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Antoine Pesne

Antoine Pesne was a French-born court painter of Prussia. Starting in the manner of baroque, he became one of the fathers of rococo in painting, his work represents a link between the Frederican rococo style. Born in Paris, Pesne first studied art under his uncle. From 1704 to 1710 he received a stipend for advanced training at the Académie Royale in Italy. In 1710, Pesne was called to Berlin by King Frederick I of Prussia; the king had seen and liked a painting of a German nobleman Pesne had completed in Venice and wanted Pesne to complete a study of himself. Upon the death of the king in 1713, Pesne worked in the courts of Dresden and Dessau, visited London and Paris, where he was made a full member of the Academie Royale in 1720. While there, he painted the a portrait of a well-known collector Pierre-Jean Mariette in 1723. Mariette had extensive international connections with other artists and with patrons. In 1734, Frederick having been reinstated as crown prince in 1731 by his father, Frederick William I, took up residence in Rheinsberg.

Frederick William himself had little use for art for its own sake. He did, appoint Pesne as director of the Berlin Academy of the Arts in 1722. At that point, Pesne became famous for his portraits of the Prussian royal family and their households. Among his most famous is his portrait of The Soldier King. Many of his portraits hang in Charlottenburg Palace; these include his portraits of the first two kings of Prussia, Frederich I and Frederick William I, members of the royal family, of lady-in-waiting Eleonore von Schlieben. In St. Agnus Church in Köthen, where J. S. Bach was music director, there is a portrait of the donor Gisela Agnes, Princess of Anhalt-Köthen, painted by Pesne in 1713; the ceiling paintings in Charlottenburg and Sanssouci Palaces are at least his work. In 1746 Pesne received from king Frederick II property and construction material to erect a house at Oberwallstraße 3 in Berlin, where he lived until his death in 1757, his grave is preserved in the Protestant Friedhof I der Jerusalems- und Neuen Kirchengemeinde in Berlin-Kreuzberg, south of Hallesches Tor.

Pesne used a style similar to that made famous in France during the reign of Louis XIV, although his use of colors was softer and his touch more "painterly." His "View of Rheinsberg" demonstrates the engagement of people with nature, a theme popular at the time. Most of his decorative work at Rheinsberg and in Berlin and Potsdam at Sanssoucci, included myhtiological and allegorical scenes, such as the ceiling in the audience room at Sanssouci: Zephyr Crowns Flora; the presence of such artists as Pesne throughout the capitals of Europe guaranteed the expansion of French influence into all the arts. The information in this article is based on that in its German equivalent

2013 national electoral calendar

This national electoral calendar for the year 2013 lists the national/federal direct elections held in 2013 in all sovereign states and their dependent territories. By-elections are excluded. 11–12 January: Czech Republic, President 20 January: Austria, conscription referendum 22 January: Israel, Parliament 23 January: Jordan, Parliament 25–26 January: Czech Republic, President 27 January: Bulgaria, nuclear power referendum 28 January: Bahamas, gambling referendum 1 and 3 February: Liechtenstein, Parliament 3 February: Cuba, Parliament 10 February: Monaco, Parliament 15 February: Trinidad and Tobago, President 17 February: Cyprus, President Ecuador and Parliament 18 February: Armenia, President 19 February: Grenada, Parliament 21 February: Barbados, Parliament 22 February: Djibouti, Parliament 24 February: Cyprus, President 24–25 February: Italy, Parliament 3 March: Switzerland, Referendum 4 March: Kenya and Parliamentary 5 March: Micronesia, Parliament 9 March: Malta, Parliament 10–11 March: Falkland Islands, Sovereignty referendum 12 March: Greenland, Parliament 12–13 March: Holy See, Conclave 16 March: Zimbabwe, Referendum 15 October 2012 to 17 March 2013: PR China, National People's Congress 7 April: Montenegro, President 14 April: Croatia, European Parliament Venezuela, President 18–20 April: Italy, President 21 April: Paraguay and Parliament 22 April: Bangladesh, President 23 April: Bhutan, National Council 24 April: Jersey, electoral reform referendum 27 April: Iceland, Parliament 21 April and 5 May: French Polynesia, Assembly 5 May: Malaysia, Parliament 11 May: Pakistan, Parliament 12 May: Bulgaria, Parliament 13 May: Philippines, House of Representatives, Senate 22 May: Cayman Islands, Legislative Assembly 26 May: Equatorial Guinea, Parliament 31 May: Bhutan, National Assembly 8 June: Nauru, Parliament 9 June: Switzerland, Referendum 14 June: Iran, President 23 June: Albania, Parliament 26 June: Mongolia, President 13 July: Bhutan, National Assembly 21 July: Japan, House of Councillors 25 July: Togo, Parliament 27 July: Kuwait, Parliament 28 July: Cambodia, Parliament Mali, President Northern Cyprus, Parliament 30 July: Pakistan, President 31 July: Zimbabwe and Parliament 11 August: Mali, President 7 September: Australia, Federal Maldives, President 9 September: Norway, Parliament 15 September: Macau, Legislative 16–18 September: Rwanda, Parliament 20 September: Swaziland, Parliament 22 September: Germany, Federal Switzerland, Referendums 27 September: Aruba, Parliament 28 September: Guinea, Legislative 29 September: Austria, Legislative 30 September: Cameroon, Parliament 4 October: Republic of Ireland, 32nd and 33rd constitutional amendment referendums 7 October: Ethiopia, President 9 October: Azerbaijan, President 20 October: Luxembourg, Parliament San Marino, Referendums 25 October: Madagascar, President 25–26 October: Czech Republic, Parliament 27 October: Argentina, Legislative Georgia, President 6 November: Tajikistan, President 7 November: Falkland Islands, Legislative Assembly 9 November: Maldives, President 16 November: Maldives, President 17 November: Chile and Parliament 19 November: Nepal, Constituent Assembly 23 November: Mauritania, Parliament 24 November: Honduras and Parliament Mali, Parliament Switzerland, Referendums 1 December: Croatia, Constitutional referendum 13 December: New Zealand, Asset sales referendum 15 December: Chile, President Mali, Parliament Turkmenistan, Parliament 20 December: Madagascar and Parliament 21 December: Mauritania, Parliament

Re Peveril Gold Mines Ltd

Re Peveril Gold Mines Ltd 1 Ch 122 is a UK insolvency law case concerning liquidation when a company is unable to repay its debts. It held that a member cannot be prevented by a company constitution from bringing a winding up petition, it is, possible for a member to make a shareholder agreement and thus contract out of the right to bring a winding up petition outside of the company. The articles of association of Peveril Gold Mines Ltd said no member should petition for winding up unless two directors had consented or the general meeting had resolved or a petitioner held at least 20% of issued capital. A member asked for winding up without satisfying any of these conditions. Lord Lindley MR held, he said. A member could not be restricted. Chitty LJ and Vaughan Williams LJ concurred. UK insolvency law L Sealy and S Worthington and Materials in Company Law R Goode, Principles of Corporate Insolvency Law