Antonio López de Santa Anna

Antonio de Padua María Severino López de Santa Anna y Pérez de Lebrón known as Santa Anna or López de Santa Anna, was a Mexican politician and general who fought to defend royalist New Spain and fought for Mexican independence. He influenced early Mexican politics and government, he was an adept soldier and cunning politician who dominated Mexican history in the first half of the nineteenth century to such an extent that historians refer to it as the "Age of Santa Anna." He was called "the Man of Destiny" who "loomed over his time like a melodramatic colossus, the uncrowned monarch." Santa Anna first opposed the movement for Mexican independence from Spain, but fought in support of it. He was the earliest of the caudillos of modern Mexico, he "represents the stereotypical caudillo in Mexican history". Lucas Alamán wrote that "the history of Mexico since 1822 might be called the history of Santa Anna's revolutions, his name plays a major role in all the political events of the country and its destiny has become intertwined with his."Santa Anna was an enigmatic and controversial figure who had great power in Mexico during a turbulent 40-year career.

He led as general at crucial points and served 12 non-consecutive presidential terms over a period of 22 years. In the periods of time when he was not serving as president, he continued to pursue his military career, he was a wealthy landowner. He was perceived as a hero by his troops, as he sought glory for himself and his army and independence for Mexico, he rebuilt his reputation after major losses. Yet at the same time and many Mexicans rank him as one of "those who failed the nation." His centralist rhetoric and military failures resulted in Mexico losing half its territory, beginning with the Texas Revolution of 1836 and culminating with the Mexican Cession of 1848 following its loss to the United States in the Mexican–American War. His political positions changed in his lifetime, he was overthrown for the final time by the liberal Revolution of Ayutla in 1854 and lived most of his years in exile. Antonio de Padua María Severino López de Santa Anna y Pérez de Lebrón was born in Xalapa, Nueva España, on 21 February 1794.

He was from a respected Spanish colonial family. His father was a royal army officer perpetually in debt, served for a time as a sub-delegate for the Gulf Coast Spanish province of Veracruz. However, his parents were wealthy enough to send him to school. In June 1810, the 16-year-old Santa Anna joined the Fijo de Veracruz infantry regiment as a cadet against the wishes of his parents, who wanted him to pursue a career in commerce. In September 1810, secular cleric Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla rebelled against Spanish rule, sparking a spontaneous mass movement in Mexico's rich agricultural area, the Bajío; the Mexican War of Independence was to last until 1821, Santa Anna, like most creole military men, fought for the crown against the mixed-raced insurgents for independence. Santa Anna's commanding officer was José Joaquín de Arredondo, who taught him much about dealing with Mexican rebels. In 1811, Santa Anna was wounded in the left hand by an arrow during the campaign under Col. Arredondo in the town of Amoladeras, in the state of San Luis Potosí.

In 1813, Santa Anna served in Texas against the Gutiérrez–Magee Expedition, at the Battle of Medina, in which he was cited for bravery. He was promoted quickly. In the aftermath of the rebellion, the young officer witnessed Arredondo's fierce counter-insurgency policy of mass executions. During the next few years, in which the war for independence reached a stalemate, Santa Anna erected villages for displaced citizens near the city of Veracruz, he pursued gambling, a habit that would follow him all through his life. In 1816, Santa Anna was promoted to captain, he conducted occasional campaigns to suppress Native Americans or to restore order after a tumult had begun. When royalist officer Agustín de Iturbide changed sides in 1821 and allied with insurgent Vicente Guerrero, fighting for independence under the Plan of Iguala, Santa Anna joined the fight for independence; the changed circumstances in Spain, where liberals had ousted Ferdinand VII and began implementing the Spanish liberal constitution of 1812, made many elites in Mexico reconsider their options.

The clergy in New Spain would have lost power under the Spanish liberal regime and new Mexican clerics saw independence as a way to maintain their position in an autonomous Mexico. Iturbide rewarded Santa Anna with the command of the vital port of Veracruz, the gateway from the Gulf of Mexico to the rest of the nation and site of the customs house. However, Iturbide subsequently removed Santa Anna from the post, prompting Santa Anna to rise in rebellion in December 1822 against Iturbide. Santa Anna had significant power in his home region of Veracruz, "he was well along the path to becoming the regional caudillo." Santa Anna claimed in his Plan of Veracruz that he rebelled because Iturbide had dissolved the Constituent Congress. He promised to support free trade with Spain, an important principle for his home region of Veracruz. Although Santa Anna's initial rebellion was important, Iturbide had loyal military men who were able to hold their own against the rebels in Veracru

Na Tcha Temple

The Na Tcha Temple, built in 1888, is a Chinese folk religion temple in Santo António, China dedicated to the worship of the deity Na Tcha. The Na Tcha Temple was built in homage to the child god of war, it is believed. The small traditional Chinese temple is a simple, single chamber building measuring 8.4 meters long and 4.51 meters wide. The entrance porch opens to the temple building measuring 5 meters in depth; the building is painted gray, with few ornamentations, except for paintings on walls under the entrance porch. The temple's roof, rising five meters, is of the traditional yingshan style. True to traditional Chinese architecture, the Na Tcha has protective ceramic animal figures on its ridge. Na Tcha Temple is located behind the Ruins of St. Paul's, remains of a principal Jesuit cathedral in the region, serving as one of the best examples of Macau's multicultural identity. In 2005, the temple became one of the designated sites of the Historic Centre of Macau enlisted on the UNESCO World Heritage List.

Religion in Macau List of oldest buildings and structures in Macau

Maximilian I, Prince of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen

Maximilian I, Prince of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen was a German nobleman. He was the third ruling Prince of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen. Maximilian was the son of Prince Meinrad I from his marriage to Anna Marie, daughter of Ferdinand Baron of Törring at Seefeld, he was named after Elector Maximilian I of Bavaria, whom his father was serving at the time of his birth. He joined the Imperial army, together with his younger brother Francis Anthony, he command a Dragoon regiment and, like his cousins in the Hohenzollern-Hechingen line, fought under Emperor Leopold I in the Fourth Austro-Turkish War. During the Franco-Dutch War, he commanded the imperial army on the Rhine. After the Peace of Nijmegen of 1675, Maximilian returned to Vienna. Maximilian married Maria Clara in Boxmeer on 12 January 1666, she was a daughter of Count Albert of Berg-'s-Heerenberg. After the death of her brother Oswald III in 1712, she inherited the County of's-Heerenberg, which thus fell to the House of Hohenzollern. Among his Dutch possessions were the Lordships of Boxmeer, Diksmuide, Etten, Wisch and Millingen.

In 1681, his father died. Maximilian divided the inheritance with his brother. Francis Anthony received the County of Haigerloch, he initiated various construction projects in the town of Sigmaringen, among them and expansion of Sigmaringen Castle. From his marriage to Maria Clara, he following children: Anna Maria Maria Magdalena Clara, a nun in Gnadenthal Abbey Cleopha Maria Theresa, a nun in Buchau Abbey Meinrad II Charles Anthony, Prince of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, married in 1700 to Countess Johanna Katharina von Montfort Francis Albert Oswald, a canon in Cologne Francis Henry, a canon in Cologne and Augsburg Charles Anthony Anthony Sidonius, fell in battle, married in 1712 to Countess Maria Josepha of Verdenberg and Namiest John Francis Anthony fell in battle, married: in 1712 to Maria Barbara Everhardt of Lightemhaag Maria Antonia of Frauenberg Maximilian Froben Maria, a monk Charles Friederike Christiane Maria, married in 1718 to Sebastian, Count of Montfort-Tettnang House of Hohenzollern Otto Hintze, Die Hohenzollern und ihr Werk 1415-1915.

Solingen: Verlag A. Steiger, ISBN 3921564182 Gustav Schilling: Geschichte des Hauses Hohenzollern in genealogisch fortlaufenden Biographien aller seiner Regenten von den ältesten bis auf die neuesten Zeiten, nach Urkunden und andern authentischen Quellen, Leipzig, 1843, p. 247 ff, Online Günter Schmitt: Sigmaringen, in: Günter Schmitt: Burgenführer Schwäbische Alb, vol. 3: Donautal. Wandern und entdecken zwischen Sigmaringen und Tuttlingen, Biberacher Verlagsdruckerei, Biberach, 1990, ISBN 3-924489-50-5, p. 41–62. Entry at