This article is about the Italian legislator. For the similar name used as an alias by terrorist Ramzi Yousef for Philippine Airlines Flight 434, see Ramzi Yousef. Arnaldo Forlani, is an Italian politician who served as the 43rd Prime Minister of Italy from 18 October 1980 to 28 June 1981, he held the office of Deputy Prime Minister, Minister of Foreign Affairs and Minister of Defence. Forlani, a member of the right-wing of the Christian Democracy, was one of the most prominent Italian politicians from the 1970s to early 1990s. At age 93, Forlani is the oldest living former Italian Prime Minister. Arnaldo Forlani was born in Pesaro, from a middle-class family. In 1948, after the degree in law at the University of Urbino, Forlani began his political career, holding the position of provincial secretary of Christian Democracy for Pesaro. In 1954 he became a member of the central committee of Christian Democracy. In the 1958 general election Forlani was elected in the Chamber of Deputies for the first time, representing the constituency of Ancona.
In 1959 he became one of the most prominent member of the DC faction led by Amintore Fanfani. In 1962 he was appointed vice-secretary of the party. In December 1968 he was appointed Minister of Public Shares in the government led by Mariano Rumor. In November 1969 Forlani was elected Secretary of the Christian Democracy with 157 votes in favor and 13 blank votes. During his secretariat, Forlani tried to avoid the disintegration of the center-left political alliance, undermined by the inability to react to the economic and social difficulties of the period, he tried to strength the Organic Centre-left coalition with the Socialist Party, the Democratic Socialist Party and the Republican Party. In November 1969, the Parliament approved the divorce law with a different majority from the one which supported the government. Prime Minister Rumor resigned in February 1970, but tried to rebuild a centre-left government in March 1970. Despite the political success for the first regional elections of June 1970, the third Rumor government did not survive the political and social tensions that shocked the country after the general strike of July 1970.
After Rumor's resignation, Emilio Colombo was appointed new Prime Minister at the head of a centre-left coalition. In the 1971 presidential election, Forlani proposed Amintore Fanfani as DC candidate as President of the Republic, but his allies opposed this decision and Fanfani was not elected. Forlani's second candidate was Aldo Moro, but this nomination was rejected by the Parliament. At the end, the DC proposed Giovanni Leone, former Prime Minister and long-time President of the Chamber of Deputies, elected with the support of the neo-fascist Social Movement. After few months the republicans withdrew their support to Colombo's government and the new appointed Prime Minister Giulio Andreotti did not reach to gain the confidence vote from the Parliament. In the general election, which took place on 7 May 1972, the DC, led by Forlani, remained stable with around 38% of the votes, as it happened to the Communist Party which obtained the same 27% of 1968; the Socialist Party continued in its decline, reducing to less than 10%.
The most important growth was that of the post-fascist Italian Social Movement, which nearly doubled its votes from 4.5 to c. 9%, after that its leader Giorgio Almirante launched the formula of the "National Right", proposing his party as the sole group of the Italian right side. Incumbent Prime Minister Giulio Andreotti, supported by secretary Forlani, tried to continue his centrist strategy, but his attempt only lasted a year. Former Premier Mariano Rumor so returned at the head of the government with his traditional centre-left alliance between Christian Democrats, Democratic Socialist and Republicans. At the same time, during the 1973 National Congress, who now opposed an alliance with the PSI, was not confirmed Secretary of the party, his former mentor, Amintore Fanfani, became DC secretary once again. In March 1973 Prime Minister Rumor was abandoned by the Republicans, he continued with a new squad, but he couldn't withstand the shocks deriving by the divorce referendum of 1974, when Christian Democrats, along with the neo-fascist MSI, intensely campaigned for a yes vote to abolish the law and make divorce illegal again, but their proposal was rejected by 60% of votes.
After the referendum, former Premier Aldo Moro persuaded the Socialists to accept a minority government composed only by the Christian Democrats and the Republicans. Forlani was appointed Minister of Defence by Moro. However, new problem arose from the regional elections of 1975, which marked a great success of the left, which called for new national elections. In March 1976 Forlani run to the secretariat of the party, opposing Benigno Zaccagnini, incumbent secretary and member of the DC left-wing, who supported Moro's policy of accommodation with the Communists of Enrico Berlinguer, known as Historic Compromise. Forlani was supported by Andreotti, Flaminio Piccoli and Antonio Bisaglia, but he lost the congressional election and Zaccagnini remained Christian Democratic secretary; when the Republicans left Moro's cabinet in 1976, no p
Giovanni Giuseppe Goria was an Italian politician. He served as the 46th Prime Minister of Italy from 1987 until 1988. Goria was born in Asti. Goria entered local politics, he was elected to the chamber of deputies in 1976. He was undersecretary of the budget from 1981 until 1983 and became treasury minister, he became his adeptness at television appearances. Following the elections of 1987, in which his party did well, Goria became Prime Minister, as a protégé of party chairman Ciriaco de Mita, he was forced to resign in 1988. Goria was elected to the European Parliament in 1989, he resigned in 1991 to become Italian minister of agriculture. He remained in that position until 1992, he resigned in 1993 during a corruption scandal. Goria himself was charged with corruption, his trial began in early 1994. He was acquitted of one charge, but his trial was still in progress when he died of lung cancer in his native Asti
Italy the Italian Republic, is a country in Southern Europe. Located in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria and the enclaved microstates San Marino and Vatican City. Italy covers an area of 301,340 km2 and has a temperate seasonal and Mediterranean climate. With around 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth-most populous EU member state and the most populous country in Southern Europe. Due to its central geographic location in Southern Europe and the Mediterranean, Italy has been home to a myriad of peoples and cultures. In addition to the various ancient peoples dispersed throughout modern-day Italy, the most famous of which being the Indo-European Italics who gave the peninsula its name, beginning from the classical era and Carthaginians founded colonies in insular Italy and Genoa, Greeks established settlements in the so-called Magna Graecia, while Etruscans and Celts inhabited central and northern Italy respectively; the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom in the 8th century BC, which became a republic with a government of the Senate and the People.
The Roman Republic conquered and assimilated its neighbours on the peninsula, in some cases through the establishment of federations, the Republic expanded and conquered parts of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East. By the first century BC, the Roman Empire emerged as the dominant power in the Mediterranean Basin and became the leading cultural and religious centre of Western civilisation, inaugurating the Pax Romana, a period of more than 200 years during which Italy's technology, economy and literature flourished. Italy remained the metropole of the Roman Empire; the legacy of the Roman Empire endured its fall and can be observed in the global distribution of culture, governments and the Latin script. During the Early Middle Ages, Italy endured sociopolitical collapse and barbarian invasions, but by the 11th century, numerous rival city-states and maritime republics in the northern and central regions of Italy, rose to great prosperity through shipping and banking, laying the groundwork for modern capitalism.
These independent statelets served as Europe's main trading hubs with Asia and the Near East enjoying a greater degree of democracy than the larger feudal monarchies that were consolidating throughout Europe. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, science and art. Italian culture flourished, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael and Machiavelli. During the Middle Ages, Italian explorers such as Marco Polo, Christopher Columbus, Amerigo Vespucci, John Cabot and Giovanni da Verrazzano discovered new routes to the Far East and the New World, helping to usher in the European Age of Discovery. Italy's commercial and political power waned with the opening of trade routes that bypassed the Mediterranean. Centuries of infighting between the Italian city-states, such as the Italian Wars of the 15th and 16th centuries, left the region fragmented, it was subsequently conquered and further divided by European powers such as France and Austria.
By the mid-19th century, rising Italian nationalism and calls for independence from foreign control led to a period of revolutionary political upheaval. After centuries of foreign domination and political division, Italy was entirely unified in 1871, establishing the Kingdom of Italy as a great power. From the late 19th century to the early 20th century, Italy industrialised, namely in the north, acquired a colonial empire, while the south remained impoverished and excluded from industrialisation, fuelling a large and influential diaspora. Despite being one of the main victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil, leading to the rise of a fascist dictatorship in 1922. Participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in military defeat, economic destruction and the Italian Civil War. Following the liberation of Italy and the rise of the resistance, the country abolished the monarchy, reinstated democracy, enjoyed a prolonged economic boom and, despite periods of sociopolitical turmoil became a developed country.
Today, Italy is considered to be one of the world's most culturally and economically advanced countries, with the sixth-largest worldwide national wealth. Its advanced economy ranks eighth-largest in the world and third in the Eurozone by nominal GDP. Italy owns the third-largest central bank gold reserve, it has a high level of human development, it stands among the top countries for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs. Italy is a founding and leading member of the European Union and a member of numerous international institutions, including the UN, NATO, the OECD, the OSCE, the WTO, the G7, the G20, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Council of Europe, Uniting for Consensus, the Schengen Area and many more; as a reflection
Alexander Stille is an American author and journalist. He is the son of Ugo Stille, a well-known Italian journalist and a former editor of Italy's Milan-based Corriere della Sera newspaper. Alexander Stille graduated from Yale and the Columbia University Graduate School of Journalism, he has written many articles in particular its politics and the Mafia. His first book and Betrayal: Five Italian Jewish Families Under Fascism, was chosen by the Times Literary Supplement as one of the best books of 1992 and received the Los Angeles Times book award. In 1995 he wrote Excellent Cadavers: The Mafia and the Death of the First Italian Republic, an investigation into the Sicilian Mafia in the latter half of the twentieth century and in particular the events leading up to the major crackdown against the criminal organization in the 1990s following the bloodthirsty reign of Salvatore Riina; the book was dedicated to the memory of anti-mafia judges Giovanni Paolo Borsellino. The events outlined in the book were made into a 1999 movie of the same name.
In 2003 he wrote The Future of the Past, about the efforts to preserve historical monuments and documentary evidence of ancient times. In 2006 he wrote The Sack of Rome: How a Beautiful European Country with a Fabled History and a Storied Culture Was Taken Over by a Man Named Silvio Berlusconi, about Silvio Berlusconi, his book The Force of Things: A Marriage in War and Peace was published in February 2013. Stille writes for The Boston Globe, The New York Review of Books, The New York Times and The New Yorker. For a short time, Stille lived in Milan, but resides in New York City and is the San Paolo Professor of International Journalism at Columbia, he was married to poet Lexi Rudnitsky until her death in January 2005. They had one son, born in October 2004. Stille was named a Guggenheim Fellow in 2008. Contributions to The New Yorker Horrors And Heroes by John Elson, book review of Benevolence and Betrayal Transcript of an interview with Stille from PBS Stille archive from The New York Review of Books
Vincenzo Scotti is an Italian politician and member of Christian Democracy. He was Minister of the Minister of Foreign Affairs. Born in Naples, he graduated in economics at the Università di Roma La Sapienza in 1955. In his early career he was responsible for the Centre for Research of the Workers union CISL. In 1968 Scotti was elected as Deputy for the Christian Democracy in the Italian Parliament, he was Minister for Cultural Assets and Activities, member of the Finance Commission to the House of Deputies, Undersecretary of State to the Ministry of Budget, Labour Minister, Minister for Coordination of European Community Policies, Minister of Art and Cultural Heritage and the Environment, Minister of Civil Protections, President of the Parliamentary Group for the Christian Democrats to the House of Deputies. He was elected Mayor of Naples in 1984. During his term as Minister of Interior laws which permitted police authorities and magistrates to act against the Mafia organisation Camorra were promulgated.
In collaboration with judge Giovanni Falcone and US attorney Rudy Giuliani, he founded the DIA, a specialised anti-mafia police force. As Minister of Foreign Affairs, he participated in the G7 Summit in Munich in 1992, represented the Prime Minister in the meetings of the heads of governments of the CSCE. During the arms embargo of Yugoslavia and as president of the UEO he was responsible for organisation of patrols of international waters by Italian armed forces, he was cofounder of Fondazione Valenzi, an institution culturally and active created in memory of the ancient mayor of Naples Maurizio Valenzi. From 1969 to 1995 he taught at the LUISS, a private university in Rome, Italy as professor of Development Economics, he is President of Link Campus University, the Italian branch of the University of Malta. Scotti was one of the most important DC figures in Campania. In the 1980s, together with many other members of the party, he was involved in a financial scandal which followed reconstruction after the 1980 Irpinia earthquake, but avoided judgement due to the statute of limitations.
Together with that of Antonio Gava, his name was mentioned in the kidnapping and liberation of DC member Ciro Cirillo by the Italian Red Brigades terrorist group in 1981. Scotti met Camorra boss Raffaele Cutolo in the prison at Ascoli Piceno to make arrangements for the ransom to be paid with Camorra money. Scotti was accused of corruption in scandals regarding garbage management and construction projects for the 1990 Football World Cup, but was acquitted of all charges. Italy's Court of Accounts sentenced him to pay €2,995,450 for having the Italian state buy a building in Rome at a swollen price, in order to create cash for SISDE, Italy's secret service. Behan, See Naples and Die: The Camorra and Organized Crime, London/New York: I. B. Tauris Publishers, ISBN 1-86064-783-9 Stille, Alexander. Excellent Cadavers; the Mafia and the Death of the First Italian Republic, New York: Vintage ISBN 0-09-959491-9
The Red Brigades was a left-wing terrorist organization, based in Italy, responsible for numerous violent incidents, including assassinations and robberies during the so-called "Years of Lead". Formed in 1970, the organization sought to create a "revolutionary" state through armed struggle, to remove Italy from the North Atlantic Treaty Organization; the Red Brigades attained notoriety in the 1970s and early 1980s with their violent attempts to destabilise Italy by acts of sabotage, bank robberies and murders. Models for the Red Brigades included the Latin American urban guerrilla movements and the World War II Italian partisan movement, itself a leftist, anti-fascist revolutionary movement; the group was influenced by volumes on the Tupamaros published by Feltrinelli, "a sort of do-it-yourself manual for the early Red Brigades", was influenced by and saw itself as a continuation of the Italian partisan resistance movement of the 1940s, interpreted as an example of a youthful anti-fascist minority using violent means for just ends.
The group's most infamous act took place in 1978, when the second groups of the BR, headed by Mario Moretti, kidnapped the former Christian Democrat Prime Minister Aldo Moro, negotiating a compromesso storico, or "historic compromise", with the Communists. The kidnappers killed five members of Moro's police escort, murdered Moro himself 54 days later. In the 1980s, the group was broken up by Italian investigators, with the aid of several leaders under arrest who turned pentito and assisted the authorities in capturing the other members; the Red Brigades were founded in August 1970 by Renato Curcio and Margherita Cagol, who had met as students at the University of Trento and married, Alberto Franceschini. Franceschini's grandmother had been a leader of the peasant leagues, his father a worker and anti-fascist, deported to Auschwitz. While the Trento group around Curcio had its main roots in the Sociology Department of the Catholic University, the Reggio Emilia group included former members of the F G C I expelled from the parent party for extremist views.
In the beginning the Red Brigades were active in Reggio Emilia, in large factories in Milan, in Turin. Members broke into factory offices and trade union headquarters. In 1972, they carried out their first kidnapping: a factory foreman for Sit Siemens was held for around 20 minutes whilst pictures were taken of him wearing a placard declaring him to be a fascist; the foreman was released unharmed. During this time the Red Brigades' activities were denounced by far left political groups such as Lotta Continua and Potere Operaio. Although there has been an attempt to demonstrate a link between the Red Brigades and foreign communist State Security Services, nothing has been proved and such an idea has always been rejected by all the militants that after years of prison decided to speak their truth in books, interviews etc. In June 1974, the Red Brigades took action as two members of the Italian neo-fascist party, Movimento Sociale Italiano, were killed in Padua during a raid on the MSI headquarters.
Most of the Italian left-wing political parties of the time, including the Italian Communist Party, denied the Red Brigades' involvement in the murder and the Red Brigades' existence itself. However, according to the BR leaders, the BR received support from a large number of people and this would be the reason for such a long existence of a military structure that counted a few hundred "effective members". In September 1974, Red Brigades founders Renato Curcio and Alberto Franceschini were arrested by General Carlo Alberto Dalla Chiesa, sentenced to 18 years in prison; the arrest was made possible by "Frate Mitra", alias Silvano Girotto, a former monk who had infiltrated the BR for the Italian security services. Curcio was freed from prison by an armed commando of the Red Brigades, led by his wife Mara Cagol, but was rearrested some time later; the Red Brigades operated some high-profile political kidnappings and kidnapped industrialists in order to obtain ransom money which were their main source of income.
After 1974, the Red Brigades expanded into Rome and Venice, their numbers grew drastically and began to diversify in its criminal ventures. Bank robberies, kidnappings and arms trafficking were the major crimes, its 1975 manifesto stated that its goal was a "concentrated strike against the heart of the State, because the state is an imperialist collection of multinational corporations". The "SIM" became a primary target. In 1975, the Italian police discovered the farmhouse where industrialist Vallarino Gancia was kept prisoner by the Brigades. In the ensuing gunfight, two police officers were killed, as was Curcio's wife; that following April, the Red Brigades announced that they had set up a Communist Combatant Party to "guide the working class." Terrorist activities against Carabinieri and magistrates, increased in order to terrorize juries and cause mistrials in cases against imprisoned leaders of the organization. Since arrested members of the Brigades refused to be defended by lawyers, lawyers designated by the Courts to defend them were targeted and killed.
Amongst jurists, Professor Fausto Cuocolo was attacked in 1979, during an exam at University of Genoa: it was the fi
The Italian parliamentary Antimafia Commission is a bicameral commission of the Italian Parliament, composed of members from the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate. The first commission, formed in 1963, was established as a body of inquiry tasked with investigating the "phenomenon of the Mafia". Subsequent commissions expanded their scope to investigate all "organized crime of the Mafia type", which included other major criminal organizations in Italy such as the Camorra, the'Ndrangheta and the Sacra Corona Unita; the Commission's goal is to study the phenomenon of organized crime in all its forms and to measure the adequacy of existing anti-crime measures and administrative, according to their results. The Commission has judicial powers in that it may instruct the judicial police to carry out investigations, it can ask for copies of court proceedings, is entitled to request any form of collaboration that it deems necessary; those who provide testimony to the Commission are obliged by law to tell the truth.
The Commission can submit reports to the Parliament as as desired, but does so at least on an annual basis. The first proposal to constitute a commission of inquiry into the Mafia was the result of post-war struggles for land reform and the violent reaction against peasant organizations and its leaders, culminating in the killing of 11 people and the wounding of over thirty at a May 1 labour day parade in Portella della Ginestra; the attack was attributed to separatist leader Salvatore Giuliano. The Mafia was suspected of involvement in the Portella della Ginestra massacre and many other previous and subsequent attacks. On September 14, 1948, a Parliamentary commission of inquiry into the public security situation on Sicily was proposed by deputy Giuseppe Berti of the Italian Communist Party in a debate on the violence in Sicily. However, the proposal was turned down by the Minister of the Interior, Mario Scelba, amidst indignant voices about prejudice against Sicily and Sicilians. Ten years in 1958, senator Ferruccio Parri again proposed to form a Commission.
The proposal was not taken up by the parliamentary majority and in 1961 the Christian Democrat party in the Senate and Sicilian politicians like Bernardo Mattarella and Giovanni Gioia dismissed the proposal as "useless". However, in March 1962, amidst gang wars in Palermo, the Sicilian Assembly asked for an official inquiry. On April 11, 1962, the Senate in Rome approved the bill, but it took eight months before the Chamber of Deputies put the law to a vote, it was approved it on December 20, 1962. The first Parliamentary Commission of Inquiry on the Mafia phenomenon in Sicily was formed in February 1963, in the midst of the First Mafia War, under the presidency of Paolo Rossi of the Italian Democratic Socialist Party, it took a long time to form because newspapers and parliamentarians alike were opposed to the inclusion of Sicilians. It lasted less than three months before the general elections of April 28, 1963; the second president in the new legislature was the Christian Democrat Donato Pafundi, was formed on June 5, 1963.
That month, on June 30, 1963, a car bomb exploded in Ciaculli, an outlying suburb of Palermo, killing seven police and military officers sent to defuse it after an anonymous phone call. The bomb was intended for Salvatore "Ciaschiteddu" Greco, head of the Sicilian Mafia Commission and the boss of the Ciaculli Mafia family; the Ciaculli massacre changed the Mafia war into a war against the Mafia. It prompted the first concerted anti-mafia efforts by the state in post-war Italy. On July 6, 1963 the Antimafia Commission met for the first time, it would take 13 years and two more legislatures before a final report was submitted in 1976. The PCI claimed the Christian Democrat party put members on the Commission to stop the inquiry moving too far in the political field, such as the Commission’s vice-president Antonio Gullotti and Giovanni Matta, a former member of the Palermo city council. Matta’s arrival in 1972 created a scandal, he had been mentioned in a report and was summoned to testify in the previous legislature about the role of the Mafia in real estate speculation.
The PCI called for his resignation, in the end the whole Commission under the presidency of Luigi Carraro had to resign and be recomposed without Matta again. In September 1963 the Commission presented a draft law, passed by Parliament in May 1965 as Law 575 entitled ‘Dispositions against the Mafia’, the first time the word Mafia had been used in legislation; the law extended 1956 legislation concerning individuals considered to be ‘socially dangerous’ to those ‘suspected of belonging to associations of the Mafia type’. The measures included special surveillance; the law gave powers to a public prosecutor or questor to identify and trace the assets of anyone suspected of involvement in a Mafia-type association. However, the efficacy of the new law was limited. Firstly, because there was no legal definition of a Mafia association. Secondly, because the obligation for mafiosi to reside in areas outside Sicily opened up new opportunities to develop illicit activities in the cities of northern and central Italy.
Amending this law, during the next four decades, was the main aim in the legislative fight against mafia