Antonin Mercié

Marius Jean Antonin Mercié, was a French sculptor and painter. Mercié entered the École des Beaux-Arts and studied under Alexandre Falguière and François Jouffroy, in 1868 gained the Grand Prix de Rome at the age of 23, his first great popular successes were the David and Gloria Victis, shown and received the Medal of Honour of the Paris Salon. The bronze was subsequently placed in the Square Montholon; the bronze David was one of his most popular works. The Biblical hero is depicted naked with the head of Goliath at his feet like Donatello's David, but with a turbanned head and sheathing his long sword. Numerous reproductions exist, most of which incorporate a loincloth that covers David's genitalia but not his buttocks; the lifesize original is now in the Musée d'Orsay. Mercié was appointed Professor of Drawing and Sculpture at the École des Beaux-Arts, was elected a member of the Académie française in 1891, after being awarded the biennial prize of the Institute of 800 in 1887, he was subsequently elected to grand officier of the Légion d'honneur, in 1913 became the president of the Société des artistes français.

Marie-Antoinette Demagnez was among his many students at the École des Beaux-Arts. He died in Paris on December 12, 1916; the Genius of the Arts, a relief, is in the Tuileries, in substitution for Antoine-Louis Barye's Napoleon III. A similar work for the tomb of Jules Michelet is in Père Lachaise Cemetery, in the same year Mercié produced the statue of Arago with accompanying reliefs, now erected at Perpignan. In 1882 he repeated his great patriotic success of 1874 with a group Quand Même!, replicas of which have been set up at Belfort and in the garden of the Tuileries. Le Souvenir, a marble statue for the tomb of Mme Charles Ferry, is one of his most beautiful works. Regret, for the tomb of Alexandre Cabanel, was produced in 1892, along with William Tell, subsequently at Lausanne. Mercié designed the monuments to Jean-Louis-Ernest Meissonier, erected in the Jardin de l'Infante in the Louvre, Louis Faidherbe at Lille, a statue of Adolphe Thiers set up at St Germain-en-Laye, the monument to Paul Baudry at Père Lachaise, that of Louis-Philippe and Queen Amélie for their tomb at Dreux.

His stone group of Justice is at the Hôtel de Paris. Numerous other statues, portrait busts, medallions came from the sculptor's hand, which gained him a medal of honor at the Paris Exhibition and the grand prix at that of 1889. Among the paintings exhibited by the artist are a Venus, to, awarded a medal in 1883, Michelangelo studying Anatomy, his most dramatic work in this medium. Mercié is known in America for three monuments: the 1890 Robert E. Lee equestrian bronze on Monument Avenue in Richmond, Virginia. C. and for the 1911 Francis Scott Key Monument, Maryland. List of works by Antonin Mercié DuPriest Jr. James E. and Douglas O. Tice, Jr. Monument & Boulevard:Richmond's Grand Avenues, A Richmond Discoveries Publication, Virginia, 1996 Goode, James M; the Outdoor Sculpture of Washington, D. C. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D. C. 1974 Mackay, The Dictionary of Sculptors in Bronze, Antique Collectors Club, Suffolk 1977 Rusk, William Sener, Art in Baltimore: Monuments and Memorials, The Norman Remington Company, baltimore, 1924 Media related to Antonin Mercié at Wikimedia Commons Smithsonian biography Art Renewal Center Insecula: index to pages on selected works Webshots: a visitor photo of Mercié's David Antonin Mercié in American public collections, on the French Sculpture Census website


Kingswinford is a town of the Metropolitan Borough of Dudley in the English West Midlands, situated 5 miles west-southwest of central Dudley. In 2011 the area had a population of 25,191, down from 25,808 at the 2001 Census; the current economic focus of Kingswinford is housing for commuters. Positioned at the far western edge of the West Midlands Urban Area it borders on a rural area extending past the River Severn; this is illustrated by the influence in creating local workhouses, which shows a population of 15,000 plus in the 1831 census. In Staffordshire, Kingswinford is mentioned in the Domesday Book; the ancient parish of Kingswinford spanned Brierley Hill and Quarry Bank. The parishes of Kingswinford and Amblecote formed the Kingswinford rural district in 1894, gave its name to the Kingswinford Parliament constituency from 1885 until 1950. However, Amblecote became its own urban district in 1898, leaving Kingswinford one of a minority of single-parish rural districts in England, it was added to the Brierley Hill urban district in 1935, which became part of the County Borough of Dudley in 1966, now the Metropolitan Borough of Dudley.

However, the rural part of the parish was added to Kinver in 1935, becoming part of Seisdon district in 1966 and since 1974 part of South Staffordshire. Recent house building, commencing in the 1950s and 1960s, has destroyed the original rural character of Kingswinford, the result being the complete absorption of the former village into the adjoining urban area; until its closure in 2012, Kingswinford was home to food retailer Julian Graves' head office and distribution centre. Kingswinford is a part of the West Midlands metropolitan county, West Midlands conurbation, the Metropolitan Borough of Dudley, it is situated on the edge of the conurbation, to the north and south lie other suburban areas of the Black Country. However, the border to the west is green belt, which stretches for many miles through Shropshire, beyond the Severn Valley and into Wales; the Kingswinford DY6 postal district covers the entirety of Kingswinford and Wall Heath, as well as nearby rural areas such as Hinksford and Ashwood.

Broadfield House Glass Museum, on Compton Drive, was housed in a grade II listed building set in its own grounds, formed part of the historic Stourbridge Glass Quarter. It had a notable collection of British glass, much of it made locally, from historic 18th century pieces to contemporary works from Britain's leading glass artists; the museum closed in September 2015, to make way for a new glass museum in nearby Wordsley. Near Kingswinford is Holbeche House, a small country house which has now been turned into a nursing home, it was here in 1605 that most of the men who had attempted to blow up Parliament with Guy Fawkes were cornered, a bloody gunfight ensued, resulting in the deaths of at least four of the conspirators, including their leader Robert Catesby. Bullet holes can still be seen in the house's walls. Many of the streets of the Charterfields housing development, built during the 1970s, adopted the names of the Gunpowder Plot conspirators, such as Catesby Drive, Digby Road, Keyes Drive, Tresham Road, Ambrose Crescent, Monteagle Drive and Rokewood Close.

There is an area at the end of Kingswinford, known as Townsend dating back to 19th century maps of the area. It was centred on Townsend House, the family seat of the Badley family from the 17th until the early 20th century; the Georgian house was demolished in the 1950s to build a shopping precinct. John Badley of Townsend was an ancestor of John Badley, F. R. C. S. and John Haden Badley the centenarian educator and founder of Bedales School. The parish church of St. Mary dates back to the 11th century, although much of the main body of the building is from the 17th century, it contains a notable Norman carving of St. Michael slaying the dragon; the church is home to a well-regarded two manual Nicholson and Lord pipe organ. It remained the church of the huge parish of Kingswinford until it was closed because of mining activities in 1831, when a new parish church was built, Holy Trinity Church in Wordsley, it reopened in 1846 as a chapel of ease, before regaining parochial status. It is the parish church for the Kingswinford Team of Anglican churches.

The building is now a Grade II listed building. The churchyard contains Commonwealth war graves of four service personnel of World War I and six of World War II. In addition to the parish church, Kingswinford is home to several churches of other denominations, including: Our Lady of Lourdes R. C. Church Arise Church UK Crestwood Church Kingswinford Methodist Church Kingswinford Christian Fellowship Kingswinford is well served by buses that connect it to Dudley, Wolverhampton, Merry Hill and Brierley Hill. There has never been an official rail connection in Kingswinford, but there were halts on the now-disused Wombourne Branch Line; the nearest stations were the Gornal Halt and Pensnett Halt. It was linked by rail to Oxley, the colliery at Baggeridge; the halts and stations closed to passengers in 1932, the entire line from Wolverhampton to Kingswinford was closed to freight traffic in the 1960s, although the stub near Pensnett Halt served the nearby Pensnett Trading Estate until 1994, when the entire stub to Kingswinford Junction was closed.

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Cult (religious practice)

Cult is the "care" owed to deities and to temples, shrines, or churches. Cult is embodied in ceremony, its present or former presence is made concrete in temples and churches, cult images, including cult images and votive offerings at votive sites. Cicero defined religio as cultus deorum, "the cultivation of the gods." The "cultivation" necessary to maintain a specific deity was that god's cultus, "cult," and required "the knowledge of giving the gods their due". The noun cultus originates from the past participle of the verb colo, colui, cultus, "to tend, take care of, cultivate," meaning "to dwell in, inhabit" and thus "to tend, cultivate land. Cultus is translated as "cult" without the negative connotations the word may have in English, or with the Old English word "worship", but it implies the necessity of active maintenance beyond passive adoration. Cultus was expected to matter to the gods as a demonstration of respect and reverence. Augustine of Hippo echoes Cicero's formulation when he declares, "religion is nothing other than the cultus of God."The term "cult" first appeared in English in 1617, derived from the French culte, meaning "worship" which in turn originated from the Latin word cultus meaning "care, worship".

The meaning "devotion to a person or thing" is from 1829. Starting about 1920, "cult" acquired an additional six or negative definitions. In French, for example, sections in newspapers giving the schedule of worship for Catholic services are headed Culte Catholique, while the section giving the schedule of Protestant services is headed culte réformé. Within the Catholic church the most prominent Cults are those of the saints. In the specific context of the Greek hero cult, Carla Antonaccio wrote, The term cult identifies a pattern of ritual behavior in connection with specific objects, within a framework of spatial and temporal coordinates. Rituals would include prayer, votive offerings, competitions and construction of monuments; some degree of recurrence in place and repetition over time of ritual action is necessary for a cult to be enacted, to be practiced. In the Catholic Church, outward religious practice in cultus is the technical term for Roman Catholic devotions or veneration extended to a particular saint, not to the worship of God.

Catholicism and the Eastern Orthodox Church make a major distinction between latria, the worship, offered to God alone, dulia, veneration offered to the saints, including the veneration of Mary, whose veneration is referred to as hyperdulia. History of religions Mythology Place of worship Jensen, Adolph E.. Myth and Cult among Primitive Peoples. University of Chicago Press. Larson, Jennifer. Greek Heroine Cults. University of Wisconsin Press. Larson, Jennifer. Ancient Greek Cults: A Guide. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-32448-9