Taxodium distichum is a deciduous conifer in the family Cupressaceae. It is native to the southeastern United States. Hardy and tough, this tree adapts to swampy, it is noted for the russet-red fall color of its lacy needles. This plant has some cultivated varieties and is used in groupings in public spaces. Common names include bald cypress, swamp cypress, white cypress, tidewater red cypress, gulf cypress and red cypress. Taxodium distichum is a large, slow-growing, long-lived tree, it grows to heights of 35–120 feet and has a trunk diameter of 3–6 feet. The main trunk is surrounded by cypress knees; the bark is grayish brown to reddish brown and fibrous with a stringy texture. The needle-like leaves are 1⁄2 to 3⁄4 inch long and are simple, alternate and linear, with entire margins. In autumn, the leaves turn yellow or copper red; the bald cypress drops its needles each winter and grows a new set in spring. This species is monoecious, with male and female flowers on a single plant forming on slender, tassel-like structures near the edge of branchlets.
The tree flowers in April and the seeds ripen in October. The male and female strobili are produced from buds formed in late autumn, with pollination in early winter, mature in about 12 months. Male cones emerge on panicles. Female cones are round and green while young, they turn hard and brown as the tree matures. They are 2.0 -- 3.5 cm in diameter. They have from 20 to 30 spirally arranged, four-sided scales, each bearing one, two, or three triangular seeds; each cone contains 20 to 40 large seeds. The cones disintegrate at maturity to release the seeds; the seeds are 5–10 mm long, the largest of any species of Cupressaceae, are produced every year, with heavy crops every 3–5 years. The seedlings have three to nine, but six, cotyledons each; the bald cypress grows in full sunlight to partial shade. This species can tolerate dry soil, it is moderately able to grow in aerosols of salt water. The cones are consumed by wildlife; this tree is suitable for cultivation in light and heavy soils. It does well in acid and alkaline soils and can grow in alkaline and saline soils.
It can grow in no shade. It can grow in water, it can tolerate atmospheric pollution. The tallest known specimen, near Williamsburg, Virginia, is 44.11 m tall, the stoutest known, in the Real County near Leaky, has a diameter at breast height of 475 in. The oldest known living specimen, in Bladen County, North Carolina, is over 1,620 years old, rendering it one of the oldest living plants in North America. Although there are specimens estimated to be nearly 2,000 years old at Sky Lake in Humphreys County, Mississippi determining their age is difficult because older trees become hollow; the related Taxodium ascendens is treated by some botanists as a distinct species, while others classify it as a variety of bald cypress, as Taxodium distichum var. imbricatum Croom. It differs in shorter leaves borne on erect shoots, in ecology, being confined to low-nutrient blackwater habitats. A few authors treat Taxodium mucronatum as a variety of bald cypress, as T. distichum var. mexicanum Gordon, thereby considering the genus as comprising only one species.
The native range extends from southeastern New Jersey south to Florida and west to East Texas and southeastern Oklahoma, inland up the Mississippi River. Ancient bald cypress forests, with some trees more than 1,700 years old, once dominated swamps in the Southeast; the range had been believed to extended north only as far as Delaware, but researchers have now found a natural forest on the Cape May Peninsula in southern New Jersey. The species can be found growing outside its natural native range; the largest remaining old-growth stands are at Corkscrew Swamp Sanctuary, near Naples, in the Three Sisters tract along eastern North Carolina's Black River. The Corkscrew trees are around 500 years of age, some exceed 40 m in height; the Black River trees were cored by dendrochronologist David Stahle from the University of Arkansas. He found that some began growing as early as 364 AD; this species is native to humid climates where annual precipitation ranges from about 760 mm or 30 inches in Texas to 1,630 mm or 64 inches along the Gulf Coast.
Although it grows best in warm climates, the natural northern limit of the species is not due to a lack of cold tolerance, but to specific reproductive requirements: further north, regeneration is prevented by ice damage to seedlings. Larger trees are able to tolerate lower humidity. In 2012 scuba divers discovered an underwater cypress forest several miles off the coast of Mobile, Alabama, in 60 feet of water; the forest contains trees that could not be dated with radiocarbon methods, indicating that they are more than 50,000 years old and thus most lived in the early glacial interval of the last ice age. The cypress forest is well preserved, when samples are cut they still smell like fresh cypress. A team, which has not yet published its results in a peer-reviewed journal, is studying the site. One possibility is that hurricane Katrina exposed the grove of bald cypress, protected under ocean floor sediments; the bald cypress is monoecious. Male and female strobili mature in one growing season from buds formed t
An old-growth forest — termed primary forest or late seral forest — is a forest that has attained great age without significant disturbance and thereby exhibits unique ecological features and might be classified as a climax community. Old-growth features include diverse tree-related structures that provide diverse wildlife habitat that increases the biodiversity of the forested ecosystem; the concept of diverse tree structure includes multi-layered canopies and canopy gaps varying tree heights and diameters, diverse tree species and classes and sizes of woody debris. Old-growth forests are valuable for economic reasons and for the ecosystem services they provide; this can be a point of contention when some in the logging industry may desire to cut down the forests to obtain valuable timber, while environmentalists seek to preserve the forests for benefits such as maintenance of biodiversity, water regulation, nutrient cycling. Old-growth forests tend to have large trees and standing dead trees, multilayered canopies with gaps that result from the deaths of individual trees, coarse woody debris on the forest floor.
Forest regenerated after a severe disturbance, such as wildfire, insect infestation, or harvesting, is called second-growth or'regeneration' until enough time passes for the effects of the disturbance to be no longer evident. Depending on the forest, this may take from a century to several millennia. Hardwood forests of the eastern United States can develop old-growth characteristics in 150–500 years. In British Columbia, old growth is defined as 120 to 140 years of age in the interior of the province where fire is a frequent and natural occurrence. In British Columbia’s coastal rainforests, old growth is defined as trees more than 250 years, with some trees reaching more than 1,000 years of age. In Australia, eucalypt trees exceed 350 years of age due to frequent fire disturbance. Forest types have different development patterns, natural disturbances and appearances. A Douglas-fir stand may grow for centuries without disturbance while an old-growth ponderosa pine forest requires frequent surface fires to reduce the shade-tolerant species and regenerate the canopy species.
In the Boreal-West Forest Region, catastrophic disturbances like wildfires minimize opportunities for major accumulations of dead and downed woody material and other structural legacies associated with old growth conditions. Typical characteristics of old-growth forest include presence of older trees, minimal signs of human disturbance, mixed-age stands, presence of canopy openings due to tree falls, pit-and-mound topography, down wood in various stages of decay, standing snags, multilayered canopies, intact soils, a healthy fungal ecosystem, presence of indicator species. Old-growth forests are biologically diverse, home to many rare species, threatened species, endangered species of plants and animals, such as the northern spotted owl, marbled murrelet and fisher, making them ecologically significant. Levels of biodiversity may be higher or lower in old-growth forests compared to that in second-growth forests, depending on specific circumstances, environmental variables, geographic variables.
Logging in old-growth forests is a contentious issue in many parts of the world. Excessive logging reduces biodiversity, affecting not only the old-growth forest itself, but indigenous species that rely upon old-growth forest habitat. A forest in old-growth stage has a mix of tree ages, due to a distinct regeneration pattern for this stage. New trees regenerate at different times from each other, because each one of them has different spatial location relative to the main canopy, hence each one receives a different amount of light; the mixed age of the forest is an important criterion in ensuring that the forest is a stable ecosystem in the long term. A climax stand, uniformly aged becomes senescent and degrades within a short time to result in a new cycle of forest succession. Thus, uniformly aged stands are less stable ecosystems. Forest canopy gaps are essential in maintaining mixed-age stands; some herbaceous plants only become established in canopy openings, but persist beneath an understory.
Openings are a result of tree death due to small impact disturbances such as wind, low-intensity fires, tree diseases. Old-growth forests are unique having multiple horizontal layers of vegetation representing a variety of tree species, age classes, sizes, as well as "pit and mound" soil shape with well-established fungal nets; because old-growth forest is structurally diverse, it provides higher-diversity habitat than forests in other stages. Thus, sometimes higher biological diversity can be sustained in old-growth forest, or at least a biodiversity, different from other forest stages; the characteristic topography of much old-growth forest consists of mounds. Mounds are caused by decaying fallen trees, pits by the roots pulled out of the ground when trees fall due to natural causes, including being pushed over by animals. Pits expose humus-poor, mineral-rich soil and collect moisture and fallen leaves, forming a thick organic layer, able to nurture certain types of organisms. Mounds provide a place free of leaf inundation and saturation, where other types of organisms thrive.
Standing snags provide food sources and habitat for many types of organisms. In particular, many species of dead-wood predators such as woodpeckers must have standing snags available for feeding. In North America, the spotted owl is well known for needing standing snags for nesting habitat. Fallen timber, or coarse woody debris, contributes carbon-rich organic matter directly to the soil, providing a substrate for mosses and seedlings, cr
Bristol is a city in and the county seat of Liberty County, United States. The population was 845 at the 2000 census. S Census estimates was 910. Two schools are based in Bristol: Liberty County High School and W. R. Tolar Elementary and Middle School. Bristol is located at 30°25′37″N 84°58′45″W. In the Florida panhandle. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 1.6 square miles, all land. As of the census of 2000, there were 845 people, 326 households, 235 families residing in the city; the population density was 517.1 people per square mile. There were 393 housing units at an average density of 240.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 87.22% White, 3.79% African American, 1.78% Native American, 5.44% from other races, 1.78% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 5.80% of the population. There were 326 households out of which 30.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.8% were married couples living together, 14.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.9% were non-families.
25.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.48 and the average family size was 2.91. In the city, the population was spread out with 24.9% under the age of 18, 8.5% from 18 to 24, 25.6% from 25 to 44, 24.5% from 45 to 64, 16.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females, there were 88.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.3 males. The median income for a household in the city was $31,607, the median income for a family was $36,932. Males had a median income of $26,473 versus $22,500 for females; the per capita income for the city was $17,949. About 14.8% of families and 19.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 24.9% of those under age 18 and 15.5% of those age 65 or over. The park is located behind the local Civic Center. One notable feature of the park is the 2 ft narrow gauge Veterans Memorial Railroad, operating multiple types of locomotives including a coal-powered steam locomotive built by Crown Metal Products.
A reported claim was once made by Elvy E. Callaway that the site of the Biblical Garden of Eden lay in northern Liberty County, he cited as evidence the Apalachicola River, with its four heads, local sources of torreya. The Calhoun-Liberty Journal - Local newspaper The Calhoun-Liberty Journal, newspaper that serves Bristol, Florida is available in full text with images at no cost in Florida Digital Newspaper Library Veterans Memorial Railroad - official website
Liberty County, Florida
Liberty County is a county located in the state of Florida. As of the 2010 census, the population was 8,365, its county seat is Bristol. The Apalachicola National Forest occupies half the county. Liberty County is named after the American ideal of liberty. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 843 square miles, of which 836 square miles is land and 7.6 square miles is water. The county is bordered on the west by the Apalachicola River. Gadsden County - northeast Wakulla County - east Leon County - east Franklin County - south Gulf County - southwest Calhoun County - west Jackson County - northwest Apalachicola National Forest As of the census of 2000, there were 7,021 people, 2,222 households, 1,553 families residing in the county; the population density was 8 people per square mile. There were 3,156 housing units at an average density of 4 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 76.41% White, 18.43% Black or African American, 1.81% Native American, 0.14% Asian, 2.08% from other races, 1.13% from two or more races.
4.50% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. More than 10% of the population are Mormons. There were 2,222 households out of which 34.20% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.80% were married couples living together, 13.20% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.10% were non-families. 25.90% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.60% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.51 and the average family size was 3.00. In the county, the population was spread out with 21.80% under the age of 18, 9.40% from 18 to 24, 37.70% from 25 to 44, 21.00% from 45 to 64, 10.20% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females there were 144.90 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 159.50 males. The median income for a household in the county was $28,840, the median income for a family was $34,244. Males had a median income of $22,078 versus $22,661 for females.
The per capita income for the county was $17,225. About 16.80% of families and 19.90% of the population were below the poverty line, including 24.30% of those under age 18 and 24.30% of those age 65 or over. Liberty County is run by a board of each elected at-large; the following is a list of the commissioners with the number representative of his/her district: Dewayne Branch Dexter Barber Jim Johnson Davis Stoutamire Scotty PhillipsThe remaining elected officials are the constitutional officers and the school board members. Clerk of the court: Cathrine Brown Sheriff: Eddie Joe White Property Appraiser: Patricia Whitfield Tax Collector: Marie Goodman Supervisor of Elections: Gina McDowell Superintendent of Schools: David Summers Liberty County is part of the Northwest Regional Library System, which serves Gulf and Bay Counties as well. Bristol Hosford Lake Mystic Sumatra Dry counties Liberty County High School National Register of Historic Places listings in Liberty County, Florida Liberty County Board of County Commissioners Liberty County Supervisor of Elections Liberty County Property Appraiser Liberty County Election's Office Liberty County Tax Collector Liberty County Emergency Management Liberty County School Board Liberty County High School Northwest Florida Water Management District Liberty County Clerk of Courts Public Defender, 2nd Judicial Circuit of Florida serving Franklin, Jefferson, Leon and Wakulla counties Office of the State Attorney, 2nd Judicial Circuit of Florida Circuit and County Court for the 2nd Judicial Circuit of Florida Liberty County Chamber of Commerce
Nyssa biflora referred to as the swamp tupelo, or swamp black-gum is a species of tupelo that lives in wetland habitats. Swamp tupelo grows chiefly in the coastal plains from Delaware, eastern Maryland, southeastern Virginia, south to southern Florida and west to eastern Texas, its range extends west and south Tennessee. The swamp tupelo grows in humid warm climates, it not only tolerates flooding but thrives under those conditions. It is found on sites that are not inundated much of the growing season. Swamp tupelo grows in headwater swamps, ponds, river bottoms, bays and low coves, it does not grow in the deeper parts of swamps or overflow river bottoms. The type of water regime is more important to growth of swamp tupelo than the soil type. Best growth is achieved on sites where the soil is continuously saturated with shallow moving water. Growth can be reduced as much as 50 percent. Intermittent flooding, with periodic drying cycles, or continuous deep flooding by moving water reduces growth.
Trees and shrubs associated with swamp tupelo are red maple, buckwheat-tree, swamp cyrilla, swamp-privet, Carolina ash, loblolly-bay, inkberry, fetterbush lyonia, bayberry. The swamp tupelo has minute greenish-white flowers that appear in the spring with the leaves in late April. Insects bees, are the major pollinating vector, but pollen is spread by wind; the fruit, a drupe, changes from green to a dark blue as it ripens in early November. The seeds overwinter and germinate the following spring. Germination does not take place under water, but submerged seeds germinate once the water subsides below the soil surface. Germination is higher. After germination, seedlings must grow to keep the apex and leaves above water, because prolonged submergence during active growth will kill them. Submergence during the dormant season, has no adverse effect. Swamp tupelo develops a taproot and has a swollen base to the mean height of the growing season water level. Water roots, which develop under flooded conditions, help capture nutrients.
These specialized roots tolerate high carbon dioxide concentrations, oxidize the rhizosphere, carry on anaerobic respiration. Thus, they are the key to the species ability to thrive under flooded conditions
The white-tailed deer known as the whitetail or Virginia deer, is a medium-sized deer native to the United States, Mexico, Central America, South America as far south as Peru and Bolivia. It has been introduced to New Zealand, Jamaica, Puerto Rico, the Bahamas, the Lesser Antilles, some countries in Europe, such as Finland, the Czech Republic and Serbia. In the Americas, it is the most distributed wild ungulate. In North America, the species is distributed east of the Rocky Mountains as well as in most of Mexico, aside from Lower California, in southwestern Arizona. IIt is replaced by the black-tailed or mule deer from that point west. However, it is found in mixed deciduous riparian corridors, river valley bottomlands, lower foothills of the northern Rocky Mountain region from South Dakota west to eastern Washington and eastern Oregon and north to northeastern British Columbia and southern Yukon, including in the Montana Valley and Foothill grasslands; the conversion of land adjacent to the Canadian Rockies into agriculture use and partial clear-cutting of coniferous trees has been favorable to the white-tailed deer and has pushed its distribution to as far north as Yukon.
Populations of deer around the Great Lakes have expanded their range northwards, due to conversion of land to agricultural uses favoring more deciduous vegetation, local caribou and moose populations. The westernmost population of the species, known as the Columbian white-tailed deer, once was widespread in the mixed forests along the Willamette and Cowlitz River valleys of western Oregon and southwestern Washington, but today its numbers have been reduced, it is classified as near-threatened; this population is separated from other white-tailed deer populations. Some taxonomists have attempted to separate white-tailed deer into a host of subspecies, based on morphological differences. Genetic studies, suggest fewer subspecies within the animal's range, as compared to the 30 to 40 subspecies that some scientists described in the last century; the Florida Key deer, O. v. clavium, the Columbian white-tailed deer, O. v. leucurus, are both listed as endangered under the U. S. Endangered Species Act.
In the United States, the Virginia white-tail, O. v. virginianus, is among the most widespread subspecies. The white-tailed deer species has tremendous genetic variation and is adaptable to several environments. Several local deer populations in the southern states, are descended from white-tailed deer transplanted from various localities east of the Continental Divide; some of these deer populations may have been from as far north as the Great Lakes region to as far west as Texas, yet are quite at home in the Appalachian and Piedmont regions of the south. These deer, over time, have intermixed with the local indigenous deer populations. Central and South America have a complex number of white-tailed deer subspecies that range from Guatemala to as far south as Peru; this list of subspecies of deer is more exhaustive than the list of North American subspecies, the number of subspecies is questionable. However, the white-tailed deer populations in these areas are difficult to study, due to overhunting in many parts and a lack of protection.
Some areas no longer carry deer, so assessing the genetic difference of these animals is difficult. Some subspecies names, ordered alphabetically: O. v. acapulcensis – Acapulco white-tailed deer O. v. borealis – northern white-tailed deer O. v. carminis – Carmen Mountains white-tailed deer O. v. clavium – Key deer or Florida Keys white-tailed deer O. v. chiriquensis – Chiriqui white-tailed deer O. v. couesi – Coues' white-tailed deer, Arizona white-tailed deer, or fantail deer O. v. dakotensis – Dakota white-tailed deer or northern plains white-tailed deer O. v. hiltonensis – Hilton Head Island white-tailed deer O. v. idahoensis – white-tailed deer O. v. leucurus – Columbian white-tailed deer O. v. macrourus – Kansas white-tailed deer O. v. mcilhennyi – Avery Island white-tailed deer O. v. mexicanus – Mexican white-tailed deer O. v. miquihuanensis – Miquihuan white-tailed deer O. v. nelsoni – Chiapas white-tailed deer O. v. nigribarbis – Blackbeard Island white-tailed deer O. v. oaxacensis – Oaxaca white-tailed deer O. v. ochrourus – northwestern white-tailed deer or northern Rocky Mountains white-tailed deer O. v. osceola – Florida coastal white-tailed deer O. v. rothschildi – Coiba Island white-tailed deer O. v. seminolus – Florida white-tailed deer O. v. sinaloae – Sinaloa white-tailed deer O. v. taurinsulae – Bulls Island white-tailed deer O. v. texanus – Texas white-tailed deer O. v. thomasi – Mexican lowland white-tailed deer O. v. toltecus – rain forest white-tailed deer O. v. truei – Central American white-tailed deer O. v. venatorius – Hunting Island white-tailed deer O. v. veraecrucis – northern Veracruz white-tailed deer O. v. virginianus – Virginia white-tailed deer or southern white-tailed deer O. v. yucatanensis – Yucatán white-tailed deer O. v. cariacou – O. v. curassavicus
Leon Sinks Geological Area
The Leon Sinks Geological Area is located on the Woodville Karst Plain in southern and southwestern Leon County, United States. It is a mature karstic area on the Upper Floridan Aquifer, it is one of the most extensive underwater cave systems in the world and connects to Wakulla Springs. This hydrological system is vulnerable to pollution because of the high permeability of the carbonate aquifer. Extensive mapping and exploration of these caves has been done by the Woodville Karst Plain Project to understand the complex dynamics of the area and to understand the proper ecological approach to keeping this system clean; the Leon Sinks are full of life, including the freshwater eel and rare crustaceans, including the Woodville Karst Plain crayfish and the swimming Florida cave isopod Remasellus parvus, that only exist in the Woodville Karst Plain. Wakulla cave consists of a dendritic network of conduits of which 12 miles have been surveyed and mapped; the conduits are characterized as long tubes with depth being consistent.
The largest conduit trends south from the spring/cave entrance for over 3.8 miles. Four secondary conduits, including Leon Sinks, intersect the main conduit. Most of these secondary conduits have been explored. On Dec 15, 2007, the connection between the Wakulla cave system and Leon Sinks cave system was made by members of the Woodville Karst Plain Project to create the Wakulla-Leon Sinks Cave System; this connection established the system as the longest underwater cave in the United States and the sixth largest in the world at a total of 31.99 miles of surveyed passages. Many of the sinkholes in the Leon Sinks Geological Area are linked through underwater caves; the area includes both dry sinkholes. Big Dismal – 100 foot drop to the water which drops another 100 feet underwater with a cave entrance at 80 feet down. Black Duckweed Fisher Creek Hammock Lost Stream Magnolia Natural Bridge Back Big Eight Cone Far Field Gopher Hole Johnson Palmetto Tiny Turner The Leon Sinks offer three hiking trails to the different sinkholes in the park including an observation platform at Big Dismal Sink.
The trails feature over 20 species of trees and 75 different plants along with wildlife ranging from Carolina chickadees to gopher tortoises. Trails: Sinkhole Trail – 3.1 miles Gumswamp Trail – 2.3 miles Crossover Trail – 0.5 miles Wakulla Karst Plains Project Leon Sinks Geological Area - official site at Apalachicola National Forest