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The aorta is the main and largest artery in the human body, originating from the left ventricle of the heart and extending down to the abdomen, where it splits into two smaller arteries. The aorta distributes oxygenated blood to all parts of the body through the systemic circulation. In anatomical sources, the aorta is divided into sections. One way of classifying a part of the aorta is by anatomical compartment, where the thoracic aorta runs from the heart to the diaphragm; the aorta continues downward as the abdominal aorta from the diaphragm to the aortic bifurcation. Another system divides the aorta with the direction of blood flow. In this system, the aorta starts as the ascending aorta, travels superiorly from the heart, makes a hairpin turn known as the aortic arch. Following the aortic arch, the aorta travels inferiorly as the descending aorta; the descending aorta has two parts. The aorta begins to descend in the thoracic cavity and is known as the thoracic aorta. After the aorta passes through the diaphragm, it is known as the abdominal aorta.

The aorta ends by dividing into two major blood vessels, the common iliac arteries and a smaller midline vessel, the median sacral artery. The ascending aorta begins at the opening of the aortic valve in the left ventricle of the heart, it runs through a common pericardial sheath with the pulmonary trunk. These two blood vessels twist around each other, causing the aorta to start out posterior to the pulmonary trunk, but end by twisting to its right and anterior side; the transition from ascending aorta to aortic arch is at the pericardial reflection on the aorta. At the root of the ascending aorta, the lumen has three small pockets between the cusps of the aortic valve and the wall of the aorta, which are called the aortic sinuses or the sinuses of Valsalva; the left aortic sinus contains the origin of the left coronary artery and the right aortic sinus gives rise to the right coronary artery. Together, these two arteries supply the heart; the posterior aortic sinus does not give rise to a coronary artery.

For this reason the left and posterior aortic sinuses are called left-coronary, right-coronary and non-coronary sinuses. The aortic arch loops over the left pulmonary artery and the bifurcation of the pulmonary trunk, to which it remains connected by the ligamentum arteriosum, a remnant of the fetal circulation, obliterated a few days after birth. In addition to these blood vessels, the aortic arch crosses the left main bronchus. Between the aortic arch and the pulmonary trunk is a network of autonomic nerve fibers, the cardiac plexus or aortic plexus; the left vagus nerve, which passes anterior to the aortic arch, gives off a major branch, the recurrent laryngeal nerve, which loops under the aortic arch just lateral to the ligamentum arteriosum. It runs back to the neck; the aortic arch has three major branches: from proximal to distal, they are the brachiocephalic trunk, the left common carotid artery, the left subclavian artery. The brachiocephalic trunk supplies the right side of the head and neck as well as the right arm and chest wall, while the latter two together supply the left side of the same regions.

The aortic arch ends, the descending aorta begins at the level of the intervertebral disc between the fourth and fifth thoracic vertebrae. The thoracic descending aorta gives rise to the intercostal and subcostal arteries, as well as to the superior and inferior left bronchial arteries and variable branches to the esophagus and pericardium, its lowest pair of branches are the superior phrenic arteries, which supply the diaphragm, the subcostal arteries for the twelfth rib. The abdominal aorta begins at the aortic hiatus of the diaphragm at the level of the twelfth thoracic vertebra, it gives rise to lumbar and musculophrenic arteries and middle suprarenal arteries, visceral arteries. It ends in a bifurcation into the left and right common iliac arteries. At the point of the bifurcation, there springs a smaller branch, the median sacral artery; the ascending aorta develops from the outflow tract, which starts as a single tube connecting the heart with the aortic arches in early development but is separated into the aorta and the pulmonary trunk.

The aortic arches start as five pairs of symmetrical arteries connecting the heart with the dorsal aorta, undergo a significant remodelling to form the final asymmetrical structure of the great arteries, with the 3rd pair of arteries contributing to the common carotids, the right 4th forming the base and middle part of the right subclavian artery and the left 4th being the central part of the aortic arch. The smooth muscle of the great arteries and the population of cells that form the aorticopulmonary septum that separates the aorta and pulmonary artery is derived from cardiac neural crest; this contribution of the neural crest to the great artery smooth muscle is unusual as most smooth muscle is derived from mesoderm. In fact the smooth muscle within the abdominal aorta is derived from mesoderm, the coronary arteries, which arise just above the semilunar valves, possess smooth muscle of mesodermal origin. A failure of the aorticopulmonary septum to divide the great vessels results in persistent truncus arteriosus.

The aorta is an elastic artery, as such is quite distensible. The aorta consists of a heterogeneous mixture of smooth muscle, intimal cells, endothelial cells, fibroblast-like cells, a complex extracellular matrix; the vascular wall consists of several layers known a

Claire Du Brey

Claire Du Brey was an American actress. She appeared in more than 200 films between 1916 and 1959, her name is sometimes rendered as Claire Dubrey. Du Brey was born in Bonner's Ferry, Idaho, to an ethnic Croat father from Dalmatia, an Irish-American mother, Lilly Mrs. Richard Fugitt, her parents married on November 1891 in Pocatello, Bannock County, Idaho. She attended a convent school. Du Brey "had trained as a nurse", she related that in 1897 she traveled west from Idaho in a covered wagon with her mother and her grandfather. Du Brey's screen career began with Universal Studios and she played at one time or another with all the larger companies. More notable films in which she appeared were Anything Once, Social Briars, The Devil's Trail, What Every Woman Wants and Dangerous Hours. Other films include The Wishing Ring Man, The Spite Bride, The World Aflame, The Walk Offs, her career declined with the sound era and she played small roles. Du Brey was proficient in athletics, excelling in swimming, golfing and motoring.

She was five feet seven inches high, weighed 130 pounds and had auburn hair and brown eyes, took a lively interest in horticulture. According to two biographies of Marie Dressler published in the late 1990s, Dressler and Du Brey had a long-term romantic relationship; however other sources indicate that Du Brey, who had trained as a nurse, was the elder actress's assistant and caregiver while Dressler was ill with terminal cancer. Du Brey married Los Angeles medical doctor Norman Gates, on November 25, 1911. On August 1, 1993, Du Brey died in Los Angeles, aged 100. Kennedy, Matthew. Marie Dressler: A Biography, With a Listing of Major Stage Performances, a Filmography And a Discography. McFarland. ISBN 0-7864-0520-1. Lee, Betty. Marie Dressler: The Unlikeliest Star. University of Kentucky Press. ISBN 0-8131-2036-5. Claire Du Brey on IMDb


Harzfeld's was a Kansas City, Missouri-based department store chain specializing in women's and children's high-end apparel. The company was founded in 1891, as "Parisian Cloak Company" by Siegmund Harzfeld and partner Ferdinand Siegel. Harzfeld served as president until succeeded by Lester Siegel, Sr.. In February 1966, Lester Siegel, Jr. began serving as the company's third president In 1959, Harzfeld's went public, with its common shares traded on the local over-the-counter stock exchange. In 1972, the chain was acquired for $3 million by the retail conglomerate Garfinckel, Brooks Brothers, Miller & Rhoads, Inc. With the 1981, acquisition of its parent conglomerate, it became a part of Allied Stores. In 1984, the chain was closed; the original location of the Parisian Cloak Company was at 1108 and 1110 Main Street, Kansas City, Missouri. In 1913, the store moved to Main Street and Petticoat Lane and its name was changed to Harzfeld's; the new flagship was designed by noted architect John McKecknie as an office building.

The store expanded into an adjoining building, thereby extending its reach from Main to Walnut Streets. After closing in 1984, the flagship was integrated into the Town Pavilion complex; the store was renowned for a 1947 mural painted by Thomas Hart Benton. After the store closure, the mural, known as "Achelous and Hercules", was acquired by the Smithsonian Institution's American Art Museum in Washington, D. C.. In 1929, Harzfeld's opened its first branch location in Missouri; the store catered to the local college student population of the University of Missouri, Stephens College, Columbia College. On April 10, 1954, Harzfeld's opened its first branch in Kansas City at Country Club Plaza. In 1958, a second branch was opened in the Blue Ridge Mall shopping center. Further expansion occurred in 1963 with the opening of the Corinth Square store. A fifth store in greater Kansas City was opened in the Metcalf South shopping center in 1967. Shortly after its parent conglomerate acquired two Gus Meyer locations in Oklahoma in 1974, it converted them to Harzfeld's.

Harzfeld's website, by Joe & Michele Boeckholt

Nana Dzagnidze

Nana Dzagnidze is a Georgian chess player. She was awarded the title of Grandmaster by FIDE in 2008. Dzagnidze was a member of the gold medal-winning Georgian team in the Women's Chess Olympiad in 2008 and European women's individual champion in 2017. Dzagnidze won the Girls Under 12 section of the World Youth Chess Championships in 1999, she won the gold medal at the World Girls Under 20 Championship in 2003, scoring 2 points ahead of the field. In September 2005 she took part in the sixth Lausanne Young Masters tournament. Andrei Volokitin won the tournament. At the Gibraltar Chess Festival, Dzagnidze won the prize for the best female player in 2009 and 2011. In July 2010 she won in Jermuk the fourth leg of the FIDE Women's Grand Prix series, part of the Women's World Chess Championship cycle for 2011, she drew four, in the eleven-round round-robin tournament. She finished 1½ points ahead of second-place finisher Tatiana Kosintseva. In 2017, she won the European Women's Individual Championship in Riga and the Women's World Blitz Chess Championship in Riyadh.

The winner of the honorary FIDE award of Caissa as the best female player of the year. Chess Award of Caissa and executed by artisans of the Lobortas Classic Jewelry House, was solemnly presented on December 31, 2018 during the closing ceremony of the 2018 World Rapid & Blitz Chess Championship in Saint Petersburg. Dzagnidze has played for the Georgian national team in the Women's Chess Olympiad, the Women's World Team Chess Championship and the Women's European Team Chess Championship, her team won the gold medal at Dresden in 2008. In 2014, at the Women's Chess Olympiad in Tromsø, Dzanidze won the individual gold medal as the best player on board one, ahead of Hou Yifan. In the Women's World Team Championship, she won the team bronze medal in 2011 and 2017. In the Women's European Team Championship, Georgia won the silver medal in 2005, 2009 and 2017. Dzagnidze an individual board four gold medal in 2007. Dzagnidze won several gold medals in the European Club Cup for Women. Nana Dzagnidze rating card at FIDE Nana Dzagnidze chess games at Nana Dzagnidze player profile and games at Nana Dzagnidze team chess record at

1481 Tübingia

1481 Tübingia, provisional designation 1938 DR, is a dark asteroid from the outer region of the asteroid belt 34 kilometers in diameter. It was discovered on 7 February 1938, by German astronomer Karl Reinmuth at Heidelberg Observatory in southern Germany, named for the German city of Tübingen. Tübingia orbits the Sun in the outer main-belt at a distance of 2.9–3.1 AU once every 5 years and 3 months. Its orbit has an inclination of 4 ° with respect to the ecliptic, it was first identified as A907 GQ at the U. S. Taunton Observatory in 1907; the asteroid's first used observation was made at Heidelberg in 1933, extending the body's observation arc by 5 years prior to its official discovery observation. The asteroid has been characterized as a C-type asteroid. In October 2008, a rotational lightcurve of Tübingia was obtained form photometric observations by James Brinsfield at Via Capote Observatory in California. Analysis gave a longer-than average rotation period of 24 hours with a brightness variation of 0.20 magnitude.

The result supersedes a much longer period obtained in the 1980s. According to the surveys carried out by the Infrared Astronomical Satellite IRAS, the Japanese Akari satellite, NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer with its subsequent NEOWISE mission, Tübingia measures between 33.26 and 40.12 kilometers in diameter, its surface has an albedo of 0.082 to 0.117. The Collaborative Asteroid Lightcurve Link adopts the results from IRAS, that is, an albedo of 0.117 and a diameter of 33.26 kilometers using an absolute magnitude of 10.35. This minor planet was named after Tübingen, city in southern Germany and birthplace of astronomer Johannes Kepler; the official naming citation was published by the Minor Planet Center in April 1953. Asteroid Lightcurve Database, query form Dictionary of Minor Planet Names, Google books Asteroids and comets rotation curves, CdR – Observatoire de Genève, Raoul Behrend Discovery Circumstances: Numbered Minor Planets - – Minor Planet Center 1481 Tübingia at AstDyS-2, Asteroids—Dynamic Site Ephemeris · Observation prediction · Orbital info · Proper elements · Observational info 1481 Tübingia at the JPL Small-Body Database Close approach · Discovery · Ephemeris · Orbit diagram · Orbital elements · Physical parameters

Paul Nash (athlete)

Paul Nash is a South African sprinter who tied the 100-metre world record four times in 1968 with a time of 10.0 seconds. He attended Michaelhouse school in the province of South Africa, his most celebrated race in South Africa occurred on 2 April 1968 when at the Krugersdorp stadium he equalled what was the world record of 10.00. He was ranked third in the world over 100-metre behind Jim Hines of the United States and Lennox Miller of Jamaica by Track and Field News in 1968. Hines won the Olympic title at high altitude in Mexico City in 1968 in a world record electronic time of 9.95 with Miller second. In 1967 Nash had competed against Hines in Los Angeles when he finished third in a hand-timed 10.4 with Hines in 10.2. The next year Nash, aged 21, was in fine form and during the South African athletics season in the early months of 1968 media attention focussed intensively on Nash's prospects of breaking the world handtimed record of 10.0. A specially constituted athletics meeting was held on 2 April 1968 at the Krugersdorp stadium located 20 km to the west of Johannesburg (subsequently renamed the, run down by Kaiser Chiefs football club and is now standing in ruins ( on the west the Johannesburg to allow Nash another opportunity to challenge the record.

Conditions were not ideal for sprinting on the cinder track laid at the stadium as it had rained in the afternoon. Nash's record attempt generated great excitement and 16,000 people crowded into the stadium to watch Nash run; the stadium was so crowded that the announcer was compelled to ask spectators to move their feet from the outer perimeter of the track. Nash ran 10.0 to equal the record and in July 1968 he recorded an unprecedented sprint double of 10.0 for the 100 metres and 20.1 in the 200 metres within an hour in Zurich. Shortly thereafter, he suffered a complete breakdown of his health and ability to train and compete as a result of what has subsequently been diagnosed as reactive arthritis, a condition which attacks young people under stress impairing their immune systems. Despite being offered numerous athletics scholarships to various United States Colleges, the independent-minded Nash chose instead to enroll for a Bachelor of Commerce degree at the University of Witwatersrand in Johannesburg.

After graduating, he channelled the focus that enabled him to equal the world record into the family business and has had a successful and varied career in commerce. He is now chairman of Sable Holding Pty Limited, a property investment and management company, has amongst other things operated an aviation company, Astro Helicopters and a road-freight business. Sportswriter and former Springbok athlete, Jan Barnard, Nash himself interviewed in early 2011, believe that had he been given the opportunity, but for the sports boycott of South Africa because of its apartheid policies, that he would have beaten Jim Hines in the Olympic final in Mexico City in 1968. Paul Nash at World Athletics "Invitation withdrawn", Time, 3 May 1968. "", R Mayer, "Arthritis halts 60s speedster at peak of career", Sunday Times, 10 April 2011