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Antiseptics are antimicrobial substances that are applied to living tissue/skin to reduce the possibility of infection, sepsis, or putrefaction. Antiseptics are distinguished from antibiotics by the latter's ability to safely destroy bacteria within the body, from disinfectants, which destroy microorganisms found on non-living objects; some antiseptics are true germicides, capable of destroying microbes, while others are bacteriostatic and only prevent or inhibit their growth. Antibacterials include antiseptics. Microbicides which destroy virus particles are called antivirals. Antifungals known as an antimycotics, are pharmaceutical fungicides used to treat and prevent mycosis; the widespread introduction of antiseptic surgical methods was initiated by the publishing of the paper Antiseptic Principle of the Practice of Surgery in 1867 by Joseph Lister, inspired by Louis Pasteur's germ theory of putrefaction. In this paper, Lister advocated the use of carbolic acid as a method of ensuring that any germs present were killed.

Some of this work was anticipated by: Ancient Greek physicians Galen and Hippocrates and Sumerian clay tablets dating from 2150 BC that advocate the use of similar techniques. Medieval surgeons Hugh of Lucca, Theoderic of Servia, his pupil Henri de Mondeville were opponents of Galen's opinion that pus was important to healing, which had led ancient and medieval surgeons to let pus remain in wounds, they advocated draining and cleaning the wound edges with wine, dressing the wound after suturing, if necessary and leaving the dressing on for ten days, soaking it in warm wine all the while, before changing it. Their theories were bitterly opposed by Galenist Guy de Chauliac and others trained in the classical tradition. Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr. who published The Contagiousness of Puerperal Fever in 1843 Florence Nightingale, who contributed to the report of the Royal Commission on the Health of the Army, based on her earlier work Ignaz Semmelweis, who published his work The Cause and Prophylaxis of Childbed Fever in 1861, summarizing experiments and observations since 1847] Alcohols, including ethanol and 2-propanol/isopropanol are sometimes referred to as surgical spirit.

They are used to disinfect the skin. Chlorhexidine gluconate is used as a skin antiseptic. Chloroxylenol is an antiseptic and disinfectant, used for skin disinfection and cleaning surgical instruments, it is used within a number of household disinfectants and wound cleaners. Hydrogen peroxide is used as a 6 % solution to deodorize wounds and ulcers. More 3% solutions of hydrogen peroxide have been used in household first aid for scrapes, etc. However, the strong oxidization causes scar formation and increases healing time during fetal development. Iodine is used in an alcohol solution or as Lugol's iodine solution as a pre- and postoperative antiseptic; some studies do not recommend disinfecting minor wounds with iodine because of concern that it may induce scar tissue formation and increase healing time. However, concentrations of 1% iodine or less have not been shown to increase healing time and are not otherwise distinguishable from treatment with saline. Novel iodine antiseptics containing povidone-iodine are far better tolerated, do not negatively affect wound healing, leave a deposit of active iodine, thereby creating the so-called "remnant", or persistent, effect.

The great advantage of iodine antiseptics is their wide scope of antimicrobial activity, killing all principal pathogens and, given enough time spores, which are considered to be the most difficult form of microorganisms to be inactivated by disinfectants and antiseptics. Octenidine dihydrochloride increasingly used in continental Europe as a chlorhexidine substitute. Polyhexanide is an antimicrobial compound suitable for clinical use in critically colonized or infected acute and chronic wounds; the physicochemical action on the bacterial envelope prevents or impedes the development of resistant bacterial strains. Balsam of Peru is a mild antiseptic. Dakin's solution is a sodium hypochlorite solution also containing boric acid to lower pH, it is used on live tissues for cleaning wounds of bacteria and viruses. Because of practicality of preparation and lower cost, it is used in Veterinary Medicine treatments, it does not stain the animal's fur or affect its aesthetic or commercial value. Super-oxidized solutions contain hypochlorous acid and are stabilised at a neutral pH.

SOS are acting, broad spectrum antiseptics that are clinically effective at non-cytotoxic concentrations that in contrast to many cytotoxic antiseptics, support wound healing. There is now growing consensus. After continued exposure to antiseptics, bacteria may evolve to the point where they are no longer harmed by these compounds. Bacteria can develop a resistance to antiseptics, but the effect is less pronounced; the mechanisms by which bacteria evolve may vary in response to different antiseptics. Low concentrations of an antiseptic may encourage growth of a bacterial strain, resistant to the antiseptic, where a higher concentration of the antiseptic

Crag Lough

Crag Lough is an inland lake at the southern edge of Northumberland National Park, 2.5 miles north of Bardon Mill, 0.5 miles north of the B6318 Military Road in Northumberland, northern England. At this point Hadrian's Wall is at the top of a line of crags, the Whin Sill, with Crag Lough at the foot of the crags; the etymology of Crag Lough is linked to the Cumbric word luch, meaning'lake'. The'Crag' element is from a word equivalent to Welsh graig,'cliff'. Broomlee Lough Greenlee Lough Halleypike Lough Media related to Crag Lough at Wikimedia Commons

Woodie Blackman

Francis Woodbine Blackman was a Caribbean author, former secretary of the University of the West Indies Cave Hill Campus, a member of the Dalkeith Methodist Church, a retired consultant of the Canadian Training Aid Programme. His parents, James T. Blackman and his mother lived at "Albany", Two Mile Hill in St. Michael, he attended the Roebuck Moravian Boys’ School and Harrison College which he left in 6B to go into teaching. He first held appointments as science teacher at Boys’ Foundation School, St. Vincent Grammar School and St. Kitts Grammar School, he was appointed Principal of Montserrat Secondary School, returned to St. Kitts as Headmaster of the St. Kitts Grammar School, his cousins, Marjorie and Errol Wiltshire were as close as siblings. A dear and precious part of his time was eighteen years spent in St Kitts and Montserrat, he was a Circuit Steward in the St. Kitts Methodist Church, he married Cynthia Inniss. He worked in the sugar industry in St Kitts until 1966, he took the post of Secretary at College of Arts and Sciences of the University of the West Indies in 1966, just three years after the establishment in Barbados of The College of Arts and Sciences at UWI and this was during the tenure of Principal, Sir Sidney Martin.

He worked in collaboration with resident tutors in the OECS territories to increase the flow of information on academic programmes from UWI to prospective students and facilitated visits of colleagues from the islands, gave public lectures, interviewed prospective candidates, sought to bring the University closer to its constituents. Upon leaving the university, he spent time as director of the Barbados Advocate, worked with Canadian International Development Agency, he started writing articles and letters for and to the newspaper and proceeded to add to the records of the Methodist Church through his documentation of much of the activity in Barbados and other parts of the Caribbean Circuit. He seemed to have a particular attraction to a Barbados National Heroine to be, a member of the Methodist Church, Sarah Ann Gill, he wrote a biography of Dame Nita Barrow and when he started waning was occupied with the records of one of working Barbados' leaders, Clennell Wickham. His funeral was held at the Bethel Methodist Church, he is buried at the family plot in the churchyard of St. Barnabas Anglican church in St. Barnabas Road, St. Michael, Barbados.

Blackman is best known as a writer for his work in the religious history genre and more Methodist religion in Barbados. He authored the books Dame Nita: Caribbean Woman, World Citizen and Methodism: 200 Years in Barbados and a booklet on national heroine Ann Gill, revered for her defence of Methodism in Barbados in the early 19th century. Wickham and Blackman, Punctuations in time: a collection of short stories and other essays Blackman, Francis'Woodie' John Wesley 300: pioneers and practitioners Blackman, National heroine of Barbados: Sarah Ann Gill Blackman, Woodie, "Obituary: Dame Nita Barrow" Blackman, Francis'Woodie', Dame Nita: Caribbean Woman, World Citizen, Francis, Methodism: 200 Years in British Virgin Islands Blackman, Methodism, 200 years in Barbados Lambert, D. White Creole culture and identity during the age of abolition Donnelly, D. Retrieving charisms for the twenty-first century p. 114 Byfield, J. Gendering the African Diaspora: Women and Historical p. 185 Oduyoye M. A. Introducing African women's theology p113 Brathwaite, J. A.

Women and the law: a bibliographical survey of legal and... p. 178 O'Neal, E. From the field to the legislature: a history of women in the... p. 61 Barriteau, E. Stronger, bolder: Ruth Nita Barrow: social change and... p. 214 Greenidge, M. Holetown, Barbados: settlement revisited and other accounts History of the Caribbean Caribbean literature

New London Public Library

The Public Library of New London is a historic library located at 63 Huntington Street at the corner of State Street, New London, Connecticut. The library was given to the city by Henry Philomen Haven, it was constructed in 1889-92 and was designed by Shepley and Coolidge in the Richardsonian Romanesque style. The building was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1970. Whaling merchant Henry P. Haven died in 1876, his money was to be split among his three children. However, his son Thomas had died, so Thomas' portion was put into a trust to be used for "charitable and benevolent purposes"; the trustees of the Haven inheritance secured a charter in 1882 for a public library, they hired Shepley and Coolidge of Boston to design it. Shepley and Coolidge were the successors to architect Henry Hobson Richardson, they worked from Richardson's preliminary designs in order to retain the popular Richardsonian architecture, found in other libraries; the firm sent George Warren Cole to be the project supervisor.

Cole served as the supervisor of the Williams Memorial Institute and the Nathan Hale School. Work commenced in 1889 and it was completed and opened by July 1891; the 1970 National Register of Historic Places nomination states that the building had not been altered with "one possible exception of an elevator" which seemed to date from the nineteenth century but "does not appear in the plans." However, the library added a 15,000 square foot extension in 1974. Further renovations increased the space for administrative offices and collections, concluding in March 2001; the Children's area and meeting rooms underwent renovations in 2006. National Register of Historic Places listings in New London County, Connecticut Official website

Laura Redden Searing

Laura Redden Searing was a deaf poet and journalist. Her first book of poetry published was Idyls of Battle, Poems of the Rebellion, her pseudonym is Howard Glyndon. The town of Glyndon, Minnesota was founded in 1872 and named in honor of the writer. Laura Catherine Redden was born to Littleton John Redden and Wilhelmina Waller Redden in 1839, her supportive parents learned sign language. In 1851, she lost her hearing at age 11 due to the illness spinal meningitis. In 1855, she enrolled in the Missouri School for the Deaf in Missouri, she learned the American Manual Alphabet. Laura Catherine Redden graduated from the Missouri School for the Deaf, a secondary school, in 1858, she did not enroll in college. Her literary skills and unmarried status made it acceptable at the time for her to enroll at certain colleges. However, there were no colleges; the National Deaf-Mute College was established in 1864 and did not admit female students until 1881. To supplement her education, she toured Europe from 1865-69.

While there, she studied German, French and Italian. She became engaged to Michael George Brennan in 1867. Laura Catherine Redden married Edward Whelan Searing, a lawyer, in 1876, to become Laura Catherine Redden Searing, they had one child, Elsa Waller Searing, on May 4, 1880. In 1887, Laura Redden Searing and her daughter settled near California. Edward Searing stayed in New York and they divorced in 1894. Redden Searing was buried in Colma, California. From 1857-58, Redden submitted poems to Harper's Magazine. In 1858, Redden's first published essay appeared in the American Annals of the Deaf; the topics of the essay were deafness, sign language, writing. In 1858, Redden graduated from the Missouri School for the Deaf. Upon graduation, she was offered a teaching position at MSD. In 1859, the St. Louis Presbyterian hired her as a assistant editor. In 1860, she became an editorialist for the St. Louis Republican. At this time, Laura Catherine Redden adopted the pseudonym Howard Glyndon. In 1861, she was sent by the St. Louis Republican to Washington D.

C. to document the American Civil War. She was a pro-Union loyalist and wrote poems about the experiences and human interests of the battle field, she wrote to Abraham Lincoln and Ulysses S. Grant during the war. After the war, 1865–69, she traveled to Europe to become a correspondent for The New York Times. By 1870, she returned to New York and Boston and was a staff writer for the New York Evening Mail and contributed to Galaxy, Harper's Magazine, the Tribune; some speculate Laura Redden Searing used the pen name Howard Glyndon due to the gender biased national attention given to male writers of the time. The name was adopted during the American Civil War as a correspondent for the St. Louis Republican; this brings up the possibility that the pen name disassociated her identity from critics to her Union Army sympathies. However, in all of her published works, the pseudonym was accompanied by her real name in smaller letters; this indicates that the pseudonym was not to conceal her identity. It is that the double identity was to defy the expectations of what a female writer of that era could produce.

Notable men in the House: A series of sketches of prominent men in the House of Representatives, Members of the Thirty-Seventh Congress Idyls of Battle and Poems of the Rebellion A Little Boy's Story Sounds from Secret Chambers Echoes of Other Days Of El Dorado Moore, Matthew S. Great deaf Americans: the second edition. Deaf Life Press. ISBN 0963401661.* Glyndon, H. Jones, J. Y. Vallier, J. E.: Sweet Bells Jangled, Gallaudet University Press, 2003 Krentz, C.: A Mighty Change, Gallaudet University Press, 2000 Moulton, C. W.: "Laura C. R. Searing", The Magazine For Poetry, 1:179 Panara, R. F.: "The Civil War Correspondent and Poet", The Deaf Writer in America from Colonial Times to 1970 Glyndon, Howard. Idyls of Battle and Poems of the Rebellion. New York: Hurd and Houghton. Glyndon, Howard. Sweet Bells Jangled. Washington D. C.: Gallaudet University Press. ISBN 1-56368-138-2. Krentz, Christopher. A Mighty Change. Washington D. C.: Gallaudet University Press. ISBN 1-56368-101-3. Lang, Harry. Deaf Persons in the Arts and Sciences: A Biographical Dictionary.

Greenwood Press. ISBN 0-313-29170-5. SHSMO-Columbia--Searing, Laura Redden, Papers, 1846-1963 --INVENTORY at Searing, Laura Redden, Papers, 1846-1963. Charles Wells Moulton; the Magazine of Poetry. Charles Wells Moulton. P. 506. Katherine redden searing; the Magazine of Poetry 1: Laura C. R. Searing, p. 179. The Deaf Writer in America From Colonial Times to 1970, By Robert F. Panara, M. A. Rochester, NY. Howard Glyndon. Idyls of Battle and Poems of the Rebellion. Howard glyndon. Idyls of Battle and Poems of the Rebellion by Howard Glyndon

Francesco del Giudice

Francesco del Giudice was a Roman Catholic cardinal from 1690 to 1725 who held a variety of other ecclesiastical and governmental offices. Francesco del Giudice was born in Naples on December 7, 1647, the fifth of the fifteen children of Nicolò del Giudice, Prince of Cellamare and his wife Ippolita Palagana. During his early career in the church, he was Referendary of the Apostolic Signatura. Pope Alexander VIII named him a cardinal priest in the consistory of February 13, 1690, with dispensation for not having received the minor orders, he received the red hat on April 10, 1690, receiving the titulus of Santa Maria del Popolo at that time. He was named cardinal protector of Spain, he participated in the conclave of 1691 that elected Pope Innocent XII. He declined a promotion to the see of Salerno in 1696, he managed Spanish affairs in Rome 1698-99. On March 30, 1700, he transferred Santa Maria del Popolo for Santa Sabina as his titulus, he participated in the conclave of 1700 that elected Pope Clement XI.

In December 1701, he became Captain General of the Kingdom of Sicily. On January 14, 1704, Cardinal Giudice was elected Archbishop of Monreale. In 1711, Philip V of Spain named Cardinal Giudice Grand Inquisitor of Spain, he lost royal favor in July 1714 when he issued an edict condemning certain regalist writings into exile at Bayonne, but he was allowed to return to Spain that year following the death of Maria Luisa of Savoy and the subsequent loss of influence of Marie Anne de La Trémoille, princesse des Ursins. In 1716, his disagreements with Cardinal Giulio Alberoni led to his resignation as Grand Inquisitor of Spain. On July 12, 1717, Cardinal Giudice exchanged his titulus of Santa Sabina for the Suburbicarian See of Palestrina, while retaining his post as Archbishop of Monreale. On August 11, 1719, he became Austria's minister to the Holy See, a post he held until 1720, he became Secretary of the Roman Inquisition in 1719, a post he held until his death. He exchanged his titular see of Palestrina for the Suburbicarian See of Frascati on March 3, 1721.

He participated in the conclave of 1721 that elected Pope Innocent XIII and the conclave of 1724 that elected Pope Benedict XIII. He became Dean of the College of Cardinals on June 12, 1724, exchanging his titular see for the Suburbicarian See of Ostia at that time, he resigned as Archbishop of Monreale on February 15, 1725. Cardinal Giudice died in Rome on October 10, 1725, his funeral was held at San Marcello al Corso on October 12, 1725, with Pope Benedict XIII in attendance. His remains were transferred for temporary burial at Santa Maria sopra Minerva before being returned to Naples for permanent burial in Santa Maria del Carmine