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Antoine Lavoisier

Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier Antoine Lavoisier after the French Revolution, was a French nobleman and chemist, central to the 18th-century chemical revolution and who had a large influence on both the history of chemistry and the history of biology. He is considered in popular literature as the "father of modern chemistry", it is accepted that Lavoisier's great accomplishments in chemistry stem from his changing the science from a qualitative to a quantitative one. Lavoisier is most noted, he recognized and named oxygen and hydrogen, opposed the phlogiston theory. Lavoisier helped construct the metric system, wrote the first extensive list of elements, helped to reform chemical nomenclature, he predicted the existence of silicon and was the first to establish that sulfur was an element rather than a compound. He discovered that, although matter may change its shape, its mass always remains the same. Lavoisier was a powerful member of a number of aristocratic councils, an administrator of the Ferme générale.

The Ferme générale was one of the most hated components of the Ancien Régime because of the profits it took at the expense of the state, the secrecy of the terms of its contracts, the violence of its armed agents. All of these political and economic activities enabled him to fund his scientific research. At the height of the French Revolution, he was charged with tax fraud and selling adulterated tobacco, was guillotined. Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier was born to a wealthy family of the nobility in Paris on 26 August 1743; the son of an attorney at the Parlement of Paris, he inherited a large fortune at the age of five upon the death of his mother. Lavoisier began his schooling at the Collège des Quatre-Nations, University of Paris in Paris in 1754 at the age of 11. In his last two years at the school, his scientific interests were aroused, he studied chemistry, botany and mathematics. In the philosophy class he came under the tutelage of Abbé Nicolas Louis de Lacaille, a distinguished mathematician and observational astronomer who imbued the young Lavoisier with an interest in meteorological observation, an enthusiasm which never left him.

Lavoisier entered the school of law, where he received a bachelor's degree in 1763 and a licentiate in 1764. Lavoisier was admitted to the bar, but never practiced as a lawyer. However, he continued his scientific education in his spare time. Lavoisier's education was filled with the ideals of the French Enlightenment of the time, he was fascinated by Pierre Macquer's dictionary of chemistry, he attended. Lavoisier's devotion and passion for chemistry were influenced by Étienne Condillac, a prominent French scholar of the 18th century, his first chemical publication appeared in 1764. From 1763 to 1767, he studied geology under Jean-Étienne Guettard. In collaboration with Guettard, Lavoisier worked on a geological survey of Alsace-Lorraine in June 1767. In 1764 he read his first paper to the French Academy of Sciences, France's most elite scientific society, on the chemical and physical properties of gypsum, in 1766 he was awarded a gold medal by the King for an essay on the problems of urban street lighting.

In 1768 Lavoisier received a provisional appointment to the Academy of Sciences. In 1769, he worked on the first geological map of France. While Lavoisier is known for his contributions to the sciences, he dedicated a significant portion of his fortune and work toward benefitting the public. Lavoisier was a humanitarian—he cared about the people in his country and concerned himself with improving the livelihood of the population by agriculture and the sciences; the first instance of this occurred in 1765, when he submitted an essay on improving urban street lighting to the French Academy of Sciences. Three years in 1768, he focused on a new project to design an aqueduct; the goal was to bring water from the river Yvette into Paris so that the citizens could have clean drinking water. But, since the construction never commenced, he instead turned his focus to purifying the water from the Seine; this was the project that interested Lavoisier in the chemistry of water and public sanitation duties.

He additionally was interested in air quality, spent some time studying the health risks associated with gunpowder's effect on the air. In 1772, he performed a study on how to reconstruct the Hôtel-Dieu hospital, after it had been damaged by fire, in a way that would allow proper ventilation and clean air throughout. At the time, the prisons in Paris were known to be unlivable and the prisoners' treatment inhumane. Lavoisier took part in investigations in 1780 on the hygiene in prisons and had made suggestions to improve living conditions, suggestions which were ignored. Once a part of the Academy, Lavoisier held his own competitions to push the direction of research towards bettering the public and his own work. One such project he proposed in 1793 was to better public health on the "insalubrious arts". Lavoisier had a vision of public education having roots in "scientific sociability" and philanthropy. Lavoisier gained a vast majority of his income through buying stock in the General Farm, which allowed him to work on science full-time, live comfortably, allowed him to contribute financially to better the community.

It was difficult to secure public funding for

Optimal stimulation level

Optimal Stimulation Level The optimal stimulation level means the amount of stimulation of individuals seeking in life. In theories which consider human actions will be affected by motivational tendencies, the concept that for achieving a favorable stimulation level, social practices stimulated by pure desire plays a significant role; the medium levels of stimulation, called the optimum stimulation level, are the most common one to be chosen, due to individual difference, the determination of the optimal stimulation level vary between each person. People may explore surroundings for reaching they satisfy stimulation, meaning that individuals who have a high optimum stimulation level are more to be attracted in exploratory. Therefore, the relationship between human needs for motivation and their tendency of exploration indicates that the optimum stimulation level has a decisive influence in behaviors. With the most well-pleasing intermediate stimulation level, an inverted U-shaped function exists between stimulation acquired from the environment, human stimulated a response.

People who have high optimum stimulation level attract by stimulation and others avoid stimulation. The OSL, which has an unusually productive influence on variety searching, cognitive reactions of consumers, information seeking, innovative behaviors, risk decision making, play a significant role in exploratory buyers' behaviors. Based on several experiments, the interactions between OSL and individual behavior investigate. There are three classifications about the inquiry of tendencies for consumer reaction, including behaviors engaged by curiosity, variety searching, assumption of risk and innovative practices. Curiosity can categorize as particular interest stimulated behavior and diverse curiosity encouraged the practice; the first mentioned of two displays an in-depth analysis for a single incentive because this stimulation evokes curiousness of consumer. However, the diverse curiosity, which can be initiated by an assortment of sources, refers to the response for boredom, meaning that it does not react to a particular stimulus.

For changing pace, people will shift purchasing behavior for familiar objects such as stores to access stimulation — this action named as variety seeking. Acquiring from purchasing behavior, the suboptimal level of stimulation leads customers to feel tedious after they simplify their decision procedure; as a result, they tend to enhance the complexity of the buying process. A positive relationship exists between risk undertaking behavior. According to the idea of an opportunity of loss, a majority of conceptions of risk-taking built; this point of view is similar to the leading theory among consumer behavior. A supposition used during the discussion about buyers’ behaviors means that consumers actions display a mechanical operation which operates to prevent imbalances due to an unexpected stimulus input caused. However, because the apparent propensity to search for new expending experiences, the hypothesis which refers to buyers seek to reduce stimulation to the minimum is hard to identify; the conception of OSL provides an adequate point of view.

The innate character of this concept is that people struggle to stay the OSL. An optimum stimulation level provided with internal stability but the difference between each person. Based on the tendency of buyers for perception seeking, the property of the adoption decision-making process has a difference between both developed retail facilities and innovative products. Hypothesis confirms that high sensory seekers are more sensitive to realize the new alternatives, think over more options, making less rejection decision with cognitive assessment, will attempt and take more innovations. High-sensitivity seekers incline to have a reasonable expectation for goods and equipment through the evaluation stage entering the practical experiments, but consciousness and the model, adopted seem to depend on the essence of innovation. For leisure consumers, whether to buy products or enjoy services, shopping is a comfortable way to spend time, they want to buy in beautiful surroundings, engaging, full of surprises, surreal and safe to evoke an enjoyable shopping experience.

Other words, casual consumers trend to shop in an environment, considered containing emotional stimulation, the emotion caused by stimulation is pleasing. Several functions have a relation with OSL: 1; the inverted UB-shaped function: the OSL does not create influence 2. The butterfly curve function: the OSL produces effects, which are similar to the zero influence, with moderate deviations. 3. The inverted UB-shaped function: the OSL create maximum effects The researcher considers that the favorable wake level of t stimulation containing two majority elements: the first is a crucial component named novelty, the second is called conflict, a negative feature; the novelty component refers to the joint effects of the number of increases in individuals' ideal attributes such as the level of surprise. The sum of these two different independent variables represents the entire preference for stimulation. Colors, including three main parts, which are tint and saturation, are crucial in advertising because it influences human attitudes for advertising.

Assuming effects o

Virginia Tech Hokies football statistical leaders

The Virginia Tech Hokies football statistical leaders are individual statistical leaders of the Virginia Tech Hokies football program in various categories, including passing, receiving, total offense, defensive stats, kicking. Within those areas, the lists identify single-game, single-season, career leaders; the Hokies represent Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University in the NCAA's Atlantic Coast Conference. Although Virginia Tech began competing in intercollegiate football in 1892, the school's official record book does not include entries from before the 1950s, as the records from this era are incomplete and inconsistent; these lists are dominated by more recent players for several reasons: Since the 1950s, seasons have increased from 10 games to 11 and 12 games in length. The NCAA didn't allow freshmen to play varsity football until 1972, allowing players to have four-year careers. Bowl games only began counting toward single-season and career statistics in 2002; the Hokies have played in 15 bowl games since giving players since 2002 an extra game to accumulate statistics.

The Hokies have played in the ACC Championship Game five times since it began. All ten of the Hokies' 10 highest seasons in offensive output, both in yardage and scoring, have come during current head coach Frank Beamer's tenure, eight of them have come in the 21st century; these lists are updated through the end of the 2018 season. The Virginia Tech football record book does not give a full top 10 in single-game statistics. Total offense is the sum of rushing statistics, it does not include receiving or returns. Note: The Virginia Tech Record Book does not include a full top 10 in tackles stats, instead listing only a leader. Note: The Virginia Tech Record Book does not include a full top 10 in sacks stats, instead listing only a leader