Legion of Honour
The Legion of Honour is the highest French order of merit for military and civil merits, established in 1802 by Napoleon Bonaparte and retained by all French governments and régimes. The order's motto is Honneur et Patrie, its seat is the Palais de la Légion d'Honneur next to the Musée d'Orsay, on the left bank of the Seine in Paris; the order is divided into five degrees of increasing distinction: Chevalier, Commandeur, Grand officier, Grand-croix. During the French Revolution, all of the French orders of chivalry were abolished, replaced with Weapons of Honour, it was the wish of Napoleon Bonaparte, the First Consul, to create a reward to commend civilians and soldiers. From this wish was instituted a Légion d'honneur, a body of men, not an order of chivalry, for Napoleon believed that France wanted a recognition of merit rather than a new system of nobility. However, the Légion d'honneur did use the organization of the old French orders of chivalry, for example the Ordre de Saint-Louis; the insignia of the Légion d'honneur bear a resemblance to those of the Ordre de Saint-Louis, which used a red ribbon.
Napoleon created this award to ensure political loyalty. The organization would be used as a façade to give political favours and concessions; the Légion d'honneur was loosely patterned after a Roman legion, with legionaries, commanders, regional "cohorts" and a grand council. The highest rank was not a Grand Cross but a Grand aigle, a rank that wore the insignia common to a Grand Cross; the members were paid, the highest of them generously: 5,000 francs to a grand officier, 2,000 francs to a commandeur, 1,000 francs to an officier, 250 francs to a légionnaire. Napoleon famously declared, "You call these baubles, well, it is with baubles that men are led... Do you think that you would be able to make men fight by reasoning? Never; that is good only for the scholar in his study. The soldier needs glory, rewards." This has been quoted as "It is with such baubles that men are led." The order was the first modern order of merit. Under the monarchy, such orders were limited to Roman Catholics, all knights had to be noblemen.
The military decorations were the perks of the officers. The Légion d'honneur, was open to men of all ranks and professions—only merit or bravery counted; the new legionnaire had to be sworn into the Légion d'honneur. It is noteworthy that all previous orders were crosses or shared a clear Christian background, whereas the Légion d'honneur is a secular institution; the badge of the Légion d'honneur has five arms. In a decree issued on the 10 Pluviôse XIII, a grand decoration was instituted; this decoration, a cross on a large sash and a silver star with an eagle, symbol of the Napoleonic Empire, became known as the Grand aigle, in 1814 as the Grand cordon. After Napoleon crowned himself Emperor of the French in 1804 and established the Napoleonic nobility in 1808, award of the Légion d'honneur gave right to the title of "Knight of the Empire"; the title was made hereditary after three generations of grantees. Napoleon had dispensed 15 golden collars of the Légion d'honneur among his family and his senior ministers.
This collar was abolished in 1815. Although research is made difficult by the loss of the archives, it is known that three women who fought with the army were decorated with the order: Virginie Ghesquière, Marie-Jeanne Schelling and a nun, Sister Anne Biget; the Légion d'honneur was visible in the French Empire. The Emperor always wore it and the fashion of the time allowed for decorations to be worn most of the time; the king of Sweden therefore declined the order. Napoleon's own decorations were captured by the Prussians and were displayed in the Zeughaus in Berlin until 1945. Today, they are in Moscow. Louis XVIII changed the appearance of the order. To have done so would have angered the 35,000 to 38,000 members; the images of Napoleon and his eagle were removed and replaced by the image of King Henry IV, the popular first king of the Bourbon line. Three Bourbon fleurs-de-lys replaced the eagle on the reverse of the order. A king's crown replaced the imperial crown. In 1816, the grand cordons were renamed grand crosses and the legionnaires became knights.
The king decreed. The Légion d'honneur became the second-ranking order of knighthood of the French monarchy, after the Order of the Holy Spirit. Following the overthrow of the Bourbons in favour of King Louis Philippe I of the House of Orléans, the Bourbon monarchy's orders were once again abolished and the Légion d'honneur was restored in 1830 as the paramount decoration of the French nation; the insignia were drastically altered. In 1847, there were 47,000 members, yet another revolution in Paris brought a new design to the Légion d'honneur. A nephew of the founder, Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte, was elected president and he restored the image of his uncle on the crosses of the order. In 1852, the first recorded woman, Angélique Duchemin, an old revolutionary of the 1789 uprising against the absolute monarchy, was admitted into the order. On 2 December 1851, President Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte staged a coup d'état with the help of the armed forces, he made himself Emperor of the French one year on 2 December 1852, after a successful plebiscite.
An Imperial crown was added. During Napoleon III's reign, the first American was admitted
Darracq and Company London
A Darracq and Company Limited owned a French manufacturer of motor vehicles and aero engines in Suresnes, near Paris. The French enterprise, known at first as A. Darracq et Cie, was founded in 1896 by Alexandre Darracq after he sold his Gladiator Bicycle business. In 1902, it took effect in 1903, he sold his new business to a held English company named A Darracq and Company Limited, taking a substantial shareholding and a directorship himself. Alexandre Darracq continued to run the business from Paris but was obliged to retire to the Côte d'Azur in 1913 following years of difficulties that brought Darracq & Co into hazardous financial circumstances, he had introduced an unproven unorthodox engine in 1911 which proved a complete failure yet he neglected Suresnes' popular conventional products. France entered the first World War, he died in 1931 but long before that, in 1920, the name of A Darracq & Co 1905 was changed to S T D Motors Limited. In 1922 Darracq's name was dropped from all products, the Suresnes business was renamed Automobiles Talbot and the Suresnes products were branded just Talbot.
His Suresnes business was to continue, still under British control, under the name Talbot until 1935 when it was acquired by investors led by the Suresnes factory's managing director, Antonio Lago. S T D Motors Limited known until 1920 as A Darracq and Company Limited became insolvent and was liquidated during 1935 and 1936. Alexandre Darracq, using part of the substantial profit he had made from selling his Gladiator bicycle factory to Adolpe Clément, set up a plant in 1897 in the Paris suburb of Suresnes; the company to own the business was formed in 1897 and named A Darracq et Cie. Production began with a Millet motorcycle powered by a five-cylinder rotary engine, it was supplemented shortly after by an electric brougham. In 1898 Darracq et Cie made a Léon Bollée-designed voiturette tricar; the voiturette proved a débâcle: the steering was problematic, the five-speed belt drive "a masterpiece of bad design", the hot tube ignition crude, proving the £10,000 Darracq et Cie had paid for the design a mistake.
Darracq et Cie produced its first vehicle with an internal combustion engine in 1900. Designed by Ribeyrolles this was a 6.5 hp voiture legére powered by a single-cylinder engine of 785 cc and it featured shaft drive and three speed column gear change. While not as successful as hoped, one hundred were sold. In 1902 Darracq & Co signed a contract with Adam Opel to jointly produce, under licence, vehicles in the German Empire with the brand name "Opel Darracq". Opel soon moved on to building their own vehicles. A Darracq et Cie was sold as of 30 September 1902 to an English company, A Darracq and Company Limited; the attraction for the British venture capitalists was that French automobile technology and industry experience led the world. It was incorporated in England because French law made the necessary flotation processes more difficult than English law; the perception from across the Atlantic in USA was that French industry was "offloading" on British investors. The English financial group was headed by W B Avery of W & T Avery Limited, a Birmingham scales manufacturer, J S Smith-Winby a London lawyer and a retired army officer, Colonel A Rawlinson.
They bought A Darracq et Cie and sold it again to other investors for five times their purchase price. Darracq received less than 50 percent of the shares in the new company. There was no public offering, eight other investors took up the rest of the shares. Further capital was raised and large sums were spent on factory expansion; the Suresnes site was expanded to some four acres in extent, in England extensive premises were bought. The Darracq & Co automobile company prospered, such that, by 1903, four models were offered: a 1.1-litre single, a 1.3 l and 1.9 l twin, a 3.8 l four. The 1904 models abandoned flitch-plated wood chassis for pressed steel, the new Flying Fifteen, powered by a 3-litre four, had its chassis made from a single sheet of steel; this car was Alexandre Darracq's chef d'oeuvre. There was nothing outstanding in its design but "every part was in such perfect balance and harmony" it became an outstanding model, its exceptional quality helped the company capture a ten percent share of the French auto market.
In late 1904 the chairman reported sales were up by 20 per cent though increased costs meant the profit had risen more slowly. But what was more important was they had many more orders than they could fill and the only solution was to enlarge the factory by as much as 50 per cent. 75 per cent of 1904 output was exported. At the following Annual meeting, twelve months the chairman was able to tell shareholders all the six speed records of the automobile world were held by Darracq cars and they had all been held more than twelve months and yet another had been added by K Lee Guinness, he reported that during 1905 a large property had been bought in Lambeth for examining adjusting and stocking new cars ready for the peak sales period. An announcement followed two days of a scheme of reconstitution of the company to raise more capital for further expansion; the reconstituted company was named Company Limited. Paris resident Alexander Darracq remained managing director, Rawlinson was appointed managing director of the London branch.
The "reconstitution" was to circumvent some holders of the company's shares who were unwilling to share the prosperity and blocked proposed new issues. So the company was sold, they were obliged to buy new shares like anyone else. J S Smith-Winby continued as chairman. After this "reconstitution" over 80 per cent of the shares were held in England. Meanwhile th
National Fascist Party
The National Fascist Party was an Italian political party, created by Benito Mussolini as the political expression of fascism. The party ruled Italy from 1922 when Fascists took power with the March on Rome to 1943, when Mussolini was deposed by the Grand Council of Fascism. Preceding the PNF, Mussolini's first established political party was known as the Fascist Revolutionary Party, founded in 1915 according to Mussolini. After poor November 1919 election results, the PFR was renamed the National Fascist Party during the Third Fascist Congress in Rome on 7–10 November 1921; the National Fascist Party was rooted in Italian nationalism and the desire to restore and expand Italian territories, which Italian Fascists deemed necessary for a nation to assert its superiority and strength and to avoid succumbing to decay. Italian Fascists claimed that modern Italy is the heir to ancient Rome and its legacy and supported the creation of an Italian Empire to provide spazio vitale for colonization by Italian settlers and to establish control over the Mediterranean Sea.
Fascists promoted a corporatist economic system whereby employer and employee syndicates are linked together in associations to collectively represent the nation's economic producers and work alongside the state to set national economic policy. This economic system intended to resolve class conflict through collaboration between the classes. Italian Fascism opposed liberalism, but did not seek a reactionary restoration of the pre-French Revolutionary world, which it considered to have been flawed, not in line with a forward-looking direction on policy, it was opposed to Marxist socialism because of its typical opposition to nationalism, but was opposed to the reactionary conservatism developed by Joseph de Maistre. It believed the success of Italian nationalism required respect for tradition and a clear sense of a shared past among the Italian people alongside a commitment to a modernized Italy; the National Fascist Party along with its successor, the Republican Fascist Party, are the only parties whose re-formation is banned by the Constitution of Italy: "It shall be forbidden to reorganize, under any form whatsoever, the dissolved fascist party".
After World War I, despite the Kingdom of Italy being a full-partner Allied Power against the Central Powers, Italian nationalism claimed Italy was cheated in the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye, thus the Allies had impeded Italy's progress to becoming a "Great Power". Thenceforth, the PNF exploited that perceived slight to Italian nationalism in presenting Fascism as best suited for governing the country by claiming that democracy and liberalism were failed systems. In 1919 at the Paris Peace Conference, the Allies compelled the Kingdom of Italy to yield to Yugoslavia the Croatian seaport of Fiume, a Italian city of little nationalist significance, until early 1919. Moreover, elsewhere Italy was excluded from the wartime secret Treaty of London it had concorded with the Triple Entente, wherein Italy was to leave the Triple Alliance and join the enemy by declaring war against the German Empire and Austria-Hungary in exchange for territories at war's end, upon which the Kingdom of Italy held claims.
In September 1919, the nationalist response of outraged war hero Gabriele D'Annunzio was declaring the establishment of the Italian Regency of Carnaro. To his independent Italian state, he installed himself as the Regent Duce and promulgated the Carta del Carnaro, a politically syncretic constitutional amalgamation of right-wing and left-wing anarchist, proto-fascist and democratic republican politics, which much influenced the politico-philosophic development of early Italian Fascism. Consequent to the Treaty of Rapallo, the metropolitan Italian military deposed the Regency of Duce D'Annunzio on Christmas 1920. In the development of the fascist model of government, D’Annunzio was a nationalist and not a fascist, whose legacy of political–praxis was stylistic and not substantive, which Italian Fascism artfully developed as a government model. Founded in Rome during the Third Fascist Congress on 7–10 November 1921, the National Fascist Party marked the transformation of the paramilitary Fasci Italiani di Combattimento into a more coherent political group.
The Fascist Party was instrumental in popularizing support for Mussolini's ideology. In the early years, groups within the PNF called Blackshirts built a base of power by violently attacking socialists and their institutions in the rural Po Valley, thereby gaining the support of landowners. Compared to its predecessor, the PNF abandoned republicanism to turn decisively towards the right-wing of the political spectrum. On 28 October 1922, Mussolini attempted a coup d'état, titled by the Fascist propaganda, the March on Rome, in which took part 30,000 fascists; the quadrumvirs leading the Fascist Party, General Emilio De Bono, Italo Balbo, Michele Bianchi and Cesare Maria de Vecchi, organized the March while the Duce stayed behind for most of the march, though he allowed pictures to be taken of him marching along with the Fascist marchers. Generals Gustavo Fara and Sante Ceccherini assisted to the preparations of the March of 18 October. Other organizers of the march included Ulisse Igliori. On 24 October 1922, Mu
A preselector or self-changing gearbox is a type of manual gearbox used on a variety of vehicles, most in the 1930s. The defining characteristic of a preselector gearbox is that the manual shift lever is used to "pre-select" the next gear to be used a separate control is used to engage this in one single operation, without needing to work a manual clutch. Most pre-selector transmissions avoid a driver-controlled clutch entirely; some use one for starting off. Preselector gearboxes are not automatic gearboxes. A automatic gearbox is able to select the ratio used. There are several radically different mechanical designs of preselector gearbox; the best known is the Wilson design. Some gearboxes, such as the Cotal, shift gears as the control is moved, without requiring the separate pedal action; these were considered under the same overall heading. In recent years, a similar role is carried out by the increasing number of'Tiptronic' or'paddle shift' gearboxes, using manual selection and immediate automated changing.
For the driver, there are two advantages: Fast shifting, with only a single operation. This requires less skill to learn than techniques like double declutching and it offers faster shifts when racing. Ability to handle far more engine power, with a lighter mechanism. In engineering terms, some designs of pre-selector gearbox may offer particular advantages; the Wilson gearbox offers these, although they're shared by some of the other designs though the designs are quite different: Their friction components are brakes, rather than clutches. These are simpler to engineer, as the wear components can be arranged to not be rotating parts; the friction wear components can be mounted on the outside of the mechanism, rather than buried within it. This makes regular adjustment easier, they were common on Daimler cars and commercial vehicles, Alvis, Talbot-Lago, Lagonda Rapier and Armstrong Siddeley cars as well as on many London buses. They have been used in racing cars, such as the 1935 ERA R4D, hillclimbing cars such as Auto Union "Silver Arrows".
Military applications began in 1929 and included tanks such as the German Tiger I and Tiger II in World War II, through to current tanks such as the Challenger 2. Many pre-selector designs made use of a series of epicyclic gearboxes; the Viratelle epicyclic pre-selector gearbox is the first one known designed and used from 1906, used on Viratelle motorcycles with 3 speeds but on cyclecars with 3 forward speeds and a reverse gear. The Wilson pre-selector gearbox is the best known design and is the archetype meant when the term "pre-selector gearbox" is used without further qualification. Major W. G. Wilson was rewarded as one of the major co-inventors of the tank after World War I, he had been involved with the development of transmissions for tanks the problem of their steering gearbox. He had become an advocate for the benefits of the epicyclic gearbox, which allowed large torques to be transmitted whilst still being controllable through a small input force. In 1917, Wilson designed the Mark V tank.
Wilson's major claim for its advantage was that the epicyclic system allowed control through a brake, rather than through a clutch, "a brake can stand more punishment than a clutch and is easier to judge in its application". This was the first of the heavy tanks that could be driven by a single driver, without requiring him to signal orders inside to others working the secondary gear levers. Since 1900, the Lanchester Motor Company had built cars with manually controlled epicyclic gearboxes, first with a cone clutch with multi-plate clutches; these formed the ratio-changing gearbox of the transmission. In 1918, an experimental tank "Lanchester Gearbox Machine" or "Experimental Machine K" was tested, fitted with an epicyclic gearbox built by Lanchester. After the War, Wilson had a considerable reputation as an engineer of genius for gearbox design. In 1928 he patented his design for a novel pre-selective gearbox. Various manufacturers produced preselector transmissions under licence to the Wilson patents.
Wilson himself formed a partnership with J. D. Siddeley of the car maker Armstrong Siddeley, first under the name of "Improved Gears Ltd." later as "Self-Changing Gears Ltd.". As its name suggests, gear changes were made by selecting a gear ratio in advance of its being needed; the chosen gear was brought into operation by pressing and releasing the'gear change pedal', the left pedal, installed in place of the usual clutch pedal. It is not to be confused with an automatic transmission, in that both the ratio chosen, the moment for gear changing, are controlled by the driver; the Wilson gearbox was produced with a variety of clutches. The best-known is the fluid flywheel, used for touring cars such as the Daimler and the Armstrong Siddeley. Sports cars used a Newton centrifugal clutch; this was a multiple plate dry clutch, similar to racing manual clutches of the time, but with the pressure plate centrifugally actuated to engage at around 600rpm. Pure racing cars, such as the ERA, avoided a clutch altogether and relied on the progressive engagement of the gearbox's band brake on lowest gear when starting.
The Wilson gearbox relied on a number of epicyclic gears, coupled in an ingenious manner, Wilson's invention. A separate epicyclic was required for each intermediate gear, with a cone clutch for the straight-through top gear and a further epicyclic for reverse. Four gears were provided, at a time when
Mayfair is an affluent area in the West End of London towards the eastern edge of Hyde Park, in the City of Westminster, between Oxford Street, Regent Street and Park Lane. It is one of the most expensive districts in the world; the area was part of the manor of Eia and remained rural until the early 18th century. It became well known for the annual "May Fair" that took place from 1686 to 1764 in what is now Shepherd Market. Over the years the fair grew unpleasant and downmarket, became a public nuisance; the Grosvenor family, acquired land through marriage and began to develop it under the direction of Thomas Barlow. The work included Hanover Square, Berkeley Square and Grosvenor Square which were surrounded by high-quality houses and the Church of St George Hanover Square. By the end of the 18th century, most of Mayfair was built on with upper-class housing; the decline of the British aristocracy in the early 20th century led to the area becoming more commercial, with many houses converted into offices for major corporate headquarters and other businesses.
Mayfair retains a substantial quantity of luxury residential property, upmarket shops and restaurants, modern hotels along Piccadilly and Park Lane. Its prestigious status has been commemorated by being the most expensive property square on the London Monopoly board. Mayfair is in the City of Westminster, consists of the historical Grosvenor estate and the Albemarle, Berkeley and Curzon estates, it is bordered on the west by Park Lane, north by Oxford Street, east by Regent Street, the south by Piccadilly. Beyond the bounding roads, to the north is Marylebone, to the east Soho, to the southwest Knightsbridge and Belgravia. Mayfair is surrounded by parkland; the 8-acre Grosvenor Square is in the centre of Mayfair, its centrepiece, containing numerous expensive and desirable properties. Following analysis of the alignment of Roman roads, it has been speculated that the Romans settled in the area before establishing Londinium. Whitaker's Almanack suggested that Aulus Plautius built a fort here during the Roman conquest of Britain in AD 43 while waiting for Claudius.
The theory was developed in 1993, with a proposal that a town grew outside the fort but was abandoned as being too far from the Thames. The proposal has been disputed because of lack of archaeological evidence. If there was a fort, it is believed the perimeter would have been where the modern Green Street, North Audley Street, Upper Grosvenor Street and Park Lane now are, that Park Street would have been the main road through the centre; this area was the manor of Eia in the Domesday Book, owned by Geoffrey de Mandeville after the Norman Conquest. It was subsequently given to the Abbey of Westminster, who owned it until 1536 when it was taken over by Henry VIII. Mayfair was open fields until development started in the Shepherd Market area around 1686–88 to accommodate the May Fair that had moved from Haymarket in St James's because of overcrowding. There were some buildings before 1686 – a cottage in Stanhope Row, dating from 1618 was destroyed in the Blitz in late 1940. A 17th-century English Civil War fortification established in what is now Mount Street was known as Oliver's Mount by the 18th century.
The May Fair was held every year at Great Brookfield from 1–14 May. It was established during the reign of Edward I in open fields beyond St. James; the fair was recorded as "Saint James's fayer by Westminster" in 1560. It otherwise continued throughout the 17th century. In 1686, the fair moved to. By the 18th century, it had attracted showmen and fencers and numerous fairground attractions. Popular attractions included bare-knuckle fighting, semolina eating contests and women's foot racing. By the reign of George I, the May Fair had fallen into disrepute and was regarded as a public scandal; the 6th Earl of Coventry, who lived on Piccadilly, considered the fair to be a nuisance and, with local residents, led a public campaign against it. It was abolished in 1764. One reason for Mayfair's subsequent boom in property development was it was able to keep out lower class activities. Building on Mayfair began in the 1660s on the corner of Piccadilly, progressed along the north side of that street. Burlington House was started between 1664–5 by John Denham and sold two years to Richard Boyle, 1st Earl of Burlington who asked Hugh May to complete it.
The house was extensively modified through the 18th century, is the only one of this era to survive into the 21st century. The origins of major development began when Sir Thomas Grosvenor, 3rd Baronet married Mary Davis, heiress to part of the Manor of Ebury, in 1677; the Grosvenor family gained 500 acres of land, of which around 100 acres lay south of Oxford Street and east of Park Lane. The land was referred to as "The Hundred Acres" in early deeds. In 1721, the London Journal reported "the ground upon which the May Fair was held is marked out for a large square, several fine streets and houses are to be built upon it". Sir Richard Grosvenor, 4th Baronet asked the surveyor Thomas Barlow to design the street layout which has survived intact to the present day despite most of the properties being rebuilt. Barlow proposed a grid of straight streets, with a large place as a centrepiece. Buildings were constructed in quick succession, by the mid-18th century the area was covered in houses. Much of the land was owned by seven estates – Burlington, Millf
Louis Hervé Coatalen was an automobile engineer and racing driver born in Brittany who spent much of his adult life in Britain and took British nationality. He was a pioneer of the development of internal combustion engines for cars and aircraft. Coatalen, the second son of J Coatalen, was born in the Breton fishing town of Concarneau and went on to study engineering at the École des Arts et Métiers at Cluny. After serving his apprenticeship with De Dion-Bouton, Clément and Panhard et Levasseur he left France to work in England in 1900. After a short time with the Crowden Motor Car Company he joined Humber Limited in 1901 and was to become their chief engineer, he designed their 10-12 models. They were successful but their design was, unusually for Coatalen conventional. In 1906 aged 26 or 27 he went into partnership with bicycle manufacturer William Hillman. In 1908 he drove their Hillman-Coatalen car in the Isle of Man Tourist Trophy race; the brief partnership was dissolved in 1909 and Coatalen moved from Coventry to Wolverhampton to join Sunbeam.
He was appointed joint managing director in 1914. His first design was one of the outstanding light car designs of its day. In 1912 three 12-16s took the first three places in Dieppe's Coupe de l'Auto 2-day race for 3-litre cars; the first of the three cars was third in the race for Grand Prix cars. But his designs became less innovative and he seemed to copy Peugeot developments rather than use his own. Sunbeam cars won the Tourist Trophy races in 1914 and 1922; the Sunbeam cars that took the first three places in the 1923 French Grand Prix were said to have owed much to Fiat designs. During World War I he designed aircraft engines for Sunbeam. On his death in 1962 Lord Sempill wrote to The Times to point out that Coatalen was one of the three leading designers of engines for aircraft and airships used by the RNAS in the First World War; the other two, he said, were Sir Henry Royce. Sunbeam produced a greater variety of aero engines than any other business during the war. W O Bentley said this was "in part because Coatalen was so good at selling ideas to the Admiralty and War Office."He was appointed a director of S T D Motors when In 1920 Sunbeam joined with Clément-Talbot and Darracq to form S T D Motors Limited but he remained chief engineer of Sunbeam.
He was put in charge of the technical and designing staffs of all S T D subsidiaries. Success of Talbot-Darracq cars 1.5 litre, His main interest became racing cars. Their wins catapulted Sunbeam to the highest echelons of international competition from the legendary success at the 1912 Coupe de l’Auto to winning the 1914 and 1922 Tourist Trophy and 1923 and 1924 Grand Prix. Coatelen collaborated with the industry foremost designer Ernest Henry on the 1922 Grand Prix Sunbeams and had some of the most respected drivers of the period – Henry Segrave, Jean Chassagne and Kenelm Lee Guinness driving his Sunbeam cars. In 1926 Sunbeam's racing activities were taken into the STD company and moved to Suresnes near Paris in France and although Coatalen continued working part-time in Wolverhampton, he spent most of his time in Paris. On his direction Sunbeam was among the first British manufacturers to provide front wheel brakes. Coatalen's innovations included balancing the wheels and putting the oil pump in the sump, he was an early advocate of shock absorbers.
Sunbeam became involved in land speed record attempts including the successful 1000HP car of 1927 and the failed'Silver Bullet' of 1930. Louis Coatalen designed the engines for the first car to exceed 150 miles per hour and the first car to exceed 200 miles an hour, the 1000 horsepower Sunbeam driven by Henry Segrave. From the proceeds of his S T D share sale, Coatalen bought control of the French branch of Lockheed hydraulics and with the income from this bought a yacht and a villa on the Isle of Capri. During the Second World War he lived in France and he continued living there until his sudden death in Paris in 1962 aged 82. Louis Coatalen married four times: in 1902 to Annie Ellen Davis, in 1910 to Olive Bath, in 1923 to Iris van Raalte, née Graham, in 1934 to Ellen Bridson known to family as Dickie. There is no record of a marriage to a member of the Hillman family. Following the publication of Coatalen's obituary Sunbeam expert Anthony S Heal wrote to The Times to describe Coatalen as an impresario of the motor industry.
"He led and inspired others to achieve miracles they themselves would not have thought possible."W O Bentley described him as "not only a first class businessman who made a great deal of money in his active life with Sunbeams.
Suresnes is a commune in the western suburbs of Paris, France. It is located in Hauts-de-Seine, 9.3 km from the centre of Paris and had a population of 45,039 in 2006. The nearest communes are Neuilly-sur-Seine, Rueil-Malmaison, Saint-Cloud and Boulogne-Billancourt, it is on the Île-de-France tramway Line 2 giving access to La Defense and its rail services. The Foch Hospital is located in the city. Fort Mont-Valérien is situated in the commune, as is Memorial. Suresnes has a beautiful view of the Eiffel Tower. In 1974 the Spanish Socialist Workers Party held its 26th Congress in Suresnes. Felipe González was elected replacing Rodolfo Llopis Ferrándiz. González was from the "reform" wing of the party, his victory signaled a defeat for the historic and veteran wing of the Party; the direction of the party shifted from the exiles to the young people in Spain who had not fought in the Spanish Civil War. Suresnes is served by Suresnes-Mont-Valérien station on the Transilien La Défense and Transilien Paris – Saint-Lazare suburban rail lines.
The Pont de Suresnes carries the Allée de Longchamp from the Bois de Boulogne over the Seine into the western suburbs of Paris. See Category:People from SuresnesThough she was not born in Suresnes, Noor Inayat Khan the'Indian Spy Princess', lived there with her family in a large estate known as'Fazal Manzil' from 1920 to 1940 during which time she studied at the Sorbonne. Noor Inayat Khan returned to France as an agent of the Special Operations Executive, spying for the Allied cause in occupied France, she was executed by the Germans and posthumously awarded the George Cross. Luc Lang, writer Alexis Salatko, writer Suresnes is twinned with: Fort Mont-Valérien Suresnes American Cemetery and Memorial Communes of the Hauts-de-Seine department Official website INSEE Map and info Suresnes libraries