European Economic Community
The European Economic Community was a regional organisation which aimed to bring about economic integration among its member states. It was created by the Treaty of Rome of 1957. Upon the formation of the European Union in 1993, the EEC was incorporated and renamed as the European Community. In 2009 the EC's institutions were absorbed into the EU's wider framework and the community ceased to exist; the Community's initial aim was to bring about economic integration, including a common market and customs union, among its six founding members: Belgium, Italy, the Netherlands and West Germany. It gained a common set of institutions along with the European Coal and Steel Community and the European Atomic Energy Community as one of the European Communities under the 1965 Merger Treaty. In 1993, a complete single market was achieved, known as the internal market, which allowed for the free movement of goods, capital and people within the EEC. In 1994, the internal market was formalised by the EEA agreement.
This agreement extended the internal market to include most of the member states of the European Free Trade Association, forming the European Economic Area covering 15 countries. Upon the entry into force of the Maastricht Treaty in 1993, the EEC was renamed the European Community to reflect that it covered a wider range than economic policy; this was when the three European Communities, including the EC, were collectively made to constitute the first of the three pillars of the European Union, which the treaty founded. The EC existed in this form until it was abolished by the 2009 Treaty of Lisbon, which incorporated the EC's institutions into the EU's wider framework and provided that the EU would "replace and succeed the European Community"; the EEC was known as the Common Market in the English-speaking countries and sometimes referred to as the European Community before it was renamed as such in 1993. In 1951, the Treaty of Paris was signed, creating Steel Community; this was an international community based on supranationalism and international law, designed to help the economy of Europe and prevent future war by integrating its members.
In the aim of creating a federal Europe two further communities were proposed: a European Defence Community and a European Political Community. While the treaty for the latter was being drawn up by the Common Assembly, the ECSC parliamentary chamber, the proposed defense community was rejected by the French Parliament. ECSC President Jean Monnet, a leading figure behind the communities, resigned from the High Authority in protest and began work on alternative communities, based on economic integration rather than political integration. After the Messina Conference in 1955, Paul Henri Spaak was given the task to prepare a report on the idea of a customs union; the so-called Spaak Report of the Spaak Committee formed the cornerstone of the intergovernmental negotiations at Val Duchesse conference centre in 1956. Together with the Ohlin Report the Spaak Report would provide the basis for the Treaty of Rome. In 1956, Paul Henri Spaak led the Intergovernmental Conference on the Common Market and Euratom at the Val Duchesse conference centre, which prepared for the Treaty of Rome in 1957.
The conference led to the signature, on 25 March 1957, of the Treaty of Rome establishing a European Economic Community. The resulting communities were the European Economic Community and the European Atomic Energy Community; these were markedly less supranational than the previous communities, due to protests from some countries that their sovereignty was being infringed. The first formal meeting of the Hallstein Commission was held on 16 January 1958 at the Chateau de Val-Duchesse; the EEC was to create a customs union while Euratom would promote co-operation in the nuclear power sphere. The EEC became the most important of these and expanded its activities. One of the first important accomplishments of the EEC was the establishment of common price levels for agricultural products. In 1968, internal tariffs were removed on certain products. Another crisis was triggered in regard to proposals for the financing of the Common Agricultural Policy, which came into force in 1962; the transitional period whereby decisions were made by unanimity had come to an end, majority-voting in the Council had taken effect.
Then-French President Charles de Gaulle's opposition to supranationalism and fear of the other members challenging the CAP led to an "empty chair policy" whereby French representatives were withdrawn from the European institutions until the French veto was reinstated. A compromise was reached with the Luxembourg compromise on 29 January 1966 whereby a gentlemen's agreement permitted members to use a veto on areas of national interest. On 1 July 1967 when the Merger Treaty came into operation, combining the institutions of the ECSC and Euratom into that of the EEC, they shared a Parliamentary Assembly and Courts. Collectively they were known as the European Communities; the Communities still had independent personalities although were integrated. Future treaties granted the community new powers beyond simple economic matters which had achieved a high level of integration; as it got closer to the goal of political integration and a peaceful and united Europe, what Mikhail Gorbachev described as a Common European Home.
The 1960s saw the first attempts at enlargement. In 1961, Ireland and the United Kingdom applied to join the three Communities. However, Presi
Italian Minister of Education
Below is a list of Italian Ministers of Public Education since the birth of the Italian Republic in 1946. The list shows the ministers that served under the same office but with other names, in fact this Ministry has changed name many times; the Minister of Public Education leads the Ministry of Education and Research. Parties 1946–1994: Christian Democracy Liberal Party Democratic Socialist Party Republican Party Since 1994: Christian Democratic Centre Democratic Party of the Left/Democrats of the Left Forza Italia/The People of Freedom Civic Choice The Daisy/Democratic Party Independent
Italian Minister of the Interior
The Minister of the Interior in Italy is one of the most important positions in the Italian Council of Ministers and leads the Ministry of the Interior. The current Minister is Matteo Salvini, appointed on 1 June 2018 in the government of Giuseppe Conte; the Minister of the Interior is responsible for internal security and the protection of the constitutional order, for civil protection against disasters and terrorism, for displaced persons and administrative questions. It is host to the Standing Committee of Interior Ministers and drafts all passport, identity card and explosives legislation; the Interior Minister is political head for the administration of internal affairs. He controls the State police, the Vigili del Fuoco, the prefects; the minister herefore sits on the High Council of Defence. Parties1861–1912: Historical Right Historical Left 1912–1922: Liberal Union Radical Party Reform Socialist Party Military 1922–1943: National Fascist Party 1943–1946: Christian Democracy Labour Democratic Party Action Party Socialist Party Independent Governments Rightist coalition Leftist coalition Liberal coalition Fascist Military Mixed coalition Parties 1946–1994: Christian Democracy Since 1994: Lega Nord Democratic Party of the Left People's Party The Democrats Forza Italia/The People of Freedom Democratic Party New Centre-Right Independent Governments Centrist coalition Centre-right coalition Centre-left coalition Populist coalition Mixed coalition
Paolo Emilio Taviani
Paolo Emilio Taviani was an Italian political leader and historian of the career of Christopher Columbus. He was a partisan leader in Liguria, a Gold Medal of the Resistance a member of the Consulta and the Constituent Council of the Italian Parliament from 1948 until his death. Several times minister in the Republic’s governments, he was author of studies on economics and important works on Christopher Columbus, University professor and journalist. “Eminent political and government figure who for decades continued to bear witness to the diversity of ideals that inspired the Resistance”. Taviani was born in Genoa on November 6, 1912, his mother, Elide Banchelli, was an elementary school teacher. His father, was a headmaster and one of the founders of the Genoese section of the Italian People's Party. After graduating from the Classical “Liceo”, Taviani went on to university where he earned a law degree in 1934; the same year he obtained his journalist’s license and began working for various Catholic oriented newspapers.
In 1936 he obtained a second degree in social sciences from the prestigious Scuola Normale Superiore of Pisa and in 1939 he earned a third degree in Letters and Philosophy from the Catholic University of Milan. The next year he was professor of History and Philosophy in the public “Licei” as well as assistant lecturer in Geography at the University of Genoa. From 1943 he was professor of Demographics in the Faculty of Law in Genoa. In secondary school Taviani joined the catholic group, most sensitive to social issues. At university he became head of the Genoese branch of FUCI. Following the Lateran Pacts, Taviani, a young man at the time, shared in the illusion that Fascism might one day evolve into a movement for social justice inspired by Catholic values. At the age of 18 he joined the PNF, but the fascists’ belligerent policies and, above all, the racial laws of 1938 shattered that illusion. By the eve of the war, Taviani was in the camp of the anti-fascists. On July 27, 1943 just before the fall of the regime, Taviani founded in Liguria the section of the “Partito-Cristiano-Sociale Democratico” bringing together young people from the Christian Social Movement with the older members of the People's Party.
After September 8 Taviani founded the Committee for National Liberation in Liguria as representative of the Christian Democracy. His clandestine activities brought him among the partisans in the mountains. Taviani maintained contacts with Allied military missions, he was editor of La Voce d’Italia a banned periodical published by the Resistance in Liguria. Within the CLNL Taviani argued the need for a single military command that could coordinate the efforts of volunteers from so many different political backgrounds. On the night of April 23, 1945 the CLNL assumed the leadership of the insurrection in Genoa. On the evening of April 25 the German commander surrendered to representatives of the CLNL; the next morning it was Taviani who announced that the city had been liberated in a radio address broadcast by the BBC: “Genoa is free. People of Genoa, rejoice! For the first time in the history of this war a military unit has surrendered to the spontaneous forces of a people: the people of Genoa!” For his activity in the Resistance Taviani would receive the Gold Medal for Merit in War in Italy, Gold medals for Merit in the United States and the Soviet Union, the title of Grand Official of the Légion d’Honneur in France.
Taviani wrote about the Resistance in the Breve storia dell’insurrezione di Genova, in the collection of short stories Pittaluga Racconta as well as in dozens of articles. His early years in the Resistance marked Taviani’s entire political career. From 1963 he was President of Italian Federation of Volunteers for Freedom. In 1987 he was appointed President of the Historical Museum of the Liberation of Rome “Via Tasso”. On April 25, 1994 he gave a passionate speech in defence of the values of the Resistance during a large demonstration, opposed by supporters of the Centre-Right coalition. In 2001 Taviani celebrated the first Memorial Day in Italy remembering the mass extermination of Jews at the “Via Tasso” Museum. After the war Taviani became involved in the task of transforming the monarchy into a republic. Appointed to the Consulta he was elected to the Constituent Council where he drafted the articles regarding property in the Constitution of the Italian Republic. In the elections from 1948 to 1976 Taviani always managed to obtain the most votes among the deputies elected from Liguria.
From 1947 to 1950 he was first Vice-secretary National Political Secretary of the Christian Democratic Party. In the party he always supported the secular basis. In 1950 Taviani was head of the Italian delegation in Paris for the Schumann Plan, the first major step towards a united Europe. Undersecretary to De Gasperi at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs Minister for Foreign Trade again Minister of Defence, Taviani supported the choice to enter the Atlantic alliance, though always from a pro-European perspective, he was one of the most stubbor
Latium is the region of central western Italy in which the city of Rome was founded and grew to be the capital city of the Roman Empire. Latium was a small triangle of fertile, volcanic soil on which resided the tribe of the Latins or Latians, it was located on the left bank of the River Tiber, extending northward to the River Anio and southeastward to the Pomptina Palus as far south as the Circeian promontory. The right bank of the Tiber was occupied by the Etruscan city of Veii, the other borders were occupied by Italic tribes. Subsequently, Rome defeated Veii and its Italic neighbours, expanding Latium to the Apennine Mountains in the northeast and to the opposite end of the marsh in the southeast; the modern descendant, the Italian Regione of Lazio called Latium in Latin, in modern English, is somewhat larger still, but not as much as double the original Latium. The ancient language of the Latins, the tribespeople who occupied Latium, was to become the immediate predecessor of the Old Latin language, ancestor of Latin and the Romance languages.
Latium has played an important role in history owing to its status as the host of the capital city of Rome, at one time the cultural and political centre of the Roman Empire. Latium is home to celebrated works of art and architecture. Earliest known Latium was the country of the Latini, a tribe whose recognised centre was a large, extinct volcano, Mons Albanus, 20 kilometres to the southeast of Rome, 64 kilometres in circumference. In its center is a crater lake, Lacus Albanus, oval in shape, a few km long and wide. At the top of the second-highest peak was a temple to Jupiter Latiaris, where the Latini held state functions before their subjection to Rome, the Romans subsequently held religious and state ceremonies; the last pagan temple to be built stood until the Middle Ages when its stone and location were reused for various monasteries and a hotel. During World War II, the Wehrmacht turned it into a radio station, captured after an infantry battle by American troops in 1944, it is a controversial telecommunications station surrounded by antennae considered unsightly by the population within view.
The selection of Jupiter as a state god and the descent of the name Latini to the name of the Latin language are sufficient to identify the Latins as a tribe of Indo-European descent. Virgil, a major poet of the early Roman Empire, under Augustus, derived Latium from the word for "hidden" because in a myth Saturn, ruler of the golden age in Latium, hid from Jupiter there. A major modern etymology is that Lazio comes from the Latin word "latus", meaning "wide", expressing the idea of "flat land" meaning the Roman Campagna; the region that would become Latium had been home to settled agricultural populations since the early Bronze Age and was known to the Ancient Greeks and earlier to the Mycenaean Greeks. The name is most derived from the Latin word "latus", meaning "wide", expressing the idea of "flat land" but the name may originate from an earlier, non-Indo-European one; the Etruscans, from their home region of Etruria exerted a strong cultural and political influence on Latium from about the 8th century BC onward.
However, they were unable to assert political hegemony over the region, controlled by small, autonomous city-states in a manner analogous to the state of affairs that prevailed in Ancient Greece. Indeed, the region's cultural and geographic proximity to the cities of Magna Graecia had a strong impact upon its early history. By the 10th century BC, archaeology records a slow development in agriculture from the entire area of Latium with the establishment of numerous villages; the Latins cultivated grains, olives and fig trees. The various Latini populi lived in a society led by influential clans; these clans were a sign of their tribal origin, which continued in Rome as the thirty curiae which organized Roman society. However, as a social unit the gens was replaced by the family, headed by the paterfamilias - the oldest male who held supreme authority over the family. A fixed local center seemed necessary as the center of the region cannot have been one of the villages, but must have been a place of common assembly, containing the seat of justice and the common sanctuary of the district, where members of the clans met for purposes of administration and amusement, where they obtained a safer shelter for themselves in case of war: in ordinary circumstances such a place was not at all or but scantily inhabited.
Such a place was called in Italy "height", or "stronghold". The isolated Alban range, that natural stronghold of Latium, which offered to settlers a secure position, would doubtless be first occupied by the newcomers. Here, along the narrow plateau above Palazzuola between the Alban lake and the Alban mount, extended the town of Alba Longa, regarded as the primitive seat of the Latin stock, the mother city of Rome as well as of all the other Old Latin communities. Here too are found some primitive works of masonry, which mark the be
Prime Minister of Italy
The President of the Council of Ministers of the Italian Republic referred to in Italy as Presidente del Consiglio, or informally as Premier and known in English as the Prime Minister of Italy, is the head of government of the Italian Republic. The office of Prime Minister is established by Articles 92 through to 96 of the Constitution of Italy; the Prime Minister is appointed by the President of the Republic after each general election and must have the confidence of the Italian Parliament to stay in office. Prior to the establishment of the Italian Republic, the position was called President of the Council of Ministers of the Kingdom of Italy. From 1925 to 1943 during the Fascist regime, the position was transformed into the dictatorial position of Head of the Government, Prime Minister, Secretary of State held by Benito Mussolini, Duce of Fascism, who governed on the behalf of the King of Italy. King Victor Emmanuel III removed Mussolini from office in 1943 and the position was restored with Marshal Pietro Badoglio becoming Prime Minister in 1943.
Alcide De Gasperi became the first Prime Minister of the Italian Republic in 1946. The Prime Minister is the President of the Council of Ministers which holds executive power and the position is similar to those in most other parliamentary systems; the formal Italian order of precedence lists the office as being ceremonially the fourth most important Italian state office. As the President of the Council of Ministers, the modern Prime Minister leads the Cabinet. In addition, the Prime Minister leads a major political party and is required by the Constitution to have the confidence of the majority of the voting members of the Parliament. In addition to powers inherent in being a member of the Cabinet, the Prime Minister holds specific powers, most notably being able to nominate a list of Cabinet ministers to be appointed by the President of the Republic and the countersigning of all legislative instruments having the force of law that are signed by the President of the Republic. Article 95 of the Italian constitution provides that the Prime Minister "directs and coordinates the activity of the ministers".
This power has been used to a quite variable extent in the history of the Italian state as it is influenced by the political strength of individual ministers and thus by the parties they represent. The Prime Minister's activity has consisted of mediating between the various parties in the majority coalition, rather than directing the activity of the Council of Ministers; the Prime Minister's supervisory power is further limited by the lack of any formal authority to fire ministers, although a Cabinet reshuffle or sometimes an individual vote of no confidence on the part of Parliament may in practice provide a surrogate measure. The office was first established in 1848 in Italy's predecessor state, the Kingdom of Sardinia—although it was not mentioned in its constitution, the Albertine Statute. From 1848 to 1861, ten Prime Ministers governed the Kingdom, most of them being right-wing politicians. After the unification of Italy and the establishment of the kingdom, the procedure did not change.
In fact, the candidate for office was appointed by the King and presided over a unstable political system. The first Prime Minister was Camillo Benso di Cavour, appointed on 23 March 1861, but he died on 6 June the same year. From 1861 to 1911, Historical Right and Historical Left Prime Ministers alternatively governed the country. One of the most famous and influential Prime Ministers of this period was Francesco Crispi, a left-wing patriot and statesman, the first head of the government from Southern Italy, he led the country for six years from 1887 until 1891 and again from 1893 until 1896. Crispi was internationally famous and mentioned along with world statesmen such as Otto von Bismarck, William Ewart Gladstone and Salisbury. An enlightened Italian patriot and democrat liberal, Crispi went on to become a bellicose authoritarian Prime Minister and admirer of Bismarck, his career ended amid controversy and failure due to becoming involved in a major banking scandal and subsequently fell from power in 1896 after a devastating colonial defeat in Ethiopia.
He is seen as a precursor of the fascist dictator Benito Mussolini. In 1892, Giovanni Giolitti, a young leftist politician, was appointed Prime Minister by King Umberto I, but after less than a year he was forced to resign and Crispi returned to power. In 1903, he was appointed again head of the government after a period of instability. Giolitti was Prime Minister five times between 1892 and 1921 and the second-longest serving Prime Minister in Italian history. Giolitti was a master in the political art of trasformismo, the method of making a flexible, fluid centrist coalition in Parliament which sought to isolate the extremes of the left and the right in Italian politics. Under his influence, the Italian Liberals did not develop as a structured party, they were instead a series of informal personal groupings with no formal links to political constituencies. The period between the start of the 20th century and the start of World War I, when he was Prime Minister and Minister of the Interior from 1901 to 1914 with only brief interruptions, is called the Giolittian Era.
A left-wing liberal with strong ethical concerns, Giolitti's periods in office were notable for the passage of a wide range of progressive social reforms which improved the living standards of ordinary Italians, together with the enactment of several policies of government intervention. Besides putting in place several tar
Italian Minister of Defence
This Italian Ministers of Defence is a senior member of the Italian Cabinet who leads the Ministry of Defence. The minister is responsible for military and civil defence matters and managing the Italian Armed Forces; the first Minister of War was Manfredo Fanti, a General of the Royal Italian Army, while the first Minister of Defence was Luigi Gasparotto, member of the Labour Democratic Party. Parties1861–1912: Military Historical Right Historical Left 1912–1922: Military Reform Socialist Party People's Party Agrarian Party Liberal Union 1922–1943: National Fascist Party 1943–1946: Military Liberal Party Christian Democracy Republican Party Governments Rightist coalition Leftist coalition Liberal coalition Fascist Military Mixed coalition Parties 1946-1994: Labour Democratic Party Christian Democracy Republican Party Democratic Socialist Party Socialist Party Liberal Party Independent 1994–present: Forza Italia/The People of Freedom People's Party Democratic Union for the Republic The Daisy/Democratic Party Civic Choice/Populars for Italy Five Star Movement Independent Governments Centrist coalition Centre-right coalition Centre-left coalition Populist coalition Mixed coalition Ministry of Defence