Antonin Gregory Scalia was an American lawyer, government official, academic who served as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from 1986 until his death in 2016. He was described as the intellectual anchor for the originalist and textualist position in the Court's conservative wing. For catalyzing an originalist and textualist movement in American law, he has been described as one of the most influential jurists of the twentieth century. Scalia was posthumously awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 2018. Scalia was born in New Jersey. A devout Catholic, he received his undergraduate degree from Georgetown University, he obtained his law degree from Harvard Law School and spent six years in a Cleveland law firm before becoming a law professor at the University of Virginia. In the early 1970s, he served in the Nixon and Ford administrations becoming an Assistant Attorney General, he spent most of the Carter years teaching at the University of Chicago, where he became one of the first faculty advisers of the fledgling Federalist Society.
In 1982, President Ronald Reagan appointed Scalia as a judge of the U. S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit. In 1986, he was appointed to the Supreme Court by Reagan and was unanimously confirmed by the Senate, becoming the Court's first Italian-American justice. Scalia espoused a conservative jurisprudence and ideology, advocating textualism in statutory interpretation and originalism in constitutional interpretation, he peppered his colleagues with "Ninograms" which sought to persuade them to agree with his point of view. He was a strong defender of the powers of the executive branch, he believed that the Constitution permitted the death penalty and did not guarantee the right to abortion or same-sex marriage. Furthermore, Scalia viewed affirmative action and other policies that afforded special protected status to minority groups as unconstitutional; these positions earned him a reputation as one of the most conservative justices on the Court. He filed separate opinions in many cases castigating the Court's majority using scathing language.
Scalia's most significant opinions include his lone dissent in Morrison v. Olson, his majority opinion in Crawford v. Washington, his majority opinion in District of Columbia v. Heller. Antonin Scalia was an only child, his father, Salvatore Eugene Scalia, an Italian immigrant from Sommatino, graduated from Rutgers University and was a graduate student at Columbia University and clerk at the time of his son's birth. The elder Scalia would become a professor of Romance languages at Brooklyn College, where he was an adherent to the formalist New Criticism school of literary theory, his mother, Catherine Louise Scalia, was born in Trenton to Italian immigrant parents and worked as an elementary school teacher. In 1939, Scalia and his family moved to the Elmhurst section of Queens, New York, where he attended P. S. 13. After completing eighth grade in public school, he obtained an academic scholarship to Xavier High School, a Jesuit military school in Manhattan, where he graduated first in the class of 1953 and served as valedictorian.
He stated that he spent much of his time on schoolwork and admitted, "I was never cool". While a youth, he was active as a Boy Scout and was part of the Scouts' national honor society, the Order of the Arrow. Classmate and future New York State official William Stern remembered Scalia in his high school days: "This kid was a conservative when he was 17 years old. An archconservative Catholic, he could have been a member of the Curia. He was the top student in the class, he was brilliant, way above everybody else."In 1953, Scalia enrolled at Georgetown University, where he graduated valedictorian and summa cum laude in 1957 with a Bachelor of Arts in history. While in college, he was a champion collegiate debater in Georgetown's Philodemic Society and a critically praised thespian, he took his junior year abroad at the University of Switzerland. Scalia studied law at Harvard Law School, he graduated magna cum laude in 1960. The fellowship enabled him to travel in Europe during 1960 and 1961. Scalia began his legal career at the international law firm Jones, Day and Reavis in Cleveland, where he worked from 1961 to 1967.
He was regarded at the law firm and would most have been made a partner but said he had long intended to teach. He became a professor of law at the University of Virginia in 1967, moving his family to Charlottesville. After four years in Charlottesville, Scalia entered public service in 1971. President Richard Nixon appointed him general counsel for the Office of Telecommunications Policy, where one of his principal assignments was to formulate federal policy for the growth of cable television. From 1972 to 1974, he was chairman of the Administrative Conference of the United States, a small independent agency that sought to improve the functioning of the federal bureaucracy. In mid-1974, Nixon nominated him as Assistant Attorney General for the Office of Legal Counsel. After Nixon's resignation, the nomination was continued by President Gerald Ford, Scalia was confirmed by the Senate on August 22, 1974. In the aftermath of Watergate, the Ford administration was eng
Victoria is the capital and largest city of Seychelles, situated on the north-eastern side of Mahé island, the archipelago's main island. The city was first established as the seat of the British colonial government. In 2010, the population of Greater Victoria was 26,450 out of the country's total population of 90,945; the area that would become Victoria was settled in 1778 by French colonists after they claimed the island in 1756. The town was called L'Établissement until 1841 when it was renamed to Victoria by the British, after Queen Victoria. Tourism is an important sector of the economy; the principal exports of Victoria are vanilla, coconut oil and guano. The Mont Fleuri campus of the University of Seychelles is in Victoria. Attractions in the city include a clocktower modelled on Little Ben in London, the courthouse, the Botanical Gardens, the National Museum of History, the Natural History Museum and the Sir Selwyn Selwyn-Clarke Market. Victoria Market and the brightly coloured fish and fruit markets is the local hot spot for the Seychellois people.
There are two cathedrals in Immaculate Conception Cathedral and St Paul's Cathedral. There are Baptist and Pentecostal churches and Hindu temples. Stade Linité, the national stadium, is in Victoria, it is used for football matches. Victoria is served by Seychelles International Airport, completed in 1971; the inner harbour lies east of the town, where tuna fishing and canning is a major industry. One of the largest bridges in Victoria was destroyed by tsunami waves from the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake. Eight of the districts of Seychelles are in Victoria. Victoria proper: English River, the central district Saint Louis Mont FleuriGreater Victoria Mont Buxton Bel Air Roche Caiman Les Mamelles Plaisance Victoria is twinned with: Victoria features a tropical rainforest climate with high temperatures throughout the course of the year; the capital does have noticeably wetter and drier periods during the year, with June and July being its driest months and December through February being the city's wettest months.
However, since in no month does the average monthly precipitation falls below 60 mm in Victoria, the city does not have a true dry season month. This lack of a true dry season month is a primary reason why the climate falls under the tropical rainforest climate category; the capital averages about 2,000 mm of precipitation annually. Although being rainy, skies are clear to clear and cloudy days remain scarce throughout the year during the rainiest months. Port of Victoria Romainville Island, Seychelles Victoria, Seychelles travel guide from Wikivoyage
The Rolls-Royce 10 hp was the first car to be produced as a result of an agreement of 23 December 1904 between Charles Rolls and Henry Royce, badged as a Rolls-Royce. The 10 hp was produced by Royce's company, Royce Ltd. at its factory in Cooke Street, Hulme and was sold by Rolls' motor dealership, C. S. Rolls & Co. at a price of £395. The 10 hp was exhibited at the Paris Salon in December 1904, along with 15 hp and 20 hp cars and engine for the 30 hp models; the 10 hp was a development of Henry Royce's first car, the Royce 10, of which he produced three prototypes in 1903. This was itself based on a second-hand Decauville owned by Royce which he believed he could improve. In particular, Royce succeeded in making his car quieter than existing cars. Unlike the Royce 10 which had a flat topped radiator, the Rolls-Royce 10 hp featured one with a triangular top which would appear on all subsequent cars; the engine is a water-cooled twin-cylinder of 1800 cc enlarged to 1995 cc on cars, with overhead inlet and side exhaust valves, based on the original Royce engine but with an improved crankshaft.
The power output was 12 hp at 1000 rpm. The car has a top speed of 39 mph. There is a transmission brake fitted behind the gearbox operated by foot pedal and internal expanding drum brakes on the back axle operated by the handbrake lever. Springing is by semi-elliptic leaf springs on rear axles, it is a small car with a track of 48 in. Rolls Royce intended to make 20 of the cars but only 16 were made as it was thought that a twin-cylinder engine was not appropriate for the marque; the last 10 hp was made in 1906. Rolls-Royce did not provide the coachwork. Instead, the cars were sold in chassis form for the customer to arrange his own body supplier, with Barker recommended. Four are believed to survive: the oldest, a 1904 car registered U44, chassis 20154, was sold for £3.2 million to a private collector by Bonham's auctioneers in December 2007. A fourth car, chassis 20159 is believed to be in a private collection. Rolls-Royce Motor Cars accessed 2 February 2006