies were parceled out among the victors.
During the Paris Peace Conference of 1919, the Big Four imposed their terms in a series of treaties, the League of Nations was formed with the aim of preventing any repetition of such a conflict. This effort failed, and economic depression, renewed nationalism, weakened successor states, and feelings of humiliation eventually contributed to World War II. From the time of its start until the approach of World War II, at the time, it was sometimes called the war to end war or the war to end all wars due to its then-unparalleled scale and devastation. In Canada, Macleans magazine in October 1914 wrote, Some wars name themselves, during the interwar period, the war was most often called the World War and the Great War in English-speaking countries. Will become the first world war in the sense of the word. These began in 1815, with the Holy Alliance between Prussia and Austria, when Germany was united in 1871, Prussia became part of the new German nation. Soon after, in October 1873, German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck negotiated the League of the Three Emperors between the monarchs of Austria-Hungary and Germany
A subcompact car is the American term for an automobile with a class size smaller than a compact car, usually not exceeding 165 inches in length, but larger than a microcar. According to the United States Environmental Protection Agency, a car is classified as subcompact if it has between 85 cubic feet and 99 cu ft of interior volume. The subcompact segment equates roughly to A-segment and B-segment in Europe, or city car, in 2012, the New York Times described the differences, saying today’s small cars actually span three main segments in the global vehicle market. The tiny A-segment cars include the Chevrolet Spark and Smart Fortwo, they’re extremely short and very light. Slightly larger are B-segment cars like the Ford Fiesta and Chevrolet Sonic, the A- and B-cars are known as subcompacts. Previously, cars in this size were variously categorized, including small automobile and this type of car has been around since the 1940s with the Crosley, and in the 1950s with the captive import, the Nash Metropolitan.
A number of imported models, notably the Volkswagen Beetle and various small British cars, were marketed as economy cars during this time. The AMC Gremlin was described at its April 1970 introduction as the first American-built import, the Chevrolet Vega and Ford Pinto subcompacts were introduced in September 1970 for the 1971 model year. The Pontiac Astre, the Canadian-born re-badged Vega variant was released in the U. S, the Camaro was scheduled for cancellation, but sales stabilized with the end of the 1970s energy crisis. The Monza with its GM variants Pontiac Sunbird, Buick Skyhawk, Plymouth Turismo, Oldsmobile Starfire, at this time another segment started opening up below Gremlin and Vega that became the new subcompact segment. The Chevrolet Chevette was GMs new entry-level subcompact introduced as a 1976 model and it was an Americanized design from Opel, GMs German subsidiary. S. Renault Alliance, a version of the Renault 9, in Kenosha, during the 1990s GM offered the Geo brand featuring the Suzuki-built Metro subcompact.
Because of consumer demand for fuel-efficient cars during the late-2000s, sales of cars made it the fastest growing market category in the U. S. The Ford Fiesta is still only European subcompact car ever offered in North America, and there are even subcompact SUVs like the Jeep Renegade and the Mazda CX-3 Car classification Mini SUV Economy car Official US government car size class definitions