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Antrim County, Michigan

Antrim County is a county located in the U. S. state of Michigan. As of the 2010 census, the population was 23,580; the county seat is Bellaire. The name is taken from County Antrim in Northern Ireland. YMCA Camp Hayo-Went-Ha, the oldest American summer camp that sits on its original site, occupies about one square mile on the shore of Torch Lake in Central Lake Township. Boys first attended Hayo-Went-Ha in 1904; the county was formed in 1840 as Meegisee County. Meegisee, was the name of a Chippewa chief who signed the 1821 Treaty of Chicago and the 1826 Treaty of Mississinewas, it was renamed Antrim County in 1843, one of the Irish or Scots Irish names given to five renamed Michigan counties at that time in deference to the increasing number of settlers of Irish and Scots Irish heritage in Michigan at that time. In the text of the 1843 legislative act, the name was misspelled as "Antim". Separate county government was organized in 1863; the county seat was located in Elk Rapids, but was moved to Bellaire in 1904 after 25 years of litigation.

In 1950 its population was 10,721. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 602 square miles, of which 476 square miles is land and 126 square miles is water; the county is considered to be part of Northern Michigan. Glaciers shaped the area. A large portion of the area is Grayling outwash plain, which consists of broad outwash plain including sandy ice-disintegration ridges. Large lakes were created by glacial action. Antrim County Airport - county-owned public-use airport, northeast of Bellaire, for general aviation. One paved runway. No airline service; as of the 2010 United States Census, there were 23,580 people, 9,890 households, 6,925 families in the county. The population density was 49 people per square mile. There were 17,824 housing units at an average density of 37 per square mile. 96.8% of the population were White, 1.0% Native American, 0.2% Asian, 0.2% Black or African American, 0.4% of some other race and 1.4% of two or more races. 1.7 % were Latino. 20.2% were of German, 13.4% English, 8.9% Irish, 6.9% French, French Canadian or Cajun, 6.9% Polish and 6.4% American ancestry.

There were 9,222 households out of which 26% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.30% were married couples living together, 8.30% had a female householder with no husband present, 30% were non-families. 25.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.50% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.36 and the average family size was 2.78. The county population contained 21.10% under the age of 18, 6.30% from 19 to 24, 3.9% from 25 to 44, 31.1% from 45 to 64, 22.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 47 years. For every 100 females there were 99.80 males. Antrim County has been reliably Republican since its organization. Since 1884 its voters have selected the Republican Party nominee in 94% of the national elections through 2016. Antrim County operates the County jail, maintains rural roads, operates the major local courts, records deeds and vital records, administers public health regulations, participates with the state in the provision of social services.

The county board of commissioners controls the budget and has limited authority to make laws or ordinances. In Michigan, most local government functions – police and fire and zoning, tax assessment, street maintenance etc. – are the responsibility of individual cities and townships. Bellaire Central Lake Elk Rapids Ellsworth Mancelona Alba Alden Eastport Lakes of the North Grand Traverse Indian Reservation, which has territories in five counties, occupies two small sections within Helena Township and one section in Milton Township. Antrim City – former lumber company town on Lake Michigan Chestonia – in Jordan Township.

1972 Aldershot bombing

The 1972 Aldershot bombing was a car bomb attack by the Official Irish Republican Army on 22 February 1972 in Aldershot, England. The bomb targeted the headquarters of the British Army's 16th Parachute Brigade and was claimed as a revenge attack for Bloody Sunday. Seven civilian staff were killed and 19 were wounded, it was the Official IRA's largest attack in Britain during "the Troubles" and one of its last major actions before it declared a permanent ceasefire in May 1972. Official IRA member Noel Jenkinson was imprisoned for his part in the bombing; the 1969 Northern Ireland riots marked the beginning of the conflict known as the Troubles. To maintain law and order in Northern Ireland the British Army was deployed on to its streets in rioting hot-spots such as Derry and Belfast to support the Royal Ulster Constabulary. In December 1969 the Irish Republican Army split into two factions – the Official IRA and the Provisional IRA. Both factions' retaliation against the British Army during the Falls Curfew in Belfast resulted in paramilitary campaigns against the British state's forces commencing.

On 30 January 1972, soldiers of the 1st Battalion, Parachute Regiment shot 28 unarmed civilians during a Northern Ireland Civil Rights Association march in Derry. Fourteen people died, including teenagers; this incident became known as Bloody Sunday and increased recruitment to the two IRAs. The target of the Official IRA bomb was the headquarters of the 16th Parachute Brigade, elements of, involved in the Bloody Sunday shootings. Despite warnings, the'open' garrison meant. A Ford Cortina car containing a 280 pounds time bomb was left in the car park, deliberately positioned outside the officer's mess; the bomb exploded at 12:40 pm on 22 February, destroying the officer's mess and wrecking several nearby Army office buildings. The soldiers who were the intended targets were not present, as the regiment itself was stationed abroad and most staff officers were in their offices rather than the mess. Nonetheless, seven civilian staff were killed –five female kitchen staff who were leaving the premises, a gardener, Father Gerard Weston.

Nineteen people were wounded by the explosion. Aside from the priest Weston, the others who died during the attack were the gardener John Haslar, the cleaner Jill Mansfield. On 23 February, the Official IRA issued a statement claiming that it had carried out the attack in revenge for Bloody Sunday, it added: "Any civilian casualties would be much regretted as our target was the officers responsible for the Derry outrages". The Official IRA said that the bombing would be the first of many such attacks on the headquarters of British Army regiments serving in Northern Ireland; as the bomb had killed only civilian staff, the Official IRA received harsh and widespread criticism. On 29 May 1972, the Official IRA's leadership called a ceasefire and stated that it would only launch future attacks in self-defence; the Aldershot bombing was believed to have been one of the factors. In November 1972, an OIRA volunteer, Noel Jenkinson, was convicted for his part in the bombing and received a lengthy jail term, dying in prison of heart failure four years later.

A Protestant from Meath, Jenkinson had been living in England since 1958. The remaining conspirators were never captured. Shortly afterwards, many of the parachute regiment battalions were either disbanded or reorganised, leaving Aldershot; the larger and more militant Provisional IRA continued its campaign and began to attack military and commercial targets in Britain

Thomas Mason (priest)

Thomas Mason was an English clergyman and writer. On his own account, he was the grandson of Sir John Mason. Mason was admitted at Magdalen College, Oxford, on 29 November 1594, matriculated on 7 January 1595, he may not have graduated. From 1614 to 1619, Mason held the vicarage of Odiham in Hampshire, died around 1620. On 13 April 1621 his widow, Helen Mason, obtained a licence for twenty-one years to reprint his version of Foxe's Book of Martyrs for the benefit of herself and her children, its dedications to George Abbot and Sir Edward Coke proved their value in getting this protection, for a book that reflected typical political prejudices of the time after the Gunpowder Plot. About ten years Helen Mason's attempt to stretch the monopoly to cover a new abridgement of Foxe's work ran into a legal rebuff, he published: Christ's Victorie over Sathan's Tyrannie, London, 1615. The running title is ‘The Acts of the Church.’ An enlarged edition appeared in 1747–8 in 2 vols. Edited by "Rev. Mr. Bateman, Rector of St. Bartholomew the Great", i.e. Richard Thomas Bateman.

A Revelation of the Revelation … whereby the Pope is most plainly declared and proved to be Anti-Christ, London, 1619. Mason's widow Helen married Stephen Bachiler, as his second wife, or third wife, in 1627. Richard Dummer married Helen's daughter Jane. Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Porter, Bertha. "Mason, Thomas". In Lee, Sidney. Dictionary of National Biography. 36. London: Smith, Elder & Co

Hampton Hawes at the Piano

Hampton Hawes at the Piano is an album by American jazz pianist Hampton Hawes, recorded in 1976 and released on the Contemporary label in 1978. The album was Hawes' final recording before his death in 1977 and was the first to be released posthumously; the Allmusic review by Scott Yanow states: "he was still in prime form". "Killing Me Softly with His Song" - 6:04 "Soul Sign Eight" - 8:11 "Sunny" - 5:00 "Morning" - 7:28 "Blue in Green" - 5:25 "When I Grow Too Old to Dream" - 6:42 Hampton Hawes - piano Ray Brown - bass Shelly Manne - drums

Stuttering Foundation of America

The Stuttering Foundation of America provides free online resources and support to those who stutter and their families, as well as support for research into the causes of stuttering. A 501 nonprofit organization, The Stuttering Foundation was established by Malcolm Fraser, the co-founder of Genuine Parts Company, in 1947 in Memphis, Tennessee The Stuttering Foundation provides a toll-free helpline, free printed and online resources including books, videos, referral services and information for people who stutter and their families, research into the causes of stuttering. Today, Jane Fraser, is president of the Foundation. In 2007, Fraser was named the Nonprofit Executive of the Year by The NonProfit Times; the Foundation sponsors educational conferences and symposia, week-long intensive training workshops for speech-language pathologists. In 1947, Malcolm Fraser, a young man from Memphis, knew about stuttering from personal painful experience, he decided to do what he could to help others who stutter, met with one of the foremost authorities of the day, Dr. Charles Van Riper, to discuss founding a nonprofit charitable organization.

The organization Fraser founded became today's Stuttering Foundation of America. Its goal was to provide the best and most up-to-date information and help available for the prevention of stuttering in young children and the most effective treatment available for teenagers and adults. More than sixty years the Stuttering Foundation continues to pursue these same goals, although the tools to accomplish them are more varied and widespread; as it did when Malcolm Fraser turned his dream into reality, the Foundation dedicates itself to the contemporary concerns of all those who stutter. Malcolm Fraser knew from personal experience, his introduction to stuttering corrective procedures first came at the age of fifteen under the direction of Frederick Martin, M. D. who at that time was Superintendent of Speech Correction for the New York City schools. A few years he worked with J. Stanley Smith, L. L. D. A stutterer and philanthropist, for altruistic reasons, founded the Kingsley Clubs in Philadelphia and New York that were named after the English author, Charles Kingsley, who stuttered.

The Kingsley Clubs were small groups of adult stutterers who met one night a week to try out treatment ideas in effect. In fact, they were practicing group therapy as they talked about their experiences and exchanged ideas; this exchange gave each of the members a better understanding of the problem. The founder led the discussions at both clubs. In 1928 he joined his older brother Carlyle who founded the NAPA Genuine Parts Company that year in Atlanta, Georgia. Malcolm Fraser became an important leader in the company and was outstanding in training others for leadership roles. In 1947, with a successful career under way, he founded the Stuttering Foundation of America. In subsequent years, he generously added $20 million to the endowment so that at the present time, endowment income covers over fifty percent of the operating budget. In 1984, Malcolm Fraser received the fourth annual National Council on Communicative Disorders Distinguished Service Award; the NCCD, a council of 32 national organizations, recognized the Foundation's efforts in "adding to stutterers, parents and the public's awareness and ability to deal constructively with stuttering."

In 1989, Hamilton College, New York, presented Fraser with the honorary degree of Doctor of Humane Letters for his outstanding work on behalf of those who stutter. Malcolm Fraser was honored posthumously with the Charles Van Riper Award, presented by actor James Earl Jones at the 16th annual NCCD Awards Ceremony in Washington, D. C. September, 1997. Established by the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association in 1995, the Van Riper Award was given to Fraser for his outstanding commitment to people who stutter; the Foundation is turning its attention more and more to basic research in an effort to improve early detection and develop better therapies: Neuroimaging studies have enhanced the potential to understand brain-behavior relationships in complex behaviors such as speech and language. Recent studies by Anne Foundas, M. D. Department of Neurology, LSU Health Sciences Center New Orleans, reveal evidence that anatomic anomalies may play a role in stuttering. Finding the genes involved in stuttering holds the promise of revealing some of the underlying causes of stuttering.

The Foundation is involved in projects by Dr. Dennis Drayna of the National Institute on Deafness and other Communicative Disorders searching for genetic markers. In February, 2010, Drayna's research team identified the first 3 genes for stuttering. From its inception, one of the primary goals of the Foundation has been to discuss and attempt to resolve the many questions surrounding stuttering. Through the years, the Foundation has met this challenge through a variety of educational meetings and resources, including: Week-long meetings during which experts in the field create films and books. New technologies are being pursued for more interactive media to help both clinicians and those who stutter. Symposia to educate professionals and to focus on a specific topic such as working with the school-age child. Week-long intensive training workshops for speech language pathologists; these programs are co-sponsored by leading universities throughout the U. S. and abroad. The Foundation's collection of books, DVDs, brochures bring together current information and cover every phase of this complex disorder.

In an alliance to help children who stutter through research and training programs, the Stutt

Cipriano Ferrandini

Cypriano Ferrandini was a hairdresser from Corsica who emigrated to the United States, established himself as the long-time barber and hairdresser in the basement of Barnum's Hotel, in Baltimore, Maryland. There he practiced his trade from the mid-1850s to his retirement long after the close of the Civil War, he was accused, but never indicted for plotting to assassinate President-elect of the United States Abraham Lincoln on February 23, 1861, while once caught in a secessionist dragnet in 1862, was never prosecuted for his pro-Southern convictions. On the nights of February 21 and 22, 1861, Allan Pinkerton and Frederick Seward warned Lincoln that he ought not to appear in public in Baltimore as scheduled because plans were afoot to assassinate him. Lincoln chose to heed the warning, donned a disguise of a soft cap, passed through Baltimore unseen and unheralded on the night of the 22nd, leaving Mrs. Lincoln and the children to face the crowd awaiting his arrival from Harrisburg the following day, February 23, 1861.

There is disagreement among historians as to whether a plot to assassinate Lincoln in Baltimore existed and Ferrandini's role in such a plot. John Thomas Scharf argued that there was no credible evidence of a plot and no one was arrested for contemplating one, although many other citizens were thrown into jail without benefit of habeas corpus while William Evitts, in A Matter of Allegiances, argued in favor of there being such a plot based on the papers of Allan Pinkerton which The Huntington Library acquired, which Norma B. Cuthbert edited for publication in 1949; the only purported contemporary account of Pinkerton is the transcript of his 1861 journal. Pinkerton's account relies upon one agent and two sources to document Cypriano Ferrandini as the leader of the assassination plot, his agent reported the extent of the plot. In Spy of the Rebellion, Pinkerton asserts that in addition to his spy Howard, he met with Captain Ferrandini, at Guy's Monument Hotel. At Guy's, Pinkerton reports that "Fernandina cordially grasped my hand, we all retired to a private saloon, where after ordering the necessary drinks and cigars, the conversation" turned to the assassination and Ferrandini was asked "Are there no other means of saving the South except by assassination?"

"No replied Fernandina... He must die – and die he shall, And... if necessary, we will die together." To illustrate his story, Pinkerton included a drawing of himself seated at a table with Ferrandini standing, hand upraised as if clutching a dagger. Pinkerton began to doubt Ferrandi's boast. Eighteen days before the alleged timing of the terrorist attack on Lincoln, Cypriano Ferrandini appeared before a Congressional Committee investigating rumors that efforts would be made to prevent the President-elect from reaching his inaugural, or if he did manage to get to Washington disrupt the ceremonies; the committee had been formed at the end of January when the Union appeared to be dissolving. Ferrandini told the Committee the following February that he made his secessionists views clear and had no problems admitting that he was engaged in applying his military training to a group dedicated to preventing the "Northern Volunteers" from passing through Maryland. Baltimore Plot American Civil War spies Allan Pinkerton John Wilkes Booth Ward Hill Lamon George Proctor Kane Hattie Lawton Cuthbert, Norma Barrett.

Lincoln and the Baltimore Plot, 1861.. Note that the factual content of this entry is based upon the on line biography by Dr. Edward C. Papenfuse at the Maryland State Archives web site: Evitts, William J. A Matter of Allegiances- Maryland from 1850-1861. Professor Evitts assessment of Ferrandini has been strengthened by Michael J. Kline, The Baltimore Plot; the First Conspiracy to Assassinate Abraham Lincoln. Pinkerton, A.. The Spy of the Rebellion. Revealing many secrets of the war hitherto not made public. Comp. from official reports prepared for President Lincoln, General McClellan and the provost-marshal-general. New York, G. W. Carleton & Co. United States. Congress. House. Select committee of five, appointed January 9, 1861. See: Cipriano Ferrandini at Find a Grave