The mile is an English unit of length of linear measure equal to 5,280 feet, or 1,760 yards, standardised as 1,609.344 metres by international agreement in 1959. With qualifiers, "mile" is used to describe or translate a wide range of units derived from or equivalent to the Roman mile, such as the nautical mile, the Italian mile, the Chinese mile; the Romans divided their mile into 5,000 roman feet but the greater importance of furlongs in pre-modern England meant that the statute mile was made equivalent to 8 furlongs or 5,280 feet in 1593. This form of the mile spread to the British-colonized nations some of which continue to employ the mile; the US Geological Survey now employs the metre for official purposes but legacy data from its 1927 geodetic datum has meant that a separate US survey mile continues to see some use. While most countries replaced the mile with the kilometre when switching to the International System of Units, the international mile continues to be used in some countries, such as Liberia, the United Kingdom, the United States, a number of countries with fewer than one million inhabitants, most of which are UK or US territories, or have close historical ties with the UK or US.
The mile was abbreviated m. in the past but is now sometimes written as mi to avoid confusion with the SI metre. However, derived units, such as miles per hour or miles per gallon, continue to be universally abbreviated as mph and mpg, respectively; the modern English word mile derives from Middle English myl and Old English mīl, cognate with all other Germanic terms for "miles". These derived from apocopated forms of the Latin mīlia or mīllia, the plural of mīle or mīlle "thousand" but used as a clipped form of mīlle passus or passuum, the Roman mile of one thousand paces; the present international mile is what is understood by the unqualified term "mile". When this distance needs to be distinguished from the nautical mile, the international mile may be described as a "land mile" or "statute mile". In British English, the "statute mile" may refer to the present international miles or to any other form of English mile since the 1593 Act of Parliament, which set it as a distance of 1,760 yards.
Under American law, the "statute mile" refers to the US survey mile. Foreign and historical units translated into English as miles employ a qualifier to describe the kind of mile being used but this may be omitted if it is obvious from the context, such as a discussion of the 2nd-century Antonine Itinerary describing its distances in terms of "miles" rather than "Roman miles"; the mile has been variously abbreviated—with and without a trailing period—as m, M, ml, mi. The American National Institute of Standards and Technology now uses and recommends mi in order to avoid confusion with the SI metre and millilitre. However, derived units such as miles per hour or miles per gallon continue to be abbreviated as mph and mpg rather than mi/h and mi/gal. In the United Kingdom road signs use m as the abbreviation for mile though height and width restrictions use m as the abbreviation for the metre, which may be displayed alongside feet and inches; the BBC style holds that "There is no acceptable abbreviation for'miles'" and so it should be spelt out when used in describing areas.
The Roman mile consisted of a thousand paces as measured by every other step—as in the total distance of the left foot hitting the ground 1,000 times. The ancient Romans, marching their armies through uncharted territory, would push a carved stick in the ground after each 1,000 paces. Well-fed and harshly driven Roman legionaries in good weather thus created longer miles; the distance was indirectly standardised by Agrippa's establishment of a standard Roman foot in 29 BC, the definition of a pace as 5 feet. An Imperial Roman mile thus denoted 5,000 Roman feet. Surveyors and specialized equipment such as the decempeda and dioptra spread its use. In modern times, Agrippa's Imperial Roman mile was empirically estimated to have been about 1,617 yards in length. In Hellenic areas of the Empire, the Roman mile was used beside the native Greek units as equivalent to 8 stadia of 600 Greek feet; the mílion continued to be used as a Byzantine unit and was used as the name of the zero mile marker for the Byzantine Empire, the Milion, located at the head of the Mese near Hagia Sophia.
The Roman mile spread throughout Europe, with its local variations giving rise to the different units below. Arising from the Roman mile is the "milestone". All roads radiated out from the Roman Forum throughout the Empire – 50,000 miles of stone-paved roads. At every mile was placed a shaped stone, on, carved a Roman numeral, indicating the number of miles from the center of Rome – the Forum. Hence, one always knew; the Italian mile was traditionally considered a direct continuation of the Roman mile, equal to 1000 paces, although its actual value over time or between regions could vary greatly. It was used in international contexts from the Middle Ages into the 17th century and is thus known as the "geographical mile", although the geographical mile is now a separate standard unit; the Arabic mile was not the common Arabic unit of length. The Arabic mile was, used by medieval geographers and scientists and constituted a kind of precursor to the nautical or geographical mile, it extended the Roman mile to fit an astronomical approximatio
A road map or route map is a map that displays roads and transport links rather than natural geographical information. It is a type of navigational map that includes political boundaries and labels, making it a type of political map. In addition to roads and boundaries, road maps include points of interest, such as prominent businesses or buildings, tourism sites and recreational facilities and restaurants, as well as airports and train stations. A road map may document non-automotive transit routes, although these are found only on transit maps; the Turin Papyrus Map is sometimes characterized as the earliest known road map. Drawn around 1160 BC, it depicts routes along dry river beds through a mining region east of Thebes in Ancient Egypt; the Dura-Europos Route map is the oldest known map of Europe preserved in its original form. It is a fragment of a map drawn onto a leather portion of a shield by a Roman soldier in c. 235 AD. It depicts several towns along the northwest coast of the Black Sea.
The Tabula Peutingeriana, a copy of a scroll dating to about 350 AD, plots the extent of the Cursus publicus, the Roman road network that ran from Europe and North Africa to West Asia. It is schematic, compressing the Mediterranean Sea to a sliver and orienting the Italian Peninsula to run east-west; the Gough Map, dating to about 1360, is the oldest known road map of Great Britain. In 1500, Erhard Etzlaub produced the "Rom-Weg" Map, the first known road map of medieval Central Europe, it was produced to help religious pilgrims reach Rome for the occasion of the "Holy Year 1500". Rand McNally's first road map, the New Automobile Road Map of New York City & Vicinity, was published in 1904. Gousha was founded in 1926 by former Rand McNally employees. General Drafting was founded in 1909; these three companies produced most of the eight billion free maps handed out at American filling stations over a period of about 1920 to 1980. The practice of offering free maps diminished in the 1970s; the first Michelin map was produced in 1910.
With the rise of GPS navigation and other electronic maps in the 21st century, the use of printed maps is waning. An alternative to, in many ways the precursor of the road map, was the itinerarium, a listing of towns and other stops, with intervening distances; the Tabula Peutingeriana, mentioned above, is in effect an itinerarium in visual form, offering routes and distances with little geographical accuracy. Road maps come in many shapes and scales. Small, single-page maps may be used to give an overview of a region's major features. Folded maps can offer greater detail covering a large region. Electronic maps present a dynamically generated display of a region, with its scale and level of detail specified by the user. Road maps can vary in complexity, from a simple schematic map used to show how to get to a single specific destination, to a complex electronic map, which may layer together many different types of maps and information – such as a road map plotted over a topographical 3D satellite image.
Highway maps give an overview of major routes within a medium to large region ranging from a few dozen to a few thousand miles or kilometers. Street maps cover an area of a few miles or kilometers within a single city or extended metropolitan area. City maps are a specialized form of street map. A road atlas is a collection of road maps covering a region as small as a city or as large as a continent bound together in a book. Spiral binding is a popular format for road atlases, to permit lay-flat usage and to reduce wear and tear. Atlases may cover a number of discrete regions, such as all of the states or provinces of a given nation, or a single continuous region in high detail split across several pages. Many motoring organisations those in the European Union, North America and New Zealand produce road maps. In addition, many transport companies, such as train and airline companies, have published "road" maps in the past, in their case calling them "route map". In the past, these were published on print paper.
Many old route maps are now considered collectible items and command increasing prices on auction sites and houses and on antique stores. Road maps distinguish between major and minor thoroughfares by using thicker lines or bolder colors for the major roads. Printed road maps include an index of cities and other destinations found on the map; these indexes give the location of the feature on the map via a grid reference. Inset maps may be used to provide greater detail for a specific area, such as a city map inset into a map of a state or province. A distance matrix is included showing the distance between pairs of cities. Since it is a symmetric matrix, only the upper triangle is displayed. Bicycle map Transit map Geographers' A-Z Map Company Ordnance Survey Timetable Airline timetable History of Cartography, vol. 6: "American Promotional Road Mapping in the Twentieth Century". Cartography and Geographic Information Science. Check Road Maps of any location "Road Route Map"
Bath is the largest city in the ceremonial county of Somerset, known for its Roman-built baths. In 2011, the population was 88,859. Bath is in the valley of the River Avon, 97 miles west of London and 11 miles south-east of Bristol; the city became a World Heritage site in 1987. The city became a spa with the Latin name Aquae Sulis c. 60 AD when the Romans built baths and a temple in the valley of the River Avon, although hot springs were known before then. Bath Abbey became a religious centre. In the 17th century, claims were made for the curative properties of water from the springs, Bath became popular as a spa town in the Georgian era. Georgian architecture, crafted from Bath stone, includes the Royal Crescent, Pump Room and Assembly Rooms where Beau Nash presided over the city's social life from 1705 until his death in 1761. Many of the streets and squares were laid out by John Wood, the Elder, in the 18th century the city became fashionable and the population grew. Jane Austen lived in Bath in the early 19th century.
Further building was undertaken in the 19th century and following the Bath Blitz in World War II. The city has software and service-oriented industries. Theatres and other cultural and sporting venues have helped make it a major centre for tourism, with more than one million staying visitors and 3.8 million day visitors to the city each year. There are several museums including the Museum of Bath Architecture, the Victoria Art Gallery, the Museum of East Asian Art, the Herschel Museum of Astronomy and the Holburne Museum; the city has two universities – the University of Bath and Bath Spa University – with Bath College providing further education. Sporting clubs include Bath Rugby and Bath City F. C.. Bath became part of the county of Avon in 1974, following Avon's abolition in 1996, has been the principal centre of Bath and North East Somerset; the hills in the locality such as Bathampton Down saw human activity from the Mesolithic period. Several Bronze Age round barrows were opened by John Skinner in the 18th century.
Solsbury Hill overlooking the current city was an Iron Age hill fort, the adjacent Bathampton Camp may have been one. A long barrow site believed to be from the Beaker people was flattened to make way for RAF Charmy Down. Archaeological evidence shows that the site of the Roman baths' main spring may have been treated as a shrine by the Britons, was dedicated to the goddess Sulis, whom the Romans identified with Minerva. Messages to her scratched onto metal, known as curse tablets, have been recovered from the sacred spring by archaeologists; the tablets were written in Latin, cursed people whom the writers felt had wronged them. For example, if a citizen had his clothes stolen at the baths, he might write a curse, naming the suspects, on a tablet to be read by the goddess. A temple was constructed in AD 60–70, a bathing complex was built up over the next 300 years. Engineers drove oak piles into the mud to provide a stable foundation, surrounded the spring with an irregular stone chamber lined with lead.
In the 2nd century, the spring was enclosed within a wooden barrel-vaulted structure that housed the caldarium and frigidarium. The town was given defensive walls in the 3rd century. After the failure of Roman authority in the first decade of the 5th century, the baths fell into disrepair and were lost as a result of rising water levels and silting. In March 2012 a hoard of 30,000 silver Roman coins, one of the largest discovered in Britain, was unearthed in an archaeological dig; the coins, believed to date from the 3rd century, were found about 150 m from the Roman baths. Bath may have been the site of the Battle of Badon, in which King Arthur is said to have defeated the Anglo-Saxons; the town was captured by the West Saxons in 577 after the Battle of Deorham. A monastery was founded at an early date – reputedly by Saint David although more in 675 by Osric, King of the Hwicce using the walled area as its precinct. Nennius, a 9th-century historian, mentions a "Hot Lake" in the land of the Hwicce along the River Severn, adds "It is surrounded by a wall, made of brick and stone, men may go there to bathe at any time, every man can have the kind of bath he likes.
If he wants, it will be a cold bath. Bede described hot baths in the geographical introduction to the Ecclesiastical History in terms similar to those of Nennius. King Offa of Mercia gained control of the monastery in 781 and rebuilt the church, dedicated to St. Peter. According to the Victorian churchman Edward Churton, during the Anglo-Saxon era Bath was known as Acemannesceastre, or'aching men's city', on account of the reputation these springs had for healing the sick. By the 9th century the old Roman street pattern was lost and Bath was a royal possession. King Alfred laid out the town afresh. In the Burghal Hidage, Bath is recorded as a burh and is described as having walls of 1,375 yards and was allocated 1000 men for defence. During the reign of Edward the Elder coins were minted in Bath based on a design from the Winchester mint but with'BAD' on the obverse relating to the Anglo-Saxon name for the town, Baðum, Baðan or Baðon, meaning "at the baths", this was the
OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Incorporated d/b/a OCLC is an American nonprofit cooperative organization "dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the world's information and reducing information costs". It was founded in 1967 as the Ohio College Library Center. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat, the largest online public access catalog in the world. OCLC is funded by the fees that libraries have to pay for its services. OCLC maintains the Dewey Decimal Classification system. OCLC began in 1967, as the Ohio College Library Center, through a collaboration of university presidents, vice presidents, library directors who wanted to create a cooperative computerized network for libraries in the state of Ohio; the group first met on July 5, 1967 on the campus of the Ohio State University to sign the articles of incorporation for the nonprofit organization, hired Frederick G. Kilgour, a former Yale University medical school librarian, to design the shared cataloging system.
Kilgour wished to merge the latest information storage and retrieval system of the time, the computer, with the oldest, the library. The plan was to merge the catalogs of Ohio libraries electronically through a computer network and database to streamline operations, control costs, increase efficiency in library management, bringing libraries together to cooperatively keep track of the world's information in order to best serve researchers and scholars; the first library to do online cataloging through OCLC was the Alden Library at Ohio University on August 26, 1971. This was the first online cataloging by any library worldwide. Membership in OCLC is based on use of services and contribution of data. Between 1967 and 1977, OCLC membership was limited to institutions in Ohio, but in 1978, a new governance structure was established that allowed institutions from other states to join. In 2002, the governance structure was again modified to accommodate participation from outside the United States.
As OCLC expanded services in the United States outside Ohio, it relied on establishing strategic partnerships with "networks", organizations that provided training and marketing services. By 2008, there were 15 independent United States regional service providers. OCLC networks played a key role in OCLC governance, with networks electing delegates to serve on the OCLC Members Council. During 2008, OCLC commissioned two studies to look at distribution channels. In early 2009, OCLC negotiated new contracts with the former networks and opened a centralized support center. OCLC provides bibliographic and full-text information to anyone. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat—the OCLC Online Union Catalog, the largest online public access catalog in the world. WorldCat has holding records from private libraries worldwide; the Open WorldCat program, launched in late 2003, exposed a subset of WorldCat records to Web users via popular Internet search and bookselling sites.
In October 2005, the OCLC technical staff began a wiki project, WikiD, allowing readers to add commentary and structured-field information associated with any WorldCat record. WikiD was phased out; the Online Computer Library Center acquired the trademark and copyrights associated with the Dewey Decimal Classification System when it bought Forest Press in 1988. A browser for books with their Dewey Decimal Classifications was available until July 2013; until August 2009, when it was sold to Backstage Library Works, OCLC owned a preservation microfilm and digitization operation called the OCLC Preservation Service Center, with its principal office in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. The reference management service QuestionPoint provides libraries with tools to communicate with users; this around-the-clock reference service is provided by a cooperative of participating global libraries. Starting in 1971, OCLC produced catalog cards for members alongside its shared online catalog. OCLC commercially sells software, such as CONTENTdm for managing digital collections.
It offers the bibliographic discovery system WorldCat Discovery, which allows for library patrons to use a single search interface to access an institution's catalog, database subscriptions and more. OCLC has been conducting research for the library community for more than 30 years. In accordance with its mission, OCLC makes its research outcomes known through various publications; these publications, including journal articles, reports and presentations, are available through the organization's website. OCLC Publications – Research articles from various journals including Code4Lib Journal, OCLC Research, Reference & User Services Quarterly, College & Research Libraries News, Art Libraries Journal, National Education Association Newsletter; the most recent publications are displayed first, all archived resources, starting in 1970, are available. Membership Reports – A number of significant reports on topics ranging from virtual reference in libraries to perceptions about library funding. Newsletters – Current and archived newsletters for the library and archive community.
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Mildenhall is a village and civil parish in the Kennet Valley in Wiltshire, about 1 mile east of the market town of Marlborough. The parish contains three communities – the village of Mildenhall, the hamlets of Poulton and Stitchcombe; the toponym is derived from the Old English but the site has been occupied since the Roman occupation of Britain, when the fortress town of Cunetio stood at an important road junction on the same site. No remains of this fortress are now standing, but are visible on aerial photographs; the Cunetio Hoard of Roman coins was discovered here in 1978. The name of the River Kennet, which runs through Mildenhall, is thought to have been derived from the Roman name, used on the village's coat-of-arms. Cunetio was deserted as a Romano-British site in about AD 450, but the site was reoccupied in the Anglo-Saxon era and a West Saxon charter drawn up between 803 and 805 refers to this settlement in its first recognisably modern form as Mildanhald, meaning "a nook of land of a woman called Milde or a man called Milda".
The village is again mentioned in Domesday Book in 1086 as Mildenhalle and the name has since undergone numerous subtle changes in spelling and pronunciation. Poulton House, dated 1706, is described by Pevsner as "the most perfect house in Marlborough". In 1881 the Swindon and Andover Railway company built their Swindon-Marlborough line through the Og valley in the southwest of the parish; the line closed in 1961 and the track was removed. The Church of England parish church of Saint John the Baptist originates from before the Norman Conquest: some parts of the tower are undoubtedly Saxon in date. However, much of the present building dates from the thirteenth century. In 1816 the interior was refurbished by the villagers. Of particular note are the box pews and the twin pulpit and reading desk. In 1966 the church was designated as Grade I listed. Sir John Betjeman refers to St. John's as "a church of a Jane Austen novel". Simon Jenkins includes it in his England's Thousand Best Churches. St. John's parish is now a member of the Marlborough team ministry.
The village has the Horseshoe Inn. Until the early 21st century Mildenhall had a post village shop; the village hall was built in 1988. Mildenhall holds a village fete in mid-September on the village playing field, as well as a Guy Fawkes Bonfire Night and a Duck Race using plastic ducks. Mildenhall publishes a monthly newsletter called The Parish Pump, a joint publication with the neighbouring village of Axford. There was a school, the Protestant Free School, in the village from 1824 to 1969. Designed in the shape of a cross by Robert Abraham, the former school is now a house. Jack Ainslie and politician, lived and died in Mildenhall Phil Harding, educated in Marlborough, worked at the Roman town in Mildenhall in 2009 Reg Prentice, Baron Prentice, died in Mildenhall Littlecote Roman Villa, a few miles east along the Kennet valley Birch, Walter de Grey, ed.. Cartularium Saxonicum. Volume not stated. Whitefish, Montana: Kessinger Publishing. P. not stated. ISBN 1-165-28065-5. Crowley, D. A.. P.. A History of the County of Wiltshire: Volume 12: Ramsbury and Selkey hundreds.
Victoria County History. Pp. 125–138. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list Miller, G. M. ed.. BBC pronouncing dictionary of British names. Oxford: Oxford University Press. P. not stated. ISBN 0-19-431125-2. Mills, A. D.. A Dictionary of British Place-Names. Oxford: Oxford University Press. P. 328. ISBN 0-19-852758-6. Pevsner, Nikolaus. Wiltshire; the Buildings of England. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books. Pp. 348–352. ISBN 0 14 071026 4; the Minal History in printable PDF form
Roman roads in Britannia
Roman roads in Britannia were designed for military use, created by the Roman Army during the nearly four centuries that Britannia was a province of the Roman Empire. It is estimated that about 2,000 mi of paved trunk roads were constructed and maintained throughout the province. Most of the known network was completed by AD 180; the primary function of the network was to allow rapid movement of troops and military supplies, but it subsequently provided vital infrastructure for commerce and the transportation of goods. A considerable number of Roman roads remained in daily use as core trunk roads for centuries after the end of Roman rule in Britain in AD 410; some routes are now part of the UK's national road network. Others are of archeological and historical interest only. After the Romans departed, systematic construction of paved highways in the United Kingdom did not resume until the early 18th century; the Roman road network remained the only nationally-managed highway system within Britain until the establishment of the Ministry of Transport in the early 20th century.
Prior to the Roman conquest of Britain, pre-Roman Britons used unpaved trackways for travel. These routes, many of which had prehistoric origins, followed elevated ridge lines across hills, e.g. South Downs Way. Although most routes were unpaved tracks, some British tribes had begun engineering roads during the first century BC. Beginning in 43 AD, the Romans created a national road network. Engineers from the Roman Army - in most cases - built them from scratch. Key locations, both strategic and administrative, were connected by the most direct routes possible. Main roads were gravel or paved, had bridges constructed in stone or wood, manned waypoints where travellers or military units could stop and rest; the roads' impermeable design permitted travel in weather. Following the withdrawal of the Roman Legions in 410 AD, the road system soon fell into disrepair. Parts of the network were retained by the Anglo-Saxons becoming integral routes in Anglo-Saxon Britain; the earliest roads, built in the first phase of Roman occupation, connected London with the ports used in the invasion, with the earlier legionary bases at Colchester, Wroxeter and Exeter.
The Fosse Way, from Exeter to Lincoln, was built at this time to connect these bases with each other, marking the effective boundary of the early Roman province. During the Flavian period, the roads to Lincoln and Gloucester were extended to the new legionary bases at York and Caerleon respectively. By 96 further extensions from York to Corbridge, from Chester to Carlisle and Caernarfon, were completed as Roman rule was extended over Wales and northern England. Stanegate, the military road from Carlisle to Corbridge, was built under the Emperor Trajan along the line of the future Hadrian's Wall, constructed by his successor Hadrian in 122–132 AD. Scotland, including England north of Hadrian's Wall, remained outside the boundaries of Britannia province, as the Romans never succeeded in subjugating the entire island, despite a serious effort to do so by governor Gnaeus Julius Agricola in 82–84 AD. However, the Romans maintained. 80–220 AD to control the indigenous population beyond Hadrian's Wall and annexed the Lowlands with the construction of the Antonine Wall in 164.
This barrier, across the'neck' of Scotland, from the Firth of Clyde to the Firth of Forth, was held for some twenty years. The Romans' main routes from Hadrian's Wall to the Antonine Wall, built by ca. 120 AD, were: Corbridge to the Roman fort at Edinburgh and to Carriden on the eastern end of the Antonine Wall, via High Rochester and Melrose. There was a certain road beyond the Antonine Wall to Perth from the Antonine fort at Falkirk. Indeed, it has been thought that the Roman road to the north of the Forth, to Stirling and Perth, dates from the expedition of Severus to beyond the Dee, AD 209; the core network was complemented by a number of routes built for commercial, rather than military, purposes. Examples include: in Kent and Sussex, three certain roads leading from London to the important iron-mining area of the Weald. However, these Anglian and southern routes acquired military importance from the 3rd century onwards with the emergence of Saxon seaborne raiding as a major and persistent threat to the security of Britannia.
These roads linked to the coastal defensive line of Saxon Shore forts e.g. Brancaster, Burgh Castle near Great Yarmouth and Pevensey. Standard Roman road construction techniques, long evolved on the Continent, were used. A road occupied a wide strip of land bounded by shallow ditches, varying in width from 86 pedes on Ermin Way in Berkshire to 338 pedes on Akeman Street in Oxfordshire. A trunk road in Britain would be 5–8 m in width, with a gauge of 7 m being the most common. Watling Street was 10.1 m wid
Blestium was a small fort and iron working centre in the Roman province of Britannia Superior, part of Roman Britain. It has been identified with the site of the town of Monmouth in south east Wales, located adjoining the confluence of the River Monnow with the River Wye. A plaque on the local bank records its position; the reference to Blestio in the Antonine Itinerary is the only one made to the settlement in Roman sources. It was located on the road between Caerleon and Silchester, midway between the fort at Usk and the iron making centre at Ariconium, believed to be at Weston under Penyard near Ross-on-Wye, it is suggested that the name may derive from the Greek word βλαστος, meaning "offshoot". It is now accepted that a Neronian or pre-Flavian military fort was established at Monmouth before 55 AD, making it the earliest Roman fort in Wales; the fort was established, either by Publius Ostorius Scapula or his successor Aulus Didius Gallus, during the first advances of the Romans against the Silures of south east Wales.
The invading forces established a series of auxiliary forts along the Monnow valley into mid Wales, as well as advancing towards Usk where they established the fort of Burrium. The Silures fought a successful guerrilla war against the Romans for some thirty years before being defeated by the forces led by Sextus Julius Frontinus; the fort at Blestium is believed to have housed around 2,000 soldiers during the initial campaign, to have remained as a small fortlet. Few Roman remains had been found at Monmouth until recently; the first ditch of the fort was discovered by the Monmouth Archaeological Society behind properties on Monnow Street, within Monmouth town centre. Excavations in 2010 in Agincourt Square uncovered pottery and bones, which appear to confirm the existence of a fort. There is substantial evidence of iron working dating from the Roman period, drawing on local iron ore and charcoal for smelting from local forests; this includes waste slag, both in the town centre and in the Overmonnow area.
Stone buildings associated with 2nd and 3rd century iron working have been excavated near the crossing of the River Monnow. Coins found in the town date from the third and fourth centuries, suggesting continuing civilian settlement; the Monmouth Heritage Trail includes a blue plaque recording the Roman fort of Blestium. This is attached to a late eighteenth-century town house, now used as the Lloyds TSB bank in Monnow Street; the house was occupied, built, by Philip Meakins Hardwick, one of the founders of the Monmouth Picnic Club of local gentlemen responsible for developing the viewpoint and buildings on The Kymin around 1800. The house became the home of Monmouth's town clerk and Viscount Nelson and his entourage were entertained there during their visit to the town on 19 August 1802. Another notable resident was said to be the architect Philip Fisher who lived at the house whilst designing improvements to the Shire Hall in the 1720s; the building is a Grade II listed building. Wales in the Roman Era Arnold, Christopher J.
Stroud: Sutton Publishing