The antoninianus, or pre-reform radiate, was a coin used during the Roman Empire thought to have been valued at 2 denarii. It was silver, but was debased to bronze with a minimal silver content; the coin was introduced by Caracalla in early 215 AD. It was silver, similar to the denarius except that it was larger and featured the emperor wearing a radiate crown, indicating it was a double denomination. Antoniniani depicting females featured the bust resting upon a crescent moon. At its introduction, the silver content of the antoninianus was only equal to 1.5 denarii. This created inflation: People hoarded the denarii, while both buyers and sellers recognized the new coin had a lower intrinsic value and elevated their prices to compensate. Silver bullion supplies began running short because the Roman Empire was no longer conquering new territory, the Iberian silver mines had been exhausted, a series of soldier emperors and usurpers needed coin to pay their troops and buy their loyalty; each new issue of the antoninianus thus had less silver in it than the last, thus contributed to ever-increasing inflation.

In 271 AD Aurelian increased the average weight of the antoninianus, this change lasting for only a short time. Around this time, the enigmatic'XXI' was first marked on the reverse of the antoninianus; the true meaning of this series of numbers is still a topic of debate, but is thought to represent a 20:1 silver ratio. By the late 3rd century AD, antoniniani were entirely made of bronze reclaimed from melted-down older issues like the sestertius. Vast quantities were minted, with a large percentage of the circulating stock being contemporary forgeries with blundered legends and designs. Individual coins were by practically worthless, were lost or discarded by the millions; the resultant situation was not unlike the hyperinflation of the Weimar Republic in 1920s Germany, when paper money was printed in reckless abundance. The coin ceased to be used by the end of the 3rd century, when a series of monetary reforms attempted to arrest the decline by issuing new coinage. Today most of these coins are common finds, with a few scarcer examples including Aemilianus, Marcus Aurelius Marius and Regalianus.

Modern numismatists use "antoninianus". An ancient Roman document called the Historia Augusta refers to silver coins named after an Antoninus on several occasions; because Caracalla's silver coin was a new issue, he had taken Antoninus as part of his imperial name, an association was made with it, the name stuck. Media related to Antoninianus at Wikimedia Commons

The Lyin', the Watch and the Wardrobe

"The Lyin', the Watch and the Wardrobe" is an episode from the dramedy series Ugly Betty, which aired on October 26, 2006. Internationally, it is the sixth episode overall, but in the United States and Australia it aired as the fifth due to the delayed airing of "Swag." The episode name is a play on words of the novel and subsequent film titled The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe in the Chronicles of Narnia series, which incidentally was produced by The Walt Disney Company, the parent company of Ugly Betty's co-producers, ABC Studios. It's Halloween, in the Suarez household the day starts with both Betty and Hilda asking their dad about his false Social Security card, but he seems too busily immersed in the festivities. Justin on the other hand dresses up as a sailor. Betty's idea of celebrating is to dress up as a butterfly for. At work, Betty shows up in her outfit... only to discover. Betty is about to have her work cut out for her when Daniel asks her to track down his lost watch, which he left at a girlfriend's place, but he can't remember which one.

He tells Betty to get Amanda to help her, but it appears that Amanda may be holding back in a jealous fit, for it turns out that she has the watch. Betty puts two and two together, confronts Amanda in the bathroom. Amanda reveals to Betty that she always wanted Daniel for herself but she is tired of his constant one-night stands with other women and admits her hope that he'll pick her, knowing it'll never happen. Having got this off her chest, Amanda pulls herself together, tells Betty to forget what she just said, she gives the watch to Betty. In between the melee, Betty finds herself smitten by Henry from accounting, who has come down to chat to Betty. Earlier in the day, Walter gave Betty a gift of a hollow pumpkin with candy in the middle, he told Betty to eat the candy in the pumpkin. The gift is the key to Walter's apartment, with a note asking her to move in with him. With so many things distracting her, Betty has no time to give Walter an answer but does find time to have lunch with Henry after he invites her to the Sushi bar across the street.

When Walter turns up at Betty's work and asks where she is, Amanda tells him. Walter arrives just as Henry is about to let Betty confronts the two and walks off. In the end Betty tells Henry, she does just that, with Walter nixing the living arrangements and agreeing to continue dating for now. As for Daniel, his day is spent visiting his mother Claire, in a rehab clinic for over a month for her drinking problems, the result of her troubled marriage to Bradford after his admitted affair with Fey. While Daniel asks his mother about the music box and the night she burned the magazines, Claire asks her son to take her out for lunch at a restaurant. Daniel is leery about taking her to a place, they go and during the lunch conversation Claire tells Daniel that he is going the same route as his dad, but this wasn't something Daniel wants to hear...then she tells him to give her the glass of wine so she can have a'sip'. Claire tells Daniel that the affair between Fey had been going on for twenty years.

When she and Fey went to confront Bradford in his office to make him choose, she tells Daniel to guess who ended up dead and who ended up in rehab. That day Daniel confronts Bradford about the affair. Bradford says that he regrets making that mistake. Daniel discloses to Bradford his knowledge of the burned glasses and license plate from Fey's music box. Bradford had told Steve to seek out the person who's been leaking the info to Daniel with the aim of having his son turn against him. After leaving the office Daniel is left confused. Amanda runs into him in the lift and suggests seeing him that night just to chat. Daniel is too distracted, wants to be alone, turns down her offer. Meanwhile Wilhelmina's plan for a date with a younger man takes a turn for the worse when she is called a cradle robber on Fashion TV, it appears that Marc, dressed up as "Halloween Betty" and was jokingly given a raise for it, may have something to do with it. So she makes him find a replacement date that she can take to a major event and gets Christina to create a dress for her.

When Wilhelmina attempts to try it on she is horrified to learn that she can't fit into the size-2 designer gown, with Christina blurting out that Slater has gained weight. Wils decides to shed some pounds, using steam and diet, which helps as Christina gives her a dress that fits better and just in time to take the same young guy out to the event until her daughter Nico shows up. Wilhelmina talks to the mystery woman about what happened between Daniel and Bradford, which prompts the semi-bandaged person to make plans for the return of Fey Sommers; as Halloween comes to a close, Ignacio comes clean to Betty, admitting that he came to the United States illegally, leaving Betty shocked and stunned by his confession. Michael Urie - Marc St. James Kevin Sussman - Walter Christopher Gorham - Henry Grubstick Judith Light - Claire Meade Elizabeth Payne - Masked Woman Stelio Savante - Steve Jowharah Jones - Nico Slater Patrick Fabian - Fashion TV Anchor Alison McAtee - Friday Night Tasha Taylor - Thursday Night Jean-Christophe Febbrari - Waiter Amanda Lockwood - Mode Girl Jesse Marchant - Jason Jeanne Simpson - Receptionist During

Alfred Dipper

Alfred Ernest Dipper was a cricketer who played for Gloucestershire and once for England. Dipper made his first-class debut in 1908 when called into the Gloucestershire side, a man short for the match against Kent at Tonbridge, he failed to keep a regular place in the team. He re-emerged as an opening batsman in 1911 and was a regular in the team until 1932, when he retired. A defensive batsman in what was, until the arrival of Wally Hammond in the mid-1920s a weak batting line-up, Dipper exceeded 1,000 runs in a season 15 times and went on to 2,000 five times, his full aggregate of 28,075 runs puts him 73rd on the all-time list of run-getters and he made 53 centuries. Dipper played in just one Test match for England, against Australia at Lord's in 1921, the year when many new players were tried against the all-conquering team led by Warwick Armstrong. Dipper was dropped, his lack of mobility as a fielder cost him further consideration. In retirement, Dipper stood as a first-class umpire, he was a high standard player of bowls and billiards.

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