Order of the Crown (Belgium)
The Order of the Crown is a national order of the Kingdom of Belgium. It is considered in diplomatic traffic as a gift of very high value, th Order was established on October 15,1897 by King Leopold II in his capacity as ruler of the Congo Free State. The order was first intended to recognize heroic deeds and distinguished service achieved for service in the Congo Free State—many of which soon became highly controversial. In 1908, the Order of the Crown was made a decoration of Belgium. Currently, the Order of the Crown is awarded for services rendered to the Belgian state, the Order of the Crown is awarded for distinguished artistic, literary or scientific achievements, or for commercial or industrial services in Belgium or Africa. The Order may be bestowed to foreign nationals and is awarded to military. During the Second World War, the Order of the Crown was extensively authorized for award to Allied military personnel who had helped to liberate Belgium from the forces of Nazi Germany. The Order of the Crown is awarded by royal decree, the badge of the Order is a white-enamelled Maltese cross with straight rays, in silver for the Knight class and in gold for the higher classes.
The obverse central disc has a crown on a blue enamelled background. The badge is suspended from a wreath of laurel and oak leaves. The plaque for Grand Cross is a faceted silver five-pointed star with rays between the branches of the star. The centre shows the obverse of a commanders cross, the plaque for Grand Officer is a faceted five-armed Maltese asterisk, with golden rays between the arms. The centre shows the obverse of an officers cross, the medal is round in gold and bronze versions, with a suspension in the form of a royal crown with two pendelia and a ribbon ring. The obverse shows a finely ribbed central area with bead surround, the surrounding circlet carries the motto of the Belgian Congo, Travail et Progrès —the issues are bilingual including the Dutch Arbeid en Vooruitgang in the lower half of the circlet. The reverse is a stylised double L crowned Leopold II monogram within a palm wreath, the ribbon of the order is usually plain maroon. Stars and borders or stripes can be awarded together, but these deviations are currently only rarely awarded, the ribbon of the palms and medals has a vertical white border on both sides as well as a metal pin showing a reduction of the palm or medal. A number of different regulations rule the award of national orders for the various ministries, in addition, the national orders may be awarded by the king for especially meritorious deeds.
The royal decrees are published in the Belgian official journal, Moniteur Belge, for people who are not Belgian honours are not published in the Moniteur and bestowed all year round by the foreign office
Driven forward by military escorts, the deportees were deprived of food and water and subjected to periodic robbery and massacre. Most Armenian diaspora communities around the world came into being as a result of the genocide. Raphael Lemkin was explicitly moved by the Armenian annihilation to define systematic and premeditated exterminations within legal parameters, the successor state of the Ottoman Empire, denies the word genocide as an accurate term for the mass killings of Armenians that began under Ottoman rule in 1915. It has in recent years been faced with repeated calls to them as genocide. To date,29 countries have recognized the mass killings as genocide, as have most genocide scholars. The western portion of historical Armenia, known as Western Armenia, had come under Ottoman rule following the Peace of Amasya, the region was alternatively referred to as Turkish Armenia or Ottoman Armenia. The Armenian community was made up of three denominations, Armenian Catholic, Armenian Protestant, and Armenian Apostolic, the religion of a vast majority of Armenians.
Through the millet system, the Armenian community were allowed to rule themselves under their own system of governance with fairly little interference from the Ottoman government, Ottoman census figures clash with the statistics collected by the Armenian Patriarchate. According to the latter, there were almost three million Armenians living in the empire in 1878, in the Ottoman Empire, in accordance with the dhimmi system implemented in Muslim countries, like all other Christians and Jews, were accorded certain freedoms. The dhimmi system in the Ottoman Empire was largely based upon the Pact of Umar, while the Pact of Umar prohibited non-Muslims from building new places of worship, it was not enforced in all regions of the Ottoman Empire. Since there were no laws concerning religious ghettos, the prohibition of non-Muslims building new places of worship led to their clustering around existing ones and it did not mean religious persecution, it meant unutterable contempt. They were dogs and pigs, and their nature was to be Christians, to be spat upon, if their shadow darkened a Turk, to be outraged, in addition to other legal limitations, Christians were not considered equals to Muslims and several prohibitions were placed on them.
They were forbidden to carry weapons or ride horses and camels. Their houses could not overlook those of Muslims, and their religious practices were severely circumscribed, from 1839 to the declaration of a constitution in 1876, the Ottoman government instituted the Tanzimat, a series of reforms designed to improve the status of minorities. Nevertheless, most of the reforms were never implemented because the empires Muslim population rejected the principle of equality for Christians. By the late 1870s, the Greeks, along several other Christian nations in the Balkans, frustrated with their conditions, often with the help of the great powers. The Armenians remained, by and large, passive during these years, in the mid-1860s and early 1870s this passivity gave way to new currents of thinking in Armenian society. The Ottoman government considered these grievances and promised to punish those responsible, under growing pressure, the government of Sultan Abdul Hamid II declared itself a constitutional monarchy with a parliament and entered into negotiations with the powers
London /ˈlʌndən/ is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south east of the island of Great Britain and it was founded by the Romans, who named it Londinium. Londons ancient core, the City of London, largely retains its 1. 12-square-mile medieval boundaries. London is a global city in the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism. It is crowned as the worlds largest financial centre and has the fifth- or sixth-largest metropolitan area GDP in the world, London is a world cultural capital. It is the worlds most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the worlds largest city airport system measured by passenger traffic, London is the worlds leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. Londons universities form the largest concentration of education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted the modern Summer Olympic Games three times, London has a diverse range of people and cultures, and more than 300 languages are spoken in the region.
Its estimated mid-2015 municipal population was 8,673,713, the largest of any city in the European Union, Londons urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census. The citys metropolitan area is the most populous in the EU with 13,879,757 inhabitants, the city-region therefore has a similar land area and population to that of the New York metropolitan area. London was the worlds most populous city from around 1831 to 1925, Other famous landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Pauls Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square, and The Shard. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world, the etymology of London is uncertain. It is an ancient name, found in sources from the 2nd century and it is recorded c.121 as Londinium, which points to Romano-British origin, and hand-written Roman tablets recovered in the city originating from AD 65/70-80 include the word Londinio. The earliest attempted explanation, now disregarded, is attributed to Geoffrey of Monmouth in Historia Regum Britanniae and this had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had allegedly taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
From 1898, it was accepted that the name was of Celtic origin and meant place belonging to a man called *Londinos. The ultimate difficulty lies in reconciling the Latin form Londinium with the modern Welsh Llundain, which should demand a form *lōndinion, from earlier *loundiniom. The possibility cannot be ruled out that the Welsh name was borrowed back in from English at a date, and thus cannot be used as a basis from which to reconstruct the original name. Until 1889, the name London officially applied only to the City of London, two recent discoveries indicate probable very early settlements near the Thames in the London area
The Holocaust, referred to as the Shoah, was a genocide in which some six million European Jews were killed by Adolf Hitlers Nazi Germany, and the World War II collaborators with the Nazis. The victims included 1.5 million children, and represented about two-thirds of the nine million Jews who had resided in Europe, killings took place throughout German-occupied Europe, as well as within Nazi Germany, and across all territories controlled by its allies. Other victims of Nazi crimes included ethnic Poles and other Slavs, Soviet citizens and Soviet POWs, homosexuals, Jehovahs Witnesses, some 42,500 detention facilities were utilized in the concentration of victims for the purpose of gross violations of human rights. Over 200,000 people are estimated to have been Holocaust perpetrators, the persecution was carried out in stages, culminating in the policy of extermination of European Jews termed the Final Solution to the Jewish Question. Following Hitlers rise to power, the German government passed laws to exclude Jews from civil society, starting in 1933 the Nazis began to establish a network of concentration camps.
After the outbreak of war in 1939 both German and foreign Jews were herded into wartime ghettos, in 1941, as Germany began to conquer new territory in the East, all anti-Jewish measures radicalized. Specialized paramilitary units called Einsatzgruppen murdered around two million Jews in mass shootings actions in less than a year, by mid-1942, victims were being regularly transported by freight trains to extermination camps where, if they survived the journey, most were systematically killed in gas chambers. This continued until the end of World War II in Europe in April–May 1945, the most notable exception was the Warsaw Ghetto uprising of 1943, when thousands of poorly-armed Jewish fighters held the Waffen-SS at bay for four weeks. An estimated 20, 000–30,000 Jewish partisans actively fought against the Nazis, French Jews took part in the French Resistance, which conducted a guerilla campaign against the Nazis and Vichy French authorities. Over a hundred armed Jewish uprisings took place, the term holocaust comes from the Greek adjective holókaustos, a variant of holókautos, referring to an animal sacrifice offered to a god in which the whole animal is completely burnt.
Often used substantively in apposition with the noun thysia, the term appears in a fragment of pseudo-Callisthenes, writing in Latin, Jerome Latinized the Greek word as a neuter noun holocaustum, using it to translate references to the Jewish burnt offering in his translations of Exodus and Leviticus. In his Chronicon de rebus gestis Ricardi Primi, Richard of Devizes, the English poet John Milton had used the word to denote a conflagration in his 1671 poem Samson Agonistes and the word gradually developed to mean a massacre thereon. The term was used in the 1950s by historians as a translation of the Jewish word shoah to refer specifically to the Nazi genocide of Jews, the television mini-series Holocaust is credited with introducing the term into common parlance after 1978. The biblical word shoah, meaning calamity became the standard Hebrew term for the Holocaust as early as the 1940s, especially in Europe and Israel. Shoah is preferred by some Jews for several reasons including the offensive nature of the word holocaust which they take to refer to the Greek pagan custom.
The Nazis used the phrase Final Solution to the Jewish Question, all branches of Germanys bureaucracy were engaged in the logistics that led to the genocides, turning the Third Reich into what one Holocaust scholar, Michael Berenbaum, has called a genocidal state. Every arm of the countrys sophisticated bureaucracy was involved in the killing process, as prisoners entered the death camps, they were made to surrender all personal property, which was catalogued and tagged before being sent to Germany to be reused or recycled. Berenbaum writes that the Final Solution of the Jewish question was in the eyes of the perpetrators, through a concealed account, the German National Bank helped launder valuables stolen from the victims
Winchester College is an independent boarding school for boys in the British public school tradition, situated in Winchester, Hampshire. It has existed in its present location for over 600 years and it is the oldest of the original seven English public schools defined by the Clarendon Commission and regulated by the Public Schools Act 1868. It is sometimes referred to by pupils, former pupils and others as Win, the upper-class lifestyle magazine Tatler named the school as its Public School of the Year in 2010. Winchester College was founded in 1382 by William of Wykeham, Bishop of Winchester and it was founded in conjunction with New College, for which it was designed to act as a feeder, the buildings of both colleges were designed by master mason William Wynford. In addition to the 70 scholars and 16 Quiristers, the provided for ten noble Commoners. These Commoners were paying guests of the Headmaster or Second Master in his apartments in College. In the 1860s New Commoners was closed and converted to classrooms, at the same time two more houses were acquired and added to the Houses category, a tenth was acquired in 1905 and allotted to Commoners.
There are therefore now ten houses in addition to College, which continues to occupy the original 14th-century buildings, from the late 1970s there has been a continual process of extension to and upgrading of College Chambers. The Scholars live in the buildings, known as College. College is not usually referred to as a house, hence the terms housemaster of College and College house are not generally used, the housemaster of College is now known as the Master in College, though these duties formerly belonged to the Second Master. Within the school, College refers only to the body of scholars, Winchester College, every pupil at Winchester, apart from the Scholars, lives in a boarding house, chosen or allocated when applying to Winchester. It is here that he studies and sleeps, each house is presided over by a housemaster and a number of house tutors. Houses compete in competitions, mostly in sporting competitions. Each house has a name, usually based on the family name of the first housemaster.
Each house has a name, which is more frequently used in speech. Each house has a letter assigned to it, in the order of their founding, to act as an abbreviation, especially on laundry tags. A member of a house is described by the name of the house with -ite suffixed, as a Furleyite, a Toyeite. The houses have been ordered by their year of founding, College does not have an informal name, although the abbreviation Coll is sometimes used, especially on written work
Worcestershire is a county in the West Midlands of England. Between 1974 and 1998, it was merged with the county of Herefordshire as Hereford. The cathedral city of Worcester is the largest settlement and county town, other towns in the county include Redditch, Stourport-on-Severn, Evesham and Malvern. The north-east of Worcestershire includes part of the industrial West Midlands, the county is divided into six administrive districts, Redditch, Malvern Hills, Wyre Forest, and Bromsgrove. The county borders Herefordshire, Staffordshire, West Midlands, Warwickshire, to the west, the county is bordered by the Malvern Hills and the spa town of Malvern. The south of the county is bordered by Gloucestershire and the edge of the Cotswolds. Two major rivers flow through the county, the Severn and the Avon, Worcestershire was the heartland of the early English kingdom of the Hwicce. It was absorbed by the Kingdom of Mercia during the 7th century and it was a separate ealdormanship briefly in the 10th century before forming part of the Earldom of Mercia in the 11th century.
In the years leading up to the Norman conquest, the Church, supported by the cathedral, Evesham Abbey, Pershore Abbey, Malvern Priory, and other religious houses, increasingly dominated the county. The last known Anglo-Saxon sheriff of the county was Cyneweard of Laughern, on 4 August 1265, Simon de Montfort was killed in the Battle of Evesham in Worcestershire. In 1642, the Battle of Powick Bridge was the first major skirmish of the English Civil War, during the Middle Ages, much of the countys economy was based on the wool trade. Many areas of its forests, such as Feckenham Forest, Horewell Forest. Droitwich Spa, situated on large deposits of salt, was a centre of production from Roman times. These old industries have declined, to be replaced by other. The county is home to the worlds oldest continually published newspaper. Malvern was one of the centres of the 19th century rise in English spa towns due to Malvern water being believed to be very pure, containing nothing at all. The 2011 census found the population of Worcestershire to be 566,169, while this change is in line with the nationwide trend of White British peoples share of the population shrinking, Worcestershire is still much more ethnically homogeneous than the national average.
In 2011 England as a whole was 79. 8% White British, the most notable were Dudley and the area around Shipston-on-Stour
Egypt, officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula. Egypt is a Mediterranean country bordered by the Gaza Strip and Israel to the northeast, the Gulf of Aqaba to the east, the Red Sea to the east and south, Sudan to the south, and Libya to the west. Across the Gulf of Aqaba lies Jordan, and across from the Sinai Peninsula lies Saudi Arabia, although Jordan and it is the worlds only contiguous Afrasian nation. Egypt has among the longest histories of any country, emerging as one of the worlds first nation states in the tenth millennium BC. Considered a cradle of civilisation, Ancient Egypt experienced some of the earliest developments of writing, urbanisation, organised religion and central government. One of the earliest centres of Christianity, Egypt was Islamised in the century and remains a predominantly Muslim country. With over 92 million inhabitants, Egypt is the most populous country in North Africa and the Arab world, the third-most populous in Africa, and the fifteenth-most populous in the world.
The great majority of its people live near the banks of the Nile River, an area of about 40,000 square kilometres, the large regions of the Sahara desert, which constitute most of Egypts territory, are sparsely inhabited. About half of Egypts residents live in areas, with most spread across the densely populated centres of greater Cairo, Alexandria. Modern Egypt is considered to be a regional and middle power, with significant cultural and military influence in North Africa, the Middle East and the Muslim world. Egypts economy is one of the largest and most diversified in the Middle East, Egypt is a member of the United Nations, Non-Aligned Movement, Arab League, African Union, and Organisation of Islamic Cooperation. Miṣr is the Classical Quranic Arabic and modern name of Egypt. The name is of Semitic origin, directly cognate with other Semitic words for Egypt such as the Hebrew מִצְרַיִם, the oldest attestation of this name for Egypt is the Akkadian
Birkbeck, University of London
Birkbeck, University of London, is a public research university located in Bloomsbury, England, and a constituent college of the federal University of London. It is regarded as one of the leading universities for excellence in research. Birkbecks historic and main building is based in the Bloomsbury zone of Camden, in Central London, in partnership with University of East London, Birkbeck has an additional large campus in Stratford, next to the Theatre Royal. Birkbeck offers over 200 undergraduate and postgraduate programmes that can be studied either part-time or full-time and its staff members have optimal research reputation. Birkbecks academic activities are organised into five constituent faculties which are subdivided into nineteen departments and it offers many continuing education courses leading to certificates and diplomas, foundation degrees, and short courses. Research at Birkbeck in 11 subject areas is rated as ‘internationally excellent’, being part of the University of London, shares the University’s academic standards and awards University of London degrees.
In common with the other University of London colleges, Birkbeck has secured its own independent degree awarding powers, the quality of degrees awarded by Birkbeck was confirmed by the UK Quality Assurance Agency following institutional audits in 2005 and 2010. Birkbeck has been acknowledged as a ‘global elite‘ university and it is often shortlisted by the Times Higher Education Awards as University of the Year, the university was awarded The Queen’s Anniversary Prize for excellence in higher education research in 2006. Birkbeck has produced notable alumni in the fields of science, politics, literature, art. Alumni include four Nobel laureates, numerous political leaders, members of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, however the idea was not universally popular and some accused Birkbeck of scattering the seeds of evil. Two years later, the moved to the Southampton Buildings on Chancery Lane. In 1830, the first female students were admitted, in 1858, changes to the University of Londons structure resulting in an opening up of access to the examinations for its degree.
The Institute became the provider of part-time university education. The early twentieth century saw further developments, with Birkbeck Students Union being established in 1904, in 1913, a review of the University of London successfully recommended that Birkbeck become a constituent college, although the outbreak of the First World War delayed this until 1920. The Royal Charter for the college was granted in 1926, the colleges first female professor, Dame Helen Gwynne-Vaughan began teaching botany in 1921. Among the other distinguished faculty in the years were Nikolaus Pevsner, J. D. Bernal. During the Second World War, Birkbeck was the only central University of London college not to out of the capital. In 1941, the library suffered a hit during The Blitz
Modern history, the modern period or the modern era, is the global historiographical approach to the timeframe after the Post-classical history. It took all of history up to 1804 for the worlds population to reach 1 billion. Contemporary history is the span of historic events from approximately 1945 that are relevant to the present time. Some events, while not without precedent, show a new way of perceiving the world, the concept of modernity interprets the general meaning of these events and seeks explanations for major developments. The fundamental difficulty of studying modern history is the fact that a plethora of it has been documented up to the present day and it is imperative to consider the reliability of the information obtained from these records. In the pre-modern era, many peoples sense of self and purpose was expressed via a faith in some form of deity. Pre-modern cultures have not been thought of creating a sense of distinct individuality, religious officials, who often held positions of power, were the spiritual intermediaries to the common person.
It was only through intermediaries that the general masses had access to the divine. Tradition was sacred to ancient cultures and was unchanging and the order of ceremony. The term modern was coined in the 16th century to present or recent times. New information about the world was discovered via empirical observation, versus the use of reason. The term Early Modern was introduced in the English language in the 1930s, to distinguish the time between what we call Middle Ages and time of the late Enlightenment. It is important to note that these terms stem from European history, in the Contemporary era, there were various socio-technological trends. Regarding the 21st century and the modern world, the Information Age and computers were forefront in use, not completely ubiquitous. The development of Eastern powers was of note, with China, in the Eurasian theater, the European Union and Russian Federation were two forces recently developed. A concern for Western world, if not the world, was the late modern form of terrorism.
The modern period has been a period of significant development in the fields of science, warfare and it has been an age of discovery and globalization. During this time, the European powers and their colonies, began a political, the modern era is closely associated with the development of individualism, urbanization and a belief in the possibilities of technological and political progress
The 11th Hussars was a cavalry regiment of the British Army established in 1715. It saw service for three including the First World War and Second World War but amalgamated with the 10th Royal Hussars to form the Royal Hussars in 1969. The regiment was raised by Colonel Philip Honeywood as Colonel Philip Honeywoods Regiment of Dragoons in 1715 as part of the response to the Jacobite rebellion, a troop was detached to form the 19th Dragoons in February 1779. The regiment fought at the Battle of Culloden in April 1746 during the Jacobite rising of 1745 after which it was retitled the 11th Regiment of Dragoons in 1751. The regiment took part in the Raid on St Malo in June 1758 and it took part in a charge at Battle of Warburg in July 1760 and was present at the Battle of Villinghausen in July 1761. A further name change, to the 11th Regiment of Light Dragoons, the regiment returned to England in autumn 1795. The regiment saw action at the Battle of Alkmaar in October 1799, the regiment formed part of the covering force at the Siege of Badajoz in April 1812 and drove back the French out-posts at the Battle of Salamanca in July 1812 during the Peninsular War.
The regiment were sent to India aboard the Indiamen Atlas. In 1840, the regiment was retitled 11th Hussars after Prince Albert, Queen Victorias consort and its new uniform by coincidence included cherry coloured trousers, unique among British regiments and worn since in most orders of uniform except battledress and fatigues. The regiment next saw action, as part of the brigade under the command of Major General the Earl of Cardigan. The regiment was in the line of cavalry on the left flank during the Charge of the Light Brigade at the Battle of Balaclava in October 1854. The regiment lost 3 officers and 55 men in the debacle, the regiment was renamed the 11th Hussars in 1861. It provided troops for the Nile Expedition in 1884 and took part in Siege of Ladysmith in winter 1899 during the Second Boer War. The regiment landed in France as part of the 1st Cavalry Brigade in the 1st Cavalry Division in August 1914 for service on the Western Front with the British Expeditionary Force. The regiment took part in the Great Retreat and the regiment, working with the 2nd Dragoon Guards, in spring 1918 the commanding officer of the regiment Colonel Rowland Anderson led a bayonet assault at Sailly-Laurette which, taking the Germans by surprise, led to them being completely repulsed.
It captured Fort Capuzzo in June 1940 and, in an ambush east of Bardia, captured General Lastucci, the Engineer-in-Chief of the Italian Tenth Army. Following the Italian invasion of Egypt in September 1940, the regiment took part in the British counterattack called Operation Compass, launched against Italian forces first in Egypt, the regiment fought at the Second Battle of El Alamein in October 1942. The regiment took part in the Allied invasion of Italy in September 1943 and, after the Normandy landings in June 1944 and it deployed to Johor Bahru in Malaya in July 1953 during the Malayan Emergency