Larnaca is a city on the southern coast of Cyprus and the capital of the eponymous district. It is the third-largest city in the country, after Nicosia and Limassol, with a metro population of 144,200 in 2015. Larnaca is known for its palm-tree seafront, the Church of Saint Lazarus, Hala Sultan Tekke, Kamares Aqueduct, Larnaca Castle, it is built on the ruins of ancient Citium, the birthplace of Stoic philosopher Zeno. Larnaca is home to Larnaca International Airport, it has a seaport and a marina. The word Larnaca derives from the Greek n. larnax, meaning: "coffer", "box", "chest", e.g. for household stores, "cinerary urn", "sarcophagus" or "coffin". An informal etymology, attributes the origin of the name to. Sophocles Hadjisavvas, a state archeologist, states that " consul of the last quarter of the 19th century, claimed to have explored more than 3,000 tombs in the area of Larnaca, so-called after the immense number of sarcophagi found in the modern town". In the vernacular, Larnaca is known as Scala (Greek: Σκάλα from the word.
During the Middle Ages, until the end of the 18th century, a small port-anchorage close to Larnaca Bay refers to maps, travel descriptions and documents as Scala di Saline and may account for this second name. The former city-kingdom of Kition was established in the 13th century BC. New cultural elements appearing between 1200 BC and 1000 BC are interpreted as indications of significant political changes and the arrival of the Achaeans, the first Greek colonists of Kition. Around the same time, Phoenicians settled the area. At the archaeological sites of Kiteon, remains that date from the 13th century BC have been found. Around 1000 BC, Kition was rebuilt by Phoenicians and it subsequently became a center of Phoenician culture; the remains of the sites include a complex of five temples and a naval port. It was conquered in the first millennium BC by a series of great powers of the region. First by the Assyrian Empire by Egypt. Like most Cypriot cities, Kition belonged to the Achaemenid Empire. In 450 BC, the Athenian general Cimon died at sea, while militarily supporting the revolt against Persia's rule over Cyprus.
On his deathbed, he urged his officers to conceal his death from both the Persians. Strong earthquakes hit the city in the year after. Earthquakes of 322 AD and 342 "caused the destruction not only of Kition but of Salamis and Pafos". Kition's harbor silted up, the population moved to the seafront farther south, sometime after this; the commercial port was located during the Ottoman Period. Skala is the name of the seashore south of the Larnaca castle—and its neighborhood; the city is sometimes colloquially referred to as "Skala" meaning "ladder" or "landing stage", referring to the historical port. The Kamares aqueduct was built in 1747—bringing water to the city from a source around six miles from the city; the Salt Lake fills with water during the winter season and is visited by flocks of flamingoes who stay there from November until the end of March. It dries up in the summer. In the past, it yielded good quality salt scraped from the dried surface; the salt from the lake is now considered unsuitable for consumption.
The climate in this area is described by the Köppen Climate Classification System as a hot semi-arid climate due to its low annual rainfall and strong summer drought. It is sometimes described as a mediterranean climate, but its winter rainfall is below the required amount to avoid the semi-arid classification; the city's landmarks include: the Church of Saint Lazarus. So-called "Foinikoudes" is the promenade along Athenon Avenue on the seafront. A row of palm trees lines either side of it. A bust of "Kimon the Athenian" stands on the Foinikoudes Promenade, with this quote referring to him on the pedestal: "Even in death he was victorious"; the marble bust of Zeno stands at the crossroads near the American Academy. Zeno was born in Kition in 334 BC. After studying philosophy in Athens, he founded the famous Stoic school of philosophy; the Armenian Genocide Memorial stands on Athinon Avenue. Larnaca's economy has been growing since 1975, after the loss of the Port of Famagusta, which handled 80% of general cargo, the closure of Nicosia International Airport, meant that Larnaca's airport and seaport had important roles in the economy of the island.
A €650m upgrade of Larnaca Airport has been completed. The service sector, including tourism, employs three-quarters of Larnaca's labor force. Many travel and tour operators and other travel-related companies have their head offices in Larnaca. There are over a hundred educational institutions in the city, including the American Academy, Larnaca Nareg Armenian school and the Alexander College. Larnaca has an art gallery, which are operated by the municipality; the Cornaro Institute was a cultural centre fo
Spyros Kyprianou Athletic Center
The Spyros Kyprianou Athletic Center known as Palais des sports, is the biggest multi-dynamic indoor athletic arena in Cyprus. It is named after the late president of Spyros Kyprianou; this project was conducted by the Cyprus Sports Organisation and was constructed north of the city of Limassol near Kato Polemidia and by the side of Limassol–Troodos road. Construction of the project began in late 2002 and was completed at the end of 2005 at a total cost of CY£8.5 million. The centre hosted major sports events like the FIBA Europe all-star game in 2006 and 2007, it played host to the Cyprus Rally headquarters in 2005 and 2006. The arena itself hosted the media and rally organisers while the parking lot was the area for the competing WRC teams; the arena hosted the Junior Eurovision Song Contest 2008. The shuttle of the centre can host at least 42 wheelchair spots. Moreover, the centre is used for the sport events of local schools in Limassol greater area. Media related to Spyros Kiprianou Sports Centre Limassol at Wikimedia Commons Official website
Seating capacity is the number of people who can be seated in a specific space, in terms of both the physical space available, limitations set by law. Seating capacity can be used in the description of anything ranging from an automobile that seats two to a stadium that seats hundreds of thousands of people; the largest sporting venue in the world, the Indianapolis Motor Speedway, has a permanent seating capacity for more than 235,000 people and infield seating that raises capacity to an approximate 400,000. Safety is a primary concern in determining the seating capacity of a venue: "Seating capacity, seating layouts and densities are dictated by legal requirements for the safe evacuation of the occupants in the event of fire"; the International Building Code specifies, "In places of assembly, the seats shall be securely fastened to the floor" but provides exceptions if the total number of seats is fewer than 100, if there is a substantial amount of space available between seats or if the seats are at tables.
It delineates the number of available exits for interior balconies and galleries based on the seating capacity, sets forth the number of required wheelchair spaces in a table derived from the seating capacity of the space. The International Fire Code, portions of which have been adopted by many jurisdictions, is directed more towards the use of a facility than the construction, it specifies, "For areas having fixed seating without dividing arms, the occupant load shall not be less than the number of seats based on one person for each 18 inches of seating length". It requires that every public venue submit a detailed site plan to the local fire code official, including "details of the means of egress, seating capacity, arrangement of the seating...."Once safety considerations have been satisfied, determinations of seating capacity turn on the total size of the venue, its purpose. For sports venues, the "decision on maximum seating capacity is determined by several factors. Chief among these are the primary sports program and the size of the market area".
In motion picture venues, the "limit of seating capacity is determined by the maximal viewing distance for a given size of screen", with image quality for closer viewers declining as the screen is expanded to accommodate more distant viewers. Seating capacity of venues plays a role in what media they are able to provide and how they are able to provide it. In contracting to permit performers to use a theatre or other performing space, the "seating capacity of the performance facility must be disclosed". Seating capacity may influence the kind of contract to be the royalties to be given; the seating capacity must be disclosed to the copyright owner in seeking a license for the copyrighted work to be performed in that venue. Venues that may be leased for private functions such as ballrooms and auditoriums advertise their seating capacity. Seating capacity is an important consideration in the construction and use of sports venues such as stadiums and arenas; when entities such as the National Football League's Super Bowl Committee decide on a venue for a particular event, seating capacity, which reflects the possible number of tickets that can be sold for the event, is an important consideration.
The seating capacity for restaurants is reported as'covers'. Seating capacity differs from total capacity, which describes the total number of people who can fit in a venue or in a vehicle either sitting or standing. Where seating capacity is a legal requirement, however, as it is in movie theatres and on aircraft, the law reflects the fact that the number of people allowed in should not exceed the number who can be seated. Use of the term "public capacity" indicates that a venue is allowed to hold more people than it can seat. Again, the maximum total number of people can refer to either the physical space available or limitations set by law. All-seater stadium List of stadiums by capacity List of football stadiums by capacity List of American football stadiums by capacity List of rugby league stadiums by capacity List of rugby union stadiums by capacity List of tennis stadiums by capacity Seating assignment
GSZ Stadium (1928)
GSZ Stadium or Gymnastic Club Zenon Stadium was a stadium in Larnaca, Cyprus. It was constructed in 1928 thanks to the donation of Demetrios N. Demetriou. From until 1989, the stadium served as the home ground of EPA, Pezoporikos and Alki. In 1989 it was replaced by the new GSZ Stadium. Since 2003 the area serves as a sports park
UEFA Euro 2000
The 2000 UEFA European Football Championship known as Euro 2000, was the 11th UEFA European Championship, held every four years and organised by UEFA, association football's governing body in Europe. The finals of Euro 2000 were co-hosted by Belgium and the Netherlands, between 10 June and 2 July 2000. Spain and Austria bid to host the event; the final tournament was contested by 16 nations. With the exception of the national teams of the hosts and the Netherlands, the finalists had to go through a qualifying round to reach the final stage. France won the tournament, by defeating Italy 2–1 in the final, via a golden goal; the finals saw the first major UEFA competition contested in the King Baudouin Stadium since the events of the 1985 European Cup Final and the Heysel Stadium disaster, with the opening game being played in the rebuilt stadium. A high-scoring tournament with many exciting matches and a high standard of play, Euro 2000 is named by football writers as one of the greatest international tournaments ever.
Belgium and the Netherlands were selected as co-hosts on 14 July 1995 by the UEFA Executive Committee at a meeting in Geneva, Switzerland. Football hooliganism was a significant problem in the Netherlands in the 1990s the fierce rivalry between AFC Ajax and Feyenoord. There was concerns. Many instances of violence occurred, including several football riots in Rotterdam between 1995 and 1999, which would host the Euro 2000 final. One of the most infamous incidents was the Battle of Beverwijk in 1997. Although the violence is associated with domestic clubs, there were concerns that it could attach to the Dutch national team. Violence did occur during the Euro 2000 finals, albeit not involving the Dutch team. On 17 June, 174 England fans were arrested in Brussels, following violence with Germans ahead of an England v Germany match. One of the biggest surprises of the tournament was Portugal, winning Group A with three wins, including a 3–0 win against Germany, with Sérgio Conceição scoring a hat-trick, a 3–2 win over England, in which they came back from 2–0 down.
Romania was the other qualifier from the group, beating England with a late penalty in their last group game. Belgium had a surprise exit in the group stage, winning the tournament's first game against Sweden, but losing to Turkey and Italy, they finished third behind Italy and Turkey. The other co-host and favourite, the Netherlands, progressed as expected from Group D, along with World Cup winners France; the Netherlands won the group, by beating France in their last group match. In Group D, Denmark's three losses with eight goals conceded and none scored set a new record for the worst team performance in the group stages of a Euros. Group C was memorable for the match between FR Spain. Spain needed a win to ensure progression, but found themselves trailing 3–2, after Slobodan Komljenović scored in the 75th minute; the Spanish side rescued their tournament by scoring twice in injury time to record a 4–3 victory. FR Yugoslavia managed to go through as well, despite losing because Norway and Slovenia played to a draw.
Italy and Portugal maintained their perfect records in the quarter-finals, beating Romania and Turkey and the Netherlands started a goal-avalanche against FR Yugoslavia, winning 6–1. Spain fell 2–1 to France. Italy eliminated the Netherlands in the semi-finals, despite going down to ten men and facing two penalty kicks. Italian goalkeeper Francesco Toldo, drafted into the starting XI as Gianluigi Buffon missed the tournament through injury, made two saves in the penalty shootout to carry the Italians to the final. In the other semi-final, Portugal lost in extra time to France after Zinedine Zidane converted a controversial penalty kick. Several Portuguese players challenged the awarding of the penalty for a handball and were given lengthy suspensions for shoving the referee. France won the tournament, defeating Italy 2–1 in the final with a golden goal by David Trezeguet after equalising with a last-minute goal, became the first team to win the European championship while being world champion.
In Britain, Match of the Day named Stefano Fiore's goal against Belgium the Goal of the Tournament, ahead of Patrick Kluivert's against France and Zinedine Zidane's against Spain. Qualification for the tournament took place throughout 1998 and 1999. Forty-nine teams were divided into nine groups and each played the others in their group, on a home-and-away basis; the winner of each group and the best runner-up qualified automatically for the final tournament. The eight other runners-up played an additional set of play-off matches to determine the last four qualifiers. Belgium and the Netherlands automatically qualified for the tournament as co-hosts; the composition of pots 1 to 3 was based on the teams' UEFA coefficient at the end of 1999. The finals draw took place on 12 December 1999. Prior to the draw, the seeded teams in Pot 1 were assigned positions: Germany to A1, Belgium to B1, Spain to C1, the Netherlands to D1. Teams were drawn consecutively from Pots 2 to 4 into a group, with each team being assigned a specific position.
The draw resulted in the following groups: Capacity figures are those for matches at UEFA Euro 2000 and are not the total capacity that the stadium is capable of holding. The 16 national teams each stayed in their own "team base camp" during the tournament; each national team had to submit a sq
Turkish invasion of Cyprus
The Turkish invasion of Cyprus, code-named by Turkey as Operation Attila, was a Turkish military invasion of the island country of Cyprus. It was launched on 20 July 1974, following the Cypriot coup d'état on 15 July 1974; the coup had been ordered by the military Junta in Greece and staged by the Cypriot National Guard in conjunction with EOKA-B. It installed the pro-Enosis Nikos Sampson; the aim of the coup was the Union of Cyprus with Greece, the Hellenic Republic of Cyprus to be declared. In July 1974, Turkish forces invaded and captured 3% of the island before a ceasefire was declared; the Greek military junta was replaced by a democratic government. In August 1974 another Turkish invasion resulted in the capture of 40% of the island; the ceasefire line from August 1974 became the United Nations Buffer Zone in Cyprus and is referred to as the Green Line. Around 150,000 people were expelled from the occupied northern part of the island, where Greek Cypriots constituted 80% of the population.
A little over a year in 1975 60,000 Turkish Cypriots, amounting to half the Turkish Cypriot population, were displaced from the south to the north. The Turkish invasion ended in the partition of Cyprus along the UN-monitored Green Line, which still divides Cyprus, the formation of a de facto autonomous Turkish Cypriot administration in the north. In 1983 the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus declared independence, although Turkey is the only country that recognizes it; the international community considers the TRNC's territory as Turkish-occupied territory of the Republic of Cyprus. The occupation is viewed as illegal under international law, amounting to illegal occupation of European Union territory since Cyprus became its member; the invasion's Turkish Armed Forces code name was Operation Atilla. Among Turkish speakers the operation is referred as "Cyprus Peace Operation" or "Operation Peace" or "Cyprus Operation", as they claim that Turkey took military action on the pretext of a peacekeeping operation.
In 1571 the Greek-populated island of Cyprus was conquered by the Ottoman Empire, following the Ottoman–Venetian War. After 300 years of Ottoman rule the island and its population was leased to Britain by the Cyprus Convention, an agreement reached during the Congress of Berlin in 1878 between the United Kingdom and the Ottoman Empire. Britain formally annexed Cyprus on 5 November 1914 as a reaction to the Ottoman Empire's decision to join the First World War on the side of the Central Powers. Article 20 of the Treaty of Lausanne in 1923 marked the end of the Turkish claim to the island. Article 21 of the treaty gave Turkish nationals ordinarily resident in Cyprus the choice of leaving the island within 2 years or to remain as British subjects. At this time the population of Cyprus was composed of both Greeks and Turks, who identified themselves with their respective "mother" countries. However, the elites of both communities shared the belief that they were more progressive and therefore distinct from the mainlanders.
Greek and Turkish Cypriots lived side by side for many years. Broadly, three main forces can be held responsible for transforming two ethnic communities into two national ones: education, British colonial practices, insular religious teachings accompanying economic development. Formal education was the most important as it affected Cypriots during childhood and youth. British colonial policies promoted ethnic polarization; the British, many believe, applied the principle of "divide and rule", setting the two groups against each other to prevent combined action against colonial rule. For example, when Greek Cypriots rebelled in the 1950s, the colonial office expanded the size of the Auxiliary Police and in September 1955, established the Special Mobile Reserve, made up of Turkish Cypriots, to crush EOKA; this and similar practices contributed to inter-communal animosity. Although economic development and increased education reduced the explicitly religious characteristics of the two communities, the growth of nationalism on the two mainlands increased the significance of other differences.
Turkish nationalism was at the core of the revolutionary program promoted by the father of modern Turkey, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk and affected Turkish Cypriots who followed his principles. President of the Republic of Turkey from 1923 to 1938, Atatürk attempted to build a new nation on the ruins of the Ottoman Empire and elaborated the program of "six principles" to do so; these principles of secularism and nationalism reduced Islam's role in the everyday life of individuals and emphasized Turkish identity as the main source of nationalism. Traditional education with a religious foundation was discarded and replaced with one that followed secular principles and, shorn of Arab and Persian influences, was purely Turkish. Turkish Cypriots adopted the secular program of Turkish nationalism. Under Ottoman rule Turkish Cypriots had been classified as a distinction based on religion. Being secular, Atatürk's program made their Turkish identity paramount, may have further reinforced their division from their
Ermis Aradippou FC
Ermis Aradippou is a Cypriot professional football club based in Aradippou, a settlement on the outskirts of the city of Larnaca. The club is playing in the Cypriot First Division, the top league of Cypriot football. Since its formation in 1958, the club has won the Cypriot Super Cup in 2014. Ermis have a long-standing rivalry with their neighbouring club Omonia. Ermis spent most of its history in the Cypriot Second Division, first competing in the top flight in 1983, appearing in two more editions of the competition during that decade. After being relegated in 2002, the club returned to division one for 2009–10, managing to stay afloat for the first time in its history, after finishing in ninth position. In the 2011–12 season the club was relegated to the second division after three successive seasons in the top flight; the club has achieved a record four successive seasons in the top flight since 2013. Cypriot Super Cup:2014Cypriot Second Division:1982–83, 1984–85, 2008–09Cypriot Third Division:1975–76, 1996–97, 2006–07 Notes3Q: Third qualifying round As of 19 March 2019Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules.
Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. For recent transfers, see List of Cypriot football transfers winter 2018–19. Dušan Mitošević Demetris Ioannou João Carlos Pereira Nicos Panayiotou Nikodimos Papavasiliou Mitchell van der Gaag Ioannis Okkas Pavlos Dermitzakis Nicos Panayiotou Ermis Zoniana Official website