Gustave Le Gray
Jean-Baptiste Gustave Le Gray has been called "the most important French photographer of the nineteenth century" because of his technical innovations, his instruction of other noted photographers, "the extraordinary imagination he brought to picture making." He was an important contributor to the development of the wax paper negative. Gustave Le Gray was born in 1820 in Val-d'Oise, he was trained as a painter, studying under François-Édouard Picot and Paul Delaroche. He lived in painted portraits and scenes of the countryside. Le Gray exhibited his paintings at the salon in 1848 and 1853, he crossed over to photography in the early years of its development. He made his first daguerreotypes by 1847, his early photographs included portraits. He taught photography to students such as Charles Nègre, Henri Le Secq, Olympe Aguado, Maxime Du Camp. In 1851, he became one of the first five photographers hired for the Missions Héliographiques to document French monuments and buildings. In that same year he helped found the Société Héliographique, the "first photographic organization in the world."
Le Gray published a treatise on photography, which went through four editions, in 1850, 1851, 1852, 1854. In 1855, Le Gray opened a "lavishly furnished" studio. At that time, becoming progressively the official photographer of Napoleon III, he became a successful portraitist, his most famous work dates from this period, 1856 to 1858 his seascapes. The studio was a fancy place, but in spite of his artistic success, his business was a financial failure: the business was poorly managed and ran into debts, he therefore "closed his studio, abandoned his wife and children, fled the country to escape his creditors."He began to tour the Mediterranean in 1860 with the writer Alexandre Dumas, père. They encountered Giuseppe Garibaldi during the trip and Le Gray photographed Garibaldi and Palermo, his striking pictures of Giuseppe Garibaldi and Palermo under Sicilian bombardment became as famous throughout Europe. Dumas abandoned Le Gray and the other travelers in Malta and joined the revolutionary forces as a result of a personal conflict.
Le Gray went to Lebanon Syria where he covered the movements of the French army for a magazine in 1861. Injured, he remained there before heading to Egypt. In Alexandria he photographed Henri d'Artois and the future Edward VII of the United Kingdom, wrote to Nadar while sending him pictures, he established himself in Cairo in 1864. He sent pictures to the universal exhibition in 1867 but they did not catch anyone's attention, he received commissions from the vice-king Ismail Pasha. From this late period there remain 50 pictures, he died in Cairo. His technical innovations included: Improvements on paper negatives waxing them before exposure "making the paper more receptive to fine detail". A collodion process published in 1850 but, "theoretical at best"; the invention of the wet collodion method to produce a negative on a glass plate is now credited to Frederick Scott Archer who published his process in 1851. Combination printing, creating seascapes by using one negative for the water and one negative for the sky.
Le Gray documented French monuments on a mission for the French government with other French photographers. He was a successful portrait photographer, capturing figures such as Napoleon III and Edward VII, he became famous for his seascapes, or marine. He spent 20 years in Cairo, but there are few works from this period. In October 1999, Sotheby's sold a Le Gray albumen print "Beech Tree, Fontainebleau" for £419,500, a world record for the most expensive single photograph sold at auction, to an anonymous buyer. At the same auction, an albumen print of "The Great Wave, Sète" by Le Gray was sold for a new world record price of £507,500 or $840,370 to "the same anonymous buyer", revealed to be Sheik Saud Al-Thani of Qatar; the record stood until May 2003 when Al-Thani purchased a daguerreotype by Joseph-Philibert Girault de Prangey for £565,250 or $922,488. A practical treatise on photography, upon paper and glass by Gustave Le Gray, London: T. & R. Willats, 1850. Photographic manipulation: the waxed paper process of Gustave Le Gray by Gustave Le Gray.
Translated from the French. London: George Knight and Sons, 1853. Architecture and landscapes Portraits History of photography List of most expensive photographs Société française de photographie Parry, Eugenia; the photography of Gustave Le Gray. Chicago: Art Institute of Chicago and University of Chicago Press, 1987. ISBN 0-226-39210-4 Aubenas, Sylvie. Gustave Le Gray, 1820-1884. Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum, 2002. ISBN 0-89236-672-9 Aubenas, Sylvie. Gustave Le Gray. London and New York: Phaidon, 2003. ISBN 0-7148-4234-6 Works by or about Gustave Le Gray at Internet Archive Gustave Le Gray Collection at Victoria and Albert Museum Novak, Alex. "Photography Price Gyrations: Gustave Le Gray, A Case Study". On Connoisseurship and Photography Print Values: A Discussion. Retrieved 2008-09-16. Gustave Le Gray: Master Photographer of the 19th Century, I Photo Central All the Mighty World: The Photographs of Roger Fenton, 1852-1860, exhibition catalog online as PDF from The Metropolitan Museum of Art, which contains material on Gustave Le Gray Krygier, Irit on artnet.com Sublime Le Gray
A portrait is a painting, sculpture, or other artistic representation of a person, in which the face and its expression is predominant. The intent is to display the likeness and the mood of the person. For this reason, in photography a portrait is not a snapshot, but a composed image of a person in a still position. A portrait shows a person looking directly at the painter or photographer, in order to most engage the subject with the viewer. Most early representations that are intended to show an individual are of rulers, tend to follow idealizing artistic conventions, rather than the individual features of the subject's body, though when there is no other evidence as to the ruler's appearance the degree of idealization can be hard to assess. Nonetheless, many subjects, such as Akhenaten and some other Egyptian pharaohs, can be recognised by their distinctive features; the 28 surviving rather small statues of Gudea, ruler of Lagash in Sumeria between c. 2144–2124 BC, show a consistent appearance with some individuality.
Some of the earliest surviving painted portraits of people who were not rulers are the Greco-Roman funeral portraits that survived in the dry climate of Egypt's Fayum district. These are the only paintings from the classical world that have survived, apart from frescos, though many sculptures and portraits on coins have fared better. Although the appearance of the figures differs they are idealized, all show young people, making it uncertain whether they were painted from life; the art of the portrait flourished in Ancient Greek and Roman sculpture, where sitters demanded individualized and realistic portraits unflattering ones. During the 4th century, the portrait began to retreat in favor of an idealized symbol of what that person looked like. In the Europe of the Early Middle Ages representations of individuals are generalized. True portraits of the outward appearance of individuals re-emerged in the late Middle Ages, in tomb monuments, donor portraits, miniatures in illuminated manuscripts and panel paintings.
Moche culture of Peru was one of the few ancient civilizations. These works represent anatomical features in great detail; the individuals portrayed would have been recognizable without the need for other symbols or a written reference to their names. The individuals portrayed were members of the ruling elite, priests and distinguished artisans, they were represented during several stages of their lives. The faces of gods were depicted. To date, no portraits of women have been found. There is particular emphasis on the representation of the details of headdresses, body adornment and face painting. One of the best-known portraits in the Western world is Leonardo da Vinci's painting titled Mona Lisa, a painting of Lisa del Giocondo. What has been claimed as the world's oldest known portrait was found in 2006 in the Vilhonneur grotto near Angoulême and is thought to be 27,000 years old; when the artist creates a portrait of him- or herself, it is called a self-portrait. Identifiable examples become numerous in the late Middle Ages.
But if the definition is extended, the first was by the Egyptian Pharaoh Akhenaten's sculptor Bak, who carved a representation of himself and his wife Taheri c. 1365 BC. However, it seems that self-portraits go back to the cave paintings, the earliest representational art, literature records several classical examples that are now lost; the official portrait is a photographic production of record and dissemination of important personalities, notably kings and governors. It is decorated with official colors and symbols such as flag, presidential stripes and coat of arms of countries, states or municipalities. There is connotation as an image of events and meetings. Portrait photography is a popular commercial industry all over the world. Many people enjoy having professionally made family portraits to hang in their homes, or special portraits to commemorate certain events, such as graduations or weddings. Since the dawn of photography, people have made portraits; the popularity of the daguerreotype in the middle of the 19th century was due in large part to the demand for inexpensive portraiture.
Studios sprang up in cities around the world, some cranking out more than 500 plates a day. The style of these early works reflected the technical challenges associated with 30-second exposure times and the painterly aesthetic of the time. Subjects were seated against plain backgrounds and lit with the soft light of an overhead window and whatever else could be reflected with mirrors; as photographic techniques developed, an intrepid group of photographers took their talents out of the studio and onto battlefields, across oceans and into remote wilderness. William Shew's Daguerreotype Saloon, Roger Fenton's Photographic Van and Mathew Brady's What-is-it? Wagon set the standards for making other photographs in the field. In politics, portraits of the leader are used as a symbol of the state. In most countries it is common protocol for a portrait of the head of state to appear in important government buildings. Excessive use of a leader's portrait, such as that done of Joseph Stalin, Adolf Hitler, or Mao Zedong, can be indicative of a personality cult.
In literature the term portrait refers to analysis of a person or thing. A written portrait gives deep insight, offers an analysis that goes far beyond the superficial. For example, American author Patricia Cornwell wrote a best-selling book entitled Portrait of a Killer about
Orientalism is a term used by art historians and literary and cultural studies scholars for the imitation or depiction of aspects in the Eastern world. These depictions are done by writers and artists from the West. In particular, Orientalist painting, depicting more "the Middle East", was one of the many specialisms of 19th-century academic art, the literature of Western countries took a similar interest in Oriental themes. Since the publication of Edward Said's Orientalism in 1978, much academic discourse has begun to use the term "Orientalism" to refer to a general patronizing Western attitude towards Middle Eastern and North African societies. In Said's analysis, the West essentializes these societies as static and undeveloped—thereby fabricating a view of Oriental culture that can be studied and reproduced. Implicit in this fabrication, writes Said, is the idea that Western society is developed, rational and superior. Orientalism refers in reference and opposition to the Occident; the word Orient entered the English language as the Middle French orient.
The root word oriēns, from the Latin Oriēns, has synonymous denotations: The eastern part of the world. In the "Monk's Tale", Geoffrey Chaucer wrote: "That they conquered many regnes grete / In the orient, with many a fair citee." The term "orient" refers to countries east of the Mediterranean Southern Europe. In Place of Fear, Aneurin Bevan used an expanded denotation of the Orient that comprehended East Asia: "the awakening of the Orient under the impact of Western ideas". Edward Said said that Orientalism "enables the political, economic and social domination of the West, not just during colonial times, but in the present." In art history, the term Orientalism refers to the works of the Western artists who specialized in Oriental subjects, produced from their travels in Western Asia, during the 19th century. In that time and scholars were described as Orientalists in France, where the dismissive use of the term "Orientalist" was made popular by the art critic Jules-Antoine Castagnary. Despite such social disdain for a style of representational art, the French Society of Orientalist Painters was founded in 1893, with Jean-Léon Gérôme as the honorary president.
The formation of the French Orientalist Painters Society changed the consciousness of practitioners towards the end of the 19th century, since artists could now see themselves as part of a distinct art movement. As an art movement, Orientalist painting is treated as one of the many branches of 19th-century academic art. Art historians tend to identify two broad types of Orientalist artist: the realists who painted what they observed and those who imagined Orientalist scenes without leaving the studio. French painters such as Eugène Delacroix and Jean-Léon Gérôme are regarded as the leading luminaries of the Orientalist movement. In the 18th and 19th centuries, the term Orientalist identified a scholar who specialized in the languages and literatures of the Eastern world. Among such scholars were British officials of the East India Company, who said that the Arab culture, the culture of India, the Islamic cultures should be studied as equal to the cultures of Europe. Among such scholars is the philologist William Jones, whose studies of Indo-European languages established modern philology.
British imperial strategy in India favored Orientalism as a technique for developing good relations with the natives—until the 1820s, when the influence of "anglicists" such as Thomas Babington Macaulay and John Stuart Mill led to the promotion of Anglocentric education. Additionally and Jewish studies gained popularity among British and German scholars in the 19th and 20th centuries; the academic field of Oriental studies, which comprehended the cultures of the Near East and the Far East, became the fields of Asian studies and Middle Eastern studies. In the book Orientalism, the cultural critic Edward Said redefined the term Orientalism to describe a pervasive Western tradition — academic and artistic — of prejudiced outsider-interpretations of the Eastern world, shaped by the cultural attitudes of European imperialism in the 18th and 19th centuries; the thesis of Orientalism develops Antonio Gramsci's theory of cultural hegemony, Michel Foucault's theorisation of discourse to criticise the scholarly tradition of Oriental studies.
Said criticised contemporary scholars who perpetuated the tradition of outsider-interpretation of Arabo-Islamic cultures Bernard Lewis and Fouad Ajami. The analyses are of Orientalism in European literature French literature, do not analyse visual art and Orientalist painting. In that vein, the art historian Linda Nochlin applied Said's methods of critical analysis to art, "with uneven results". In the academy, the book Orientalism became a foundational text of post-colonial cultural studies. Moreover, in relation to the cultural institution of citizenship, Orientalism has rendered the concept of citizenship as a problem of epistemology, because citizenship originated as a social institution of the Western world. Furthermore, Said said that Orientalism, as an "idea of representation is a theoretical one: The Orient is a stage on which the whole East is confined" in order to make the Eastern world "les
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Luxor Temple is a large Ancient Egyptian temple complex located on the east bank of the Nile River in the city today known as Luxor and was constructed 1400 BCE. In the Egyptian language it is known as ipet resyt, "the southern sanctuary". In Luxor there are several great temples on the west banks. Four of the major mortuary temples visited by early travelers and tourists include the Temple of Seti I at Gurnah, the Temple of Hatshepsut at Deir el Bahri, the Temple of Ramesses II, the Temple of Ramesses III at Medinet Habu. Unlike the other temples in Thebes, Luxor temple is not dedicated to a cult god or a deified version of the king in death. Instead Luxor temple is dedicated to the rejuvenation of kingship. Other parts of the temple were built by Tutankhamun and Ramesses II. During the Roman era, the temple and its surroundings were a legionary fortress and the home of the Roman government in the area. During the Roman period a chapel inside the Luxor Temple dedicated to goddess Mut was transformed in to a Tetrarchy cult chapel and in to a church.
Luxor temple was built with sandstone from the Gebel el-Silsila area, located in South-Western Egypt. This sandstone from the Gebel el-Silsila region is referred to as Nubian Sandstone; this sandstone was used for the construction for monuments in Upper Egypt as well as in the course of past and current restoration works. Like other Egyptian structures a common technique used was illusionism. For example, to the Egyptian, a sanctuary shaped like an Anubis Jackal was Anubis. At the Luxor temple, the two obelisks flanking the entrance were not the same height, but they created the illusion that they were. With the layout of the temple they appear to be of equal height, but using illusionism, it enhances the relative distances hence making them look the same size to the wall behind it. Symbolically, it is a visual and spatial effect to emphasize the heights and distance from the wall, enhancing the existing pathway. From medieval times, the Muslim population of Luxor had settled in and around the temple, at the southward end of the mount.
Due to the Luxor's past city population building on top of and around the Luxor temple, centuries of rubble had accumulated, to the point where there was an artificial hill some 14.5 to 15 metres in height. The Luxor Temple had begun to be excavated by Professor Gaston Maspero after 1884 after he had been given the order to commence operations; the excavations were carried out sporadically until 1960. Over time, accumulated rubbish of the ages had buried three quarters of the temple which contained the courts and colonnades which formed the nucleus of the Arab half of the modern village. Maspero had taken an interest earlier, he had taken over the post of Mariette Pasha to complete the job in 1881. Not only was there rubbish, but there were barracks, houses, pigeon towers, which needed to be removed in order to excavate the site. Maspero received from the Egyptian minister of public works the authorization needed to obtain funds in order to negotiate compensation for the pieces of land covered by the houses and dependencies.
The Luxor Temple was dedicated to the Theban Triad of the cult of the Royal Ka, Amun and Khonsu and was built during the New Kingdom, the focus of the annual Opet Festival, in which a cult statue of Amun was paraded down the Nile from nearby Karnak Temple to stay there for a while, with his consort Mut, in a celebration of fertility – hence its name. However, other studies at the temple by the Epigraphic Survey team present a new interpretation of Luxor and its great annual festival, they have concluded that Luxor is the temple dedicated to the divine Egyptian ruler or, more to the cult of the Royal Ka. Examples of the cult, of the Royal Ka can be seen with the colossal seated figures of the deified Ramesses II before the Pylon and at the entrance to the Colonnade are Ka-statues, cult statues of the king as embodiment of the royal Ka. Six barque shrines, serving as way stations for the barques of the gods during festival processions, were set up on the avenue between the Karnak and Luxor Temple.
The avenue which went in a straight line between the Luxor Temple and the Karnak area was lined with human-headed sphinxes of Nekhtanebo I,21, in ancient times it is probable that these replaced earlier sphinxes which may have had different heads. Along the avenue the stations were set up for ceremonies such as the Feast of Opet which held significance to temple; each station had a purpose, for example the fourth station was the station of Kamare, which cooled the oar of Amun. The Fifth station of Kamare was the station. Lastly the Sixth Station of Kamare was a shrine for Holy of Steps. In 2013, a Chinese student posted a picture of engraved graffiti that read "Ding Jinhao was here" in Chinese on a sculpture; this discovery spurred debate about increased tourism after the media confirmed a Chinese student caused this and other defacements. The engraving has since been cleared
Beyoğlu is a district on the European side of İstanbul, separated from the old city by the Golden Horn. It was known as Pera during the Middle Ages. According to the prevailing theory, the Turkish name of Pera, Beyoğlu, is a modification by folk etymology of the Venetian ambassadorial title of Bailo, whose palazzo was the most grandiose structure in this quarter; the informal Turkish-language title Bey Oğlu was used by the Ottoman Turks to describe Lodovico Gritti, Istanbul-born son of Andrea Gritti, the Venetian Bailo in Istanbul during the reign of Sultan Bayezid II and was elected Doge of Venice in 1523. Bey Oğlu thus referred to Lodovico Gritti, who established close relations with the Sublime Porte, whose mansion was near the present-day Taksim Square. Located further south in Beyoğlu and built in the early 16th century, the "Venetian Palace" was the seat of the Bailo; the original palace building was replaced by the existing one in 1781, which became the "Italian Embassy" following Italy's unification in 1861, the "Italian Consulate" in 1923, when Ankara became the capital of the Republic of Turkey.
The district encompasses other neighborhoods located north of the Golden Horn, including Galata, Cihangir, Şişhane, Tepebaşı, Tarlabaşı, Dolapdere and Kasımpaşa, is connected to the old city center across the Golden Horn through the Galata Bridge, Atatürk Bridge and Golden Horn Metro Bridge. Beyoğlu is the most active art and nightlife centre of Istanbul; the area now known as Beyoğlu has been inhabited since Byzas founded the City of Byzantium in the 7th century BC, predates the founding of Constantinople. During the Byzantine era, Greek speaking inhabitants named the hillside covered with orchards Sykai, or Peran en Sykais, referring to the "other side" of the Golden Horn; as the Byzantine Empire grew, so did Constantinople and its environs. The northern side of the Golden Horn became built up as a suburb of Byzantium as early as the 5th century. In this period the area began to be called Galata, Emperor Theodosius II built a fortress; the Greeks believe that the name comes either from galatas, as the area was used by shepherds in the early medieval period, or from the word Galatai, as the Celtic tribe of Gauls were thought to have camped here during the Hellenistic period before settling into Galatia in central Anatolia, becoming known as the Galatians.
The inhabitants of Galatia are famous for the Epistle to the Galatians and the Dying Galatian statue. The name may have derived from the Italian word Calata, meaning "downward slope", as Galata a colony of the Republic of Genoa between 1273 and 1453, stands on a hilltop that goes downwards to the sea; the area came to be the base of European merchants from Genoa and Venice, in what was known as Pera. Following the Fourth Crusade in 1204, during the Latin Empire of Constantinople, the Venetians became more prominent in Pera; the Dominican Church of St. Paul, today known as the Arap Camii, is from this period. In 1273 the Byzantine Emperor Michael VIII Palaiologos granted Pera to the Republic of Genoa in recognition of Genoa's support of the Empire after the Fourth Crusade and the sacking of Constantinople in 1204. Pera became a flourishing trade colony, ruled by a podestà; the Genoese Palace was built in 1316 by Montano de Marinis, the Podestà of Galata, still remains today in ruins, near the Bankalar Caddesi in Karaköy, along with its adjacent buildings and numerous Genoese houses from the early 14th century.
In 1348 the Genoese built one of the most prominent landmarks of Istanbul. Pera remained under Genoese control until May 29, 1453, when it was conquered by the Ottomans along with the rest of the city, after the Siege of Constantinople. During the Byzantine period, the Genoese Podestà ruled over the Italian community of Galata, made up of the Genoese, Venetians and Ragusans. Following the Turkish siege of Constantinople in 1453, during which the Genoese sided with the Byzantines and defended the city together with them, the Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II allowed the Genoese to return to the city, but Galata was no longer run by a Genoese Podestà. Venice, Genoa's archrival, regained control in the strategic citadel of Galata, which they were forced to leave in 1261 when the Byzantines retook Constantinople and brought an end to the Latin Empire, established by Enrico Dandolo, the Doge of Venice. Venice established political and commercial ties with the Ottoman Empire, a Venetian Bailo was sent to Pera as an ambassador, during the Byzantine period.
It was the Venetians who suggested Leonardo da Vinci to Bayezid II when the Sultan mentioned his intention to construct a bridge over the Golden Horn, Leonardo designed his Galata Bridge in 1502. The Bailo's seat was the "Venetian Palace" built in Beyoğlu in the early 16th century and replaced by the existing palace building in 1781; the Ottoman Empire had an interesting relationship with the Republic of Venice. Though the two states went to war over the control of East Mediterrane
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012