The Apache are a group of culturally related Native American tribes in the Southwestern United States, which include the Chiricahua, Lipan, Salinero and Western Apache. Distant cousins of the Apache are the Navajo, with which they share the Southern Athabaskan languages. There are Apache communities in Oklahoma and reservations in Arizona and New Mexico. Apache people have moved throughout the United States and elsewhere, including urban centers; the Apache Nations are politically autonomous, speak several different languages and have distinct cultures. The Apache homelands have consisted of high mountains and watered valleys, deep canyons and the southern Great Plains, including areas in what is now Eastern Arizona, Northern Mexico and New Mexico, West Texas, Southern Colorado; these areas are collectively known as Apacheria. The Apache tribes fought the invading Mexican peoples for centuries; the first Apache raids on Sonora appear to have taken place during the late 17th century. In 19th-century confrontations during the American-Indian wars, the U.
S. Army found the Apache to be skillful strategists; the following Apache tribes are federally recognized: Apache Tribe of Oklahoma Fort Sill Apache Tribe of Oklahoma Jicarilla Apache Nation, New Mexico Mescalero Apache Tribe of the Mescalero Reservation, New Mexico San Carlos Apache Tribe of the San Carlos Reservation, Arizona Tonto Apache Tribe of Arizona White Mountain Apache Tribe of the Fort Apache Reservation, Arizona Yavapai-Apache Nation of the Camp Verde Indian Reservation, ArizonaThe Jicarilla are headquartered in Dulce, New Mexico, while the Mescalero are headquartered in Mescalero, New Mexico. The Western Apache, located in Arizona, is divided into several reservations, which crosscut cultural divisions; the Western Apache reservations include the Fort Apache Indian Reservation, San Carlos Apache Indian Reservation, Yavapai-Apache Nation and Tonto-Apache Reservation. The Chiricahua were divided into two groups; the majority moved to the Mescalero Reservation and form, with the larger Mescalero political group, the Mescalero Apache Tribe of the Mescalero Apache Reservation, along with the Lipan Apache.
The other Chiricahua are enrolled in the Fort Sill Apache Tribe of Oklahoma, headquartered in Apache, Oklahoma. The Plains Apache are located in Oklahoma, headquartered around Anadarko, are federally recognized as the Apache Tribe of Oklahoma; the people who are known today as Apache were first encountered by the Conquistadors of the Spanish Crown, thus the term Apache has its roots in the Spanish language. The Spanish first used the term Apachu de Nabajo in the 1620s, referring to people in the Chama region east of the San Juan River. By the 1640s, they applied the term to southern Athabaskan peoples from the Chama on the east to the San Juan on the west; the ultimate origin is uncertain and lost to Spanish history. Modern Apache people today, the US government, maintain use of the Spanish term to describe themselves and tribal functions. Indigenous lineages who speak the language, handed down to them would refer to themselves and their people in that language's term Inde meaning "person" and/or "People".
Distant cousins and a subgroup of the Apache are the Navajo Peoples who in their own language refer to themselves as the Diné. The first known written record in Spanish is by Juan de Oñate in 1598; the most accepted origin theory suggests Apache was borrowed and transliterated from the Zuni word ʔa·paču meaning "Navajos". Another theory suggests the term comes from Yavapai ʔpačə meaning "enemy"; the Zuni and Yavapai sources are less certain because Oñate used the term before he had encountered any Zuni or Yavapai. A less origin may be from Spanish mapache, meaning "raccoon"; the fame of the tribes' tenacity and fighting skills bolstered by dime novels, was known among Europeans. In early 20th century Parisian society, the word Apache was adopted into French meaning an outlaw; the term Apachean includes the related Navajo people. Many of the historical names of Apache groups that were recorded by non-Apache are difficult to match to modern-day tribes or their subgroups. Over the centuries, many Spanish and English-speaking authors did not differentiate between Apache and other semi-nomadic non-Apache peoples who might pass through the same area.
Most Europeans learned to identify the tribes by translating their exonym, what another group whom the Europeans encountered first called the Apache peoples. Europeans did not learn what the peoples called themselves, their autonyms. While anthropologists agree on some traditional major subgrouping of Apaches, they have used different criteria to name finer divisions, these do not always match modern Apache groupings; some scholars do not consider groups residing in. In addition, an Apache individual has different ways of identification with a group, such as a band or clan, as well as the larger tribe or language grouping, which can add to the difficulties in an outsider comprehending the distinctions. In 1900, the U. S. government classified the members of the Apache tribe in the United States as Pinal Coyotero, Mescalero, San Carlos and White Mountain Apache. The different groups were located in Arizona, New Mexico, Oklahoma. In the 1930s, the anthropologist Grenville Goodwin classified the Western Apache into five groups: White Mountain, San Carlos, North Tonto, South Tonto.
Since other anthropologists (e
Anatol Rapoport was a Ukrainian-born American mathematical psychologist. He contributed to general systems theory, to mathematical biology and to the mathematical modeling of social interaction and stochastic models of contagion. Rapoport was born in Kharkov Governorate, Russia into a secular Jewish family. In 1922, he came to the United States, in 1928 he became a naturalized citizen, he started studying music in Chicago and continued with piano and composition at the Vienna Hochschule für Musik where he studied from 1929 to 1934. However, due to the rise of Nazism, he found it impossible to make a career as a pianist, he shifted his career into mathematics, getting a Ph. D. degree in mathematics under Otto Schilling and Abraham Adrian Albert at the University of Chicago in 1941 on the thesis Construction of Non-Abelian Fields with Prescribed Arithmetic. According to The Globe and Mail, he was a member of the American Communist Party for three years, but quit before enlisting in the U. S. Army Air Corps in 1941, serving in Alaska and India during World War II.
After the war, he joined the Committee on Mathematical Biology at the University of Chicago, publishing his first book and the Goals of Man, co-authored with semanticist S. I. Hayakawa in 1950, he received a one-year fellowship at the prestigious Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences in Stanford, California. From 1955 to 1970, Rapoport was Professor of Mathematical Biology and Senior Research Mathematician at the University of Michigan, as well as founding member, in 1955, of the Mental Health Research Institute at the University of Michigan. In 1970 Rapoport moved to Toronto to avoid the war-making ways of the Vietnam-era United States, he was appointed professor of psychology at the University of Toronto. The university appointed him professor emeritus in 1980, he lived in a neighbour of Marshall McLuhan. On his retirement from the University of Toronto, he became director of the Institute of Advanced Studies until 1983. University of Toronto appointed him professor of peace studies in 1984, a position he held until 1996, but continued to teach until 2000.
In 1984 he co-founded Science for Peace, was elected president and remained on its executive until 1998. In 1954 Anatol Rapoport co-founded the Society for General Systems Research, along with the researchers Ludwig von Bertalanffy, Ralph Gerard, Kenneth Boulding, he became president of the Society for General Systems Research in 1965. Anatol Rapoport died of pneumonia in Toronto, he is survived by his wife Gwen, daughter Anya, sons Alexander and Anthony. Rapoport contributed to general systems theory, to mathematical biology, to the mathematical modeling of social interaction and stochastic models of contagion, he combined his mathematical expertise with psychological insights into the study of game theory, social networks, semantics. Rapoport extended these understandings into studies of psychological conflict, dealing with nuclear disarmament and international politics, his autobiography and Doubts: A Philosophy of Life, was published in 2001. Rapoport had a versatile mind, working in mathematics, biology, game theory, social network analysis, peace and conflict studies.
For example, he pioneered in the modeling of parasitism and symbiosis, researching cybernetic theory. This went on to give a conceptual basis for his lifelong work in cooperation. Among many other well-known books on fights, games and peace, Rapoport was the author of over 300 articles and of "Two-Person Game Theory" and "N-Person Game Theory", he analyzed contests in which there are more than two sets of conflicting interests, such as war, poker, or bargaining. His work led him to peace research, including books on The Origins of Violence and Peace, An Idea Whose Time Has Come. In the 1980s, he won a computer tournament, based on Robert Axelrod's The Evolution of Cooperation and was designed to further understanding of the ways in which cooperation could emerge through evolution; the contenders had to present programs that could play iterated games of the prisoner's dilemma and these were pitted against each other. Rapoport's entry, Tit-For-Tat has only four lines of code; the program opens by cooperating with its opponent.
It plays as the other side played in the previous game. If the other side defected in the previous game, the program defects. If the other side cooperates, the program continues to cooperate. According to Peace Magazine author/editor Metta Spencer, the program "punished the other player for selfish behaviour and rewarded her for cooperative behaviour—but the punishment lasted only as long as the selfish behaviour lasted; this proved to be an exceptionally effective sanction showing the other side the advantages of cooperating. It set moral philosophers to proposing this as a workable principle to use in real life interactions", his children report that he was a strong chess player but a bad poker player because he non-verbally revealed the strength of his hands. Rapoport was an early developer of social network analysis, his original work showed that one can measure large networks by profiling traces of flows through them. This enables learning about the speed of the distribution of resources, including information, what speeds or impedes these flows—such as race, socioeconomic status and kinship.
This work linked social networks to the diffusion of innovation, by extension, to epidemiology
Ibubeleye Whyte is a Nigeria footballer who plays goalkeeper and plays for Rivers Angels in the Nigerian Women's Championship and the Nigeria women's national football team. Whyte made her international debut in the 2012 FIFA U-20 Women's World Cup in a 2-1 loss to Japan U-20, she was part of the senior squads at the African Women's Championship of 2012 and the winning team of 2014. In May 2015 she was called up be part of the team Nigeria in the 2015 FIFA Women's World Cup. NigeriaAfrican Women's Championship: 2014,2016 Ibubeleye Whyte – FIFA competition record Ibubeleye Whyte at Soccerway