Prema Powerteam is a motorsport team from Italy. It mainly operates in the FIA Formula 3 European Championship as well as various junior championships, the team was founded in 1984. Also this team was a part of Toyota Driver Programme, currently the team has strong ties with Mercedes and Ferrari, running many of the current Ferrari Driver Academy drivers. Its most recent success is winning the GP2 Drivers title with Pierre Gasly,1 Italian F4 Trophy Official website
Circuit de Spa-Francorchamps
The Circuit de Spa-Francorchamps motor-racing circuit is the venue of the Formula One Belgian Grand Prix, and of the Spa 24 Hours and 1000 km Spa endurance races. It is home to the all Volkswagen club event,25 Hours of Spa and it is one of the most challenging race tracks in the world, mainly due to its fast and twisty nature. Spa is a circuit of many racing drivers and fans. Despite its name, the circuit is not in Spa but lies in the vicinity of the town of Francorchamps within the boundaries of the municipality of Stavelot, with a part in the boundaries of Malmedy. Designed in 1920 by Jules de Thier and Henri Langlois Van Ophem, the track was intended to have hosted its inaugural race in August 1921, however this event had to be cancelled as there was only one entrant. The first car race was held at the circuit in 1922, the circuit was first used for Grand Prix racing in 1925. The old Spa circuit was essentially a speed course with drivers managing higher average speeds than on other race tracks, until 2000, it was possible to travel over the race track when it was still a public road.
Near Malmedy, the Masta straight began, which was interrupted by the fast Masta Kink between farm houses before arriving at the town of Stavelot. Before 1970, there were no safety modifications of any kind done to the circuit, former Formula One racing driver and team owner Jackie Oliver was quoted as saying if you went off the road, you didnt know what you were going to hit. The old Spa circuit was unique in that speeds were high with hardly any let-up at all for 3–4 minutes. This made it a difficult mental challenge, because most of the corners were taken at 180+ mph and were not quite flat- every corner was as important as the one before it. If a driver lifted just that bit more, whole seconds. Even the slightest error of any kind was punished very harshly in more ways than one, but this reality worked inversely- huge advantages could be gained if a driver came out of a corner slightly faster. When Armco crash barriers were added to the track in 1970, deaths became less frequent there but the track was still notorious for other factors.
The Ardennes Forest had very unpredictable weather and there were parts where it was raining and the track was wet, and other parts where the sun was shining, in 1969, the Belgian Grand Prix was boycotted by F1 because of the extreme danger of Spa. There had been 10 racing fatalities in total at the track in the 1960s, the drivers demanded changes made to Spa which were not possible on short notice, so the Belgian Grand Prix was dropped that year. Armco was added to the track and sections of it were improved, for the 1971 race, the track owners and authorities had not brought the track up to date with mandatory safety measures, and the race was cancelled. Formula One would not return to Spa until 1983 on the modern track, the Masta Kink was one of the most fearsome sections on any race track in the world, requiring skill and bravery in equal measure to get it right
Auto racing is a sport involving the racing of automobiles for competition. Almost as soon as automobiles had been invented, races of various sorts were organised, by the 1930s specialist racing cars had developed. There are now numerous different categories, each with different rules and it was won by the carriage of Isaac Watt Boulton. Internal combustion auto racing events began soon after the construction of the first successful gasoline-fueled automobiles, the first organized contest was on April 28,1887, by the chief editor of Paris publication Le Vélocipède, Monsieur Fossier. It ran 2 kilometres from Neuilly Bridge to the Bois de Boulogne, on July 22,1894, the Parisian magazine Le Petit Journal organized what is considered to be the worlds first motoring competition, from Paris to Rouen. One hundred and two competitors paid a 10-franc entrance fee, the first American automobile race is generally held to be the Thanksgiving Day Chicago Times-Herald race of November 28,1895. Press coverage of the event first aroused significant American interest in the automobile, brooklands, in Surrey, was the first purpose-built motor racing venue, opening in June 1907.
It featured a 4.43 km concrete track with high-speed banked corners, One of the oldest existing purpose-built automobile racing circuits in the United States, still in use, is the 2. 5-mile -long Indianapolis Motor Speedway in Speedway, Indiana. It is the largest capacity venue of any variety worldwide, with a top capacity of some 257. NASCAR was founded by Bill France, Sr. on February 21,1948, the first NASCAR Strictly Stock race ever was held on June 19,1949, at Daytona Beach, Florida. From 1962, sports cars temporarily took a seat to GT cars. From 1972 through 2003, NASCARs premier series was called the Winston Cup Series, the changes that resulted from RJRs involvement, as well as the reduction of the schedule from 48 to 31 races a year, established 1972 as the beginning of NASCARs modern era. The IMSA GT Series evolved into the American Le Mans Series, the European races eventually became the closely related Le Mans Series, both of which mix prototypes and GTs. The best-known variety of racing, Formula One, which hosts the famous Monaco Grand Prix.
In single-seater, the wheels are not covered, and the cars often have aerofoil wings front, in Europe and Asia, open-wheeled racing is commonly referred to as Formula, with appropriate hierarchical suffixes. In North America, the Formula terminology is not followed, the sport is usually arranged to follow an international format, a regional format, and/or a domestic, or country-specific, format. In North America, the used in the National Championship have traditionally been similar though less sophisticated than F1 cars. The series most famous race is the Indianapolis 500, the other major international single-seater racing series is GP2
FIA Formula 3 European Championship
The FIA Formula 3 European Championship is a European Formula Three racing competition, organised by the FIA. After one season of the FIA Formula 3 International Trophy, the FIA revived the FIA Formula 3 European Championship, the ten-event season included seven Formula 3 Euro Series rounds, two British Formula Three rounds and DTM-supporting round at Brands Hatch. From 2013, the starting running its own rounds, based upon the defunct Formula 3 Euro Series
FIA Formula 2 Championship
The FIA Formula 2 Championship is a form of open wheel motor racing introduced in 2017 following the rebranding of the long-term Formula One feeder series, GP2 Series. On Friday, drivers have a 45-minute free practice session and a 30-minute qualifying session, the qualifying session decides the grid order for Saturdays race which has a length of 180 kilometres. During Saturdays race, each driver has to make a pit stop in which at least two tyres have to be changed, on Sunday there is a sprint race of 120 kilometres. The grid is decided by the Saturday result with top 8 being reversed, so the driver who finished 8th on Saturday will start from pole position, the maximum number of points a driver can score at any round will be 48. Overall weight is 688 kg including driver, the F2 Championship currently uses 2011 specification GP2 car has been designed by Dallara Automobili. Currently, Dallara GP2/11 are the current chassis since debut in 2011, the price of Dallara GP2/11 FIA Formula 2 Championship cars are approximately up to €1.5 million-€2 million per car.
FIA Formula 2 Championship officials have confirmed that the series continue to use the current fleet of Dallara GP2/11 chassis through end of 2017 season. In 2018 the championship will adopt the Dallara F2/18 chassis as a cost control method, the new specification improved safety, lower noses and wider-lower rear wing. The 4. 0-litre normally-aspirated electronic indirect fuel-injected Mecachrome V8 engine features internal and software designed to improve performance. The engine produces 612 hp and 500 Nm of torque @8000 rpm, FIA Formula 2 Championship engines are rev-limited to 10000 rpm and need a rebuild after 4000 to 4500 km. The valve train is an overhead camshaft configuration with four valves per cylinder. The Mecachrome V8 engine weight is 326 lb, the crankshaft is made of alloy steel, with five main bearing caps. The pistons are forged aluminum alloy, while the rods are machined alloy steel. The electronic engine management system is supplied by Magneti Marelli, firing a high-power inductive ignition system, the engine lubrication is a dry sump type, cooled by a single water pump.
The price of Mecachrome FIA Formula 2 Championship engines are approximately €150,000 per engine unit, Mecachrome came to the FIA Formula 2 Championship in 2005, and by the same year Mecachrome was clearly the dominant engine manufacturer as of 2017. During that time, since the FIA Formula 2 Championship had only one manufacturer, Mecachrome still focusing on minimizing engine failure. As such, the engines were moderately de-tuned, the engines proved themselves to be quite durable—there had been no engine failures at all F2 tracks from 2005 to present, which lowered the number of crashes. Most of the engines, including those used for the Monaco race, are used for races and were intended to last 1,100 miles between rebuilds
Kart racing or karting is a variant of open-wheel motorsport with small, four-wheeled vehicles called karts, go-karts, or gearbox/shifter karts depending on the design. They are usually raced on scaled-down circuits, Karting is commonly perceived as the stepping stone to the higher ranks of motorsports. Karts vary widely in speed and some can reach speeds exceeding 260 kilometres per hour, American Art Ingels is generally accepted to be the father of karting. A veteran hot rodder and a car builder at Kurtis Kraft. Instantly popular, Karting rapidly spread to countries, and currently has a large following in Europe. The first kart manufacturer was an American company, Go Kart Manufacturing Co, in 1959, McCulloch was the first company to produce engines for karts. Its first engine, the McCulloch MC-10, was an adapted chainsaw two-stroke engine, later, in the 1960s, motorcycle engines were adapted for kart use, before dedicated manufacturers, especially in Italy, started to build engines for the sport.
The chassis are made of steel tubing, there is no suspension, therefore chassis have to be flexible enough to work as a suspension and stiff enough not to break or give way on a turn. Kart chassis are classified in the USA as Open, all Commission Internationale de Karting - Fédération Internationale de lAutomobile or CIK-FIA approved chassis are Straight and Open. Open karts have no roll cage, Caged karts have a roll cage surrounding the driver, they are mostly used on dirt tracks. In Straight chassis the driver sits in the center, Straight chassis are used for sprint racing. In Offset chassis the driver sits on the left side, Offset chassis are used for left-turn-only speedway racing. The stiffness of the chassis enables different handling characteristics for different circumstances, for dry conditions a stiffer chassis is preferable, while in wet or other poor traction conditions, a more flexible chassis may work better. The best chassis allow for stiffening bars at the rear, braking is achieved by a disc brake mounted on the rear axle.
Front disc brakes are used in most shifter kart classes and are popular in other classes, however. Shifter karts have dual master cylinders, one for the front, professionally raced karts typically weigh 165 to 175 lb, complete without driver. Avanti, Tony Kart, Birel, CRG, Intrepid, Zanardi or FA Kart, Coyote, Shadow, MGM, Titan, PRC and Margay are American companies producing kart chassis. Amusement park go-karts can be powered by 4-stroke engines or electric motors and they are adequate for racing and fun kart applications
Red Bull Ring
The Red Bull Ring is a motorsport circuit in Spielberg, Austria. The race circuit was founded as Österreichring and hosted the Formula One Austrian Grand Prix for 18 consecutive years and it was shortened and renamed the A1-Ring, and it hosted the Austrian Grand Prix again from 1997 to 2003. When Formula One outgrew the circuit, a plan was drawn up to extend the layout, renamed the Red Bull Ring the track was reopened on 15 May 2011 and subsequently hosted a round of the 2011 DTM season and a round of the 2011 F2 championship. Formula One returned to the circuit in the 2014 season, originally built in 1969 to replace the bland and bumpy Zeltweg Airfield circuit, the Österreichring track was situated in the Styrian mountains and it was a spectacular and unique circuit. Like most fast circuits it was a circuit on engines but more difficult on tires. At the time it was only in F1 average speed to Keke Rosbergs 160.9 mph pole lap of the Silverstone Circuit set during the 1985 British Grand Prix.
Interestingly, both times were set using a turbocharged Williams-Honda, american driver Mark Donohue died after crashing at the Vost-Hugel Kurve in 1975. Triple World Champion and long time hero of the home crowd Niki Lauda is the only Austrian driver to win his home Grand Prix and he won the 1984 Austrian Grand Prix at the Österreichring driving a McLaren-TAG Porsche. Lauda went on to win his third and final championship in 1984, beating his team mate Alain Prost by the smallest margin in F1 history and he announced his permanent retirement from driving at the circuit before the 1985 race. The Österreichrings safety concerns had reached a head in the mid 1990s and its length was shortened from 5.942 km to 4.326 km, and the fast sweeping corners were replaced by three tight right-handers, in order to create overtaking opportunities. Its three long straights, as well as a twisty infield section, asked for a setup compromise, as much of the construction work was paid for by the mobile phone provider A1, the track was renamed the A1-Ring.
It proceeded to host seven Formula One Austrian Grands Prix between 1997 and 2003, as well as several DTM races and Austrian motorcycle races in 1996 and 1997, the grandstands and pit buildings were demolished in 2004, rendering the track unusable for any motorsport category. In late 2004 and early 2005, there were discussions concerning whether the owner of the circuit, Red Bull, would find another use for the site. There was a circuit extension proposal using part of the old Österreichring, in January 2005, return of motor sports seemed more unlikely than ever, as Dietrich Mateschitz publicly announced that he had no intention of wasting money on a deficient circuit. Throughout 2005 however, there was speculation of the newly founded Red Bull Racing renovating the track to use it as a test venue, in 2006, Austrian racing driver Alexander Wurz claimed he would buy the circuit and have it renovated, but the idea never came to fruition. By 2007, talks involving Red Bull, KTM, Volkswagen and Magna International for a neuer Österreichring failed, the championship has visited the circuit every year since then.
In November 2010, F2 announced that Round 6 of the 2011 F2 championship would take place at the Red Bull Ring. The circuit was reopened at an event over the weekend of 15–16 May 2011
Carlin, formerly Carlin Motorsport, is a motor racing team based in the United Kingdom. It currently competes in six championships, GP2 Series, GP3 Series, FIA European Formula 3 Championship, MSA Formula, Euroformula Open Championship, in 2009, Carlin Motorsport was reborn as Carlin, part of the Capsicum Motorsport Group headed up by Grahame Chilton and Rupert Swallow. Carlin has provided a well-trodden staircase to F1, other notable Carlin drivers are Jamie Green, Oliver Jarvis, Oliver Turvey, Álvaro Parente, Charlie Kimball and Robert Wickens. In the 2005-06 A1 Grand Prix season, Carlin were contracted to run the Lebanon, the team stuck with just the Lebanon team for the 2006–07 and 2007–08 seasons before switching to the Korea team in 2008–09 before the series folded next season. The team has been competing in the British Formula 3 Championship since 1997, the team achieved their first victory with Narain Karthikeyan in 1999 and since 2001, has won 9 championships to become the most successful team in British F3 history.
The champions are Takuma Sato, Alan van der Merwe, Álvaro Parente, Jaime Alguersuari, Daniel Ricciardo, Jean-Éric Vergne, Felipe Nasr Jack Harvey, Carlin joined Formula 3 Euro Series in 2008. After poor results in the first three seasons, in 2012 William Buller finished fifth and Carlos Sainz Jr. finished ninth, Carlin entered the 2012 FIA European Formula 3 Championship, where Sainz finished fifth and Buller sixth. In the 2013 FIA European Formula 3 Championship, Harry Tincknell was fifth, in 2014, Antonio Giovinazzi finished sixth, King seventh and Jake Dennis ninth. In 2015, Giovinazzi was runner-up and George Russell finished sixth, Carlin has entered the Formula 3 Macau Grand Prix since 1998. The team has been contesting in the series since 2003, and have won a race in the every year since then. The team has won two titles and one team championship. The champions are Mikhail Aleshin and Robert Wickens in 2010 and 2011 respectively, Carlin took a year sabbatical in 2014 due to driver and budgetary issues.
They returned in 2015, replacing Czech outfit ISR Racing, before withdrawing once again after the series lost its Renault backing, Carlin was replaced in the 2016 Formula V83.5 Championship by RP Motorsport. The team joined the GP3 Series in 2010 for its inaugural season, in its second season in 2011, the team finished 9th overall. In the 2012 the team finished third in the standings and third in the drivers championship after a strong season from António Félix da Costa and teammates Alex Brundle. Carlin were fourth in the standings at the end of the 2013 season whilst Ardens Daniil Kvyat claimed the Drivers Championship. The following year, they claimed the Constructors title in addition to Red Bull Junior driver Alex Lynns title win, for the 2015 season, Jann Mardenborough, Mitch Gilbert and Ferrari Academy driver Antonio Fuoco will race for Carlin. At the end of the 2015 season, Carlin withdrew from the sport, the team joined the GP2 Series in 2011 for the first time