click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Apatosaurus

Apatosaurus is a genus of herbivorous sauropod dinosaur that lived in North America during the Late Jurassic period. Othniel Charles Marsh described and named the first-known species, A. ajax, in 1877, a second species, A. louisae, was discovered and named by William H. Holland in 1916. Apatosaurus lived about 152 to 151 million years ago, during the late Kimmeridgian to early Tithonian age, are now known from fossils in the Morrison Formation of modern-day Colorado, New Mexico and Utah in the United States. Apatosaurus had an average length of 21–22.8 m, an average mass of 16.4–22.4 t. A few specimens indicate a maximum length of 11–30% greater than average and a mass of 32.7–72.6 t. The cervical vertebrae of Apatosaurus are less elongated and more constructed than those of Diplodocus, a diplodocid like Apatosaurus, the bones of the leg are much stockier despite being longer, implying that Apatosaurus was a more robust animal; the tail was held above the ground during normal locomotion. Apatosaurus had a single claw on three on each hindlimb.

The Apatosaurus skull, long thought to be similar to Camarasaurus, is much more similar to that of Diplodocus. Apatosaurus was a generalized browser that held its head elevated. To lighten its vertebrae, Apatosaurus had air sacs. Like that of other diplodocids, its tail may have been used as a whip to create loud noises; the skull of Apatosaurus was confused with that of Camarasaurus and Brachiosaurus until 1909, when the holotype of A. louisae was found, a complete skull just a few meters away from the front of the neck. Henry Fairfield Osborn disagreed with this association, went on to mount a skeleton of Apatosaurus with a Camarasaurus skull cast. Apatosaurus skeletons were mounted with speculative skull casts until 1970, when McIntosh showed that more robust skulls assigned to Diplodocus were more from Apatosaurus. Apatosaurus is a genus in the family Diplodocidae, it is one of the more basal genera, with only Amphicoelias and a new, unnamed genus more primitive. While the subfamily Apatosaurinae was named in 1929, the group was not used validly until an extensive 2015 study.

Only Brontosaurus is in the subfamily, with the other genera being considered synonyms or reclassified as diplodocines. Brontosaurus has long been considered a junior synonym of Apatosaurus. A 2015 study concluded that Brontosaurus is a valid genus of sauropod distinct from Apatosaurus, but not all paleontologists agree with this division; as it existed in North America during the late Jurassic, Apatosaurus would have lived alongside dinosaurs such as Allosaurus, Camarasaurus and Stegosaurus. Apatosaurus was a long-necked, quadrupedal animal with a long, whip-like tail, its forelimbs were shorter than its hindlimbs. Most size estimates are based on the type specimen of A. louisae. In 1936 this was measured to be 21.8 m, by measuring the vertebral column. Current estimates are similar, finding that the individual was 21–22.8 m long and had a mass of 16.4–22.4 t. A 2015 study that estimated the mass of volumetric models of Dreadnoughtus and Giraffatitan estimates CM 3018 at 21.8–38.2 t, similar in mass to Dreadnoughtus.

Past estimates have put the creature's mass as high as 35.0 t. Some specimens of A. ajax represent individuals 11–30% longer, suggesting masses twice that of CM 3018 or 32.7–72.6 t rivalling the largest titanosaurs. The skull is small in relation to the size of the animal; the jaws are lined with spatulate teeth suited to an herbivorous diet. The snout of Apatosaurus and similar diplodocoids is squared, with only Nigersaurus having a squarer skull; the braincase of Apatosaurus is well preserved in specimen BYU 17096, which preserved much of the skeleton. A phylogenetic analysis found that the braincase had a morphology similar to those of other diplodocoids; some skulls of Apatosaurus have been found still in articulation with their teeth. Those teeth that have the enamel surface exposed do not show any scratches on the surface. Like those of other sauropods, the neck vertebrae are bifurcated; the vertebral formula for the holotype of A. louisae is 15 cervicals, 10 dorsals, 5 sacrals, 82 caudals.

The caudal vertebra number may vary within species. The cervical vertebrae of Apatosaurus and Brontosaurus are stouter and more robust than those of other diplodocids and were found to be most similar to Camarasaurus by Charles Whitney Gilmore. In addition, they support cervical ribs that extend farther towards the ground than in diplodocines, have vertebrae and ribs that are narrower towards the top of the neck, making the neck nearly triangular in cross-section. In Apatosaurus louisae, the atlas-axis complex of the first cervicals is nearly fused; the dorsal ribs are not fused or attached to their vertebrae and are instead loosely articulated. Apatosaurus has ten dorsal ribs on either side of the body; the large neck was filled with an extensive system of weight-saving air sacs. Apatosaurus, like its close relative Supersaurus, has tall neural spines, which make up more than half the height of the individual bones of its vertebrae; the shape of the tail is unusual fo

Heroic verse

Heroic verse consists of the rhymed iambic line or heroic couplet. The term is used in English exclusively. In ancient literature, heroic verse was synonymous with the dactylic hexameter, it was in this measure that those heroic poems, the Iliad and Odyssey and the Aeneid were written. In English, however, it was not enough to designate a single line of iambic pentameter as heroic verse, because it was necessary to distinguish blank verse from the distich, formed by the heroic couplet. In French the Alexandrin has long been regarded as the heroic measure of that language; the dactylic movement of the heroic line in ancient Greek, the famous ρυθμός ἥρώος, or "heroic rhythm", of Homer, is expressed in modern Europe by the iambic movement. The consequence is that much of the rush and energy of the antique verse, which at vigorous moments was like the charge of a battalion, is lost, it is owing to this, in part, that the heroic couplet is so required to give, in translation, the full value of a single Homeric hexameter.

The couplet, not the single line, which constitutes heroic verse. The Latin poet Ennius, as reported by Cicero, called the heroic metre of one line versum longum, to distinguish it from the brevity of lyrical measures; the current form of English heroic verse appears to be the invention of Chaucer, who used it in his Legend of Good Women and afterwards, with still greater freedom, in the Canterbury Tales. Here is an example of it in its earliest development: And thus the lone day in fight they spend, Till, at the last, as everything hath end, Anton is shent, put him to the flight, And all his folk to go, as best go might."This way of writing was misunderstood and neglected by Chaucer's English disciples, but was followed nearly a century by the Scottish poet, called Blind Harry, whose The Actes and Deidis of the Illustre and Vallyeant Campioun Schir William Wallace holds an important place in the history of versification as having passed on the tradition of the heroic couplet. Another Scottish poet, Gavin Douglas, selected heroic verse for his translation of the Aeneid, displayed, in such examples as the following, a skill which left little room for improvement at the hands of poets: One sang, "The ship sails over the salt foam, Will bring the merchants and my leman home".

The early poets of the revival, Spenser and Shakespeare after them preferred stanzaic forms. For dramatic purposes blank verse was exclusively used, although the French had adopted the rhymed alexandrine for their plays. In the earlier half of the 17th century, heroic verse was put to somewhat unheroic purposes in prologues and epilogues, or other short poems of occasion; those Elizabethans who, like Chapman and Drayton, aimed at producing a warlike and Homeric effect, did so in shambling fourteen-syllable couplets. The one heroic poem of that age written at considerable length in the appropriate national metre is the Bosworth Field of Sir John Beaumont. Since the middle of the 17th century, when heroic verse became the typical and for a while the solitary form in which serious English poetry was written, its history has known many vicissitudes. After having been the principal instrument of Dryden and Pope, it was entirely rejected by Wordsworth and Coleridge, but revised, with various modifications, by Byron and Keats.

In the second half of the 19th century its prestige was restored by the brilliant work of Swinburne in Tristram and elsewhere. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Heroic Verse". Encyclopædia Britannica. 13. Cambridge University Press. Pp. 385–386

Christine Perfect (album)

Christine Perfect is the eponymous debut solo album of former Chicken Shack keyboardist/singer Christine Perfect. The album was released just after Perfect had left Chicken Shack, but before she joined Fleetwood Mac, it contained the Etta James song, "I'd Rather Go Blind", which had earlier been a hit single for Chicken Shack. Released in 1970, the album was meant to be titled "I'm on My Way" as evidenced on copies of the single "I'm Too Far Gone", it was re-released in 1976 as The Legendary Christine Perfect Album. Christine Perfect – vocals, keyboards Top Topham, Rick Haywardguitar Martin Dunsfordbass guitar Chris Hardingdrums John Bennett, Derek Wadsworth, Terry Noonan – arrangements Danny Kirwan – guitar John McVie – bass guitar Stan Webb – guitar Andy Silvester – bass guitar Dave Bidwell – drums CD Christine Perfect Sony Music Distribution 1995 CD Christine Perfect Sony Music Distribution 2005 LP The Legendary Christine Perfect Album CBS Records / Sire 2008 Digi Christine Perfect Blue Horizon Records 2011

Eikenella corrodens

Eikenella corrodens is a fastidious Gram-negative facultative anaerobic bacillus. It was first identified by M. Eiken in 1958. Eikenella corrodens is a pleomorphic bacillus that sometimes appears coccobacillary and creates a depression in the agar on which it is growing. Only half produce the pitting of the agar considered characteristic, it grows in aerobic and anaerobic conditions, but requires an atmosphere enhanced by 3–10% carbon dioxide. The colonies are small and greyish, they produce a greenish discoloration of the underlying agar, smell faintly of bleach, they are oxidase-positive, catalase-negative, urease-negative, indole-negative, reduce nitrate to nitrite. In 2006, Azakami et al reported that the periodontal pathogen E. corrodens have ortholog of luxS, the gene required for quorum sensing signal molecule AI-2 synthesis and E. corrodens can produce AI-2 signal for cell-to-cell communication and AI-2 has a role on biofilm formation by E. corrodens. Karim et al reported that this bacteria can produce AI-2 inactivation enzyme during its stationary phase.

Karim et al reported that LuxS-mediated QS may facilitate the maturation and detachment of biofilm formation in E.corrodens, which can leads to progression of periodontal disease. Eikenella corrodens is a commensal of upper respiratory tract, it is an unusual cause of infection and when it is cultured, it is most found mixed with other organisms. Infections most occur in patients with cancers of the head and neck, but it is common in human bite infections "reverse bite", "fight bite", or "clenched fist injuries", it causes infections in insulin-dependent diabetics and intravenous drug users who lick their needles. It is one of the HACEK group of infections. In general, the HACEK organisms are responsible for 3% of all cases of infective endocarditis. IE due to E. corrodens is a result of poor oral hygiene and or periodontal infection. Manipulation of the gingival or oral mucosa for dental procedures can predispose patients to infection since E. corrodens is a common constituent of the human oral flora.

Eikenella corrodens infections are indolent. They mimic anaerobic infection in being foul-smelling. Eikenella corrodens was mentioned in an episode of Forensic Files, in which a hotel employee punched a woman in the mouth, knocking out two of her teeth; the tooth bacteria caused a major infection in the man's hand. Eikenella corrodens can be treated with cephalosporins, or tetracyclines, it is innately resistant to macrolides and metronidazole. It is susceptible to fluoroquinolones in vitro, but no clinical evidence is available to advocate their use in these infections. Eikenella+corrodens at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings "Eikenella corrodens". NCBI Taxonomy Browser. 539

Ryukyuan lacquerware

Ryukyuan lacquerware is one of the chief artistic products of the Ryukyu Islands, represents a form and style of lacquerware, distinct from that of the surrounding cultures. Though distinct in its own ways, it is influenced by Chinese and Southeast Asian modes. Ryukyuan lacquerware is distinguished by the use of inlaid seashells and various native Ryukyuan artistic motifs, a strong tendency towards red lacquer, rather less common in the rest of Japan; as the lacquer tree is not native to Okinawa, the key material needed to produce lacquerware could only be obtained by the Ryukyuans through trade. Though the islands were involved with trade with Japan and the Asian mainland for many centuries, it is believed that the presence and production of lacquerware in Ryukyu only began to any significant extent in the late 14th or early 15th centuries. An office to supervise lacquerware craftsmen was established as Kaizuri bugyōsho. According to "Ryūkyūkoku yuraiki", or the Official Chorography of Ryūkyū published in 1713, it was during 17th century that Kaizuribugyōsho focused on introducing technology from China and Satsuma.

Since 1686 entries of lacquer trees cultivation as well as harvest of lacquer juice was recorded in Kishaba Monjo, with evidence on mairi tsukawashijō. Thus the Ryūkyū government managed and encouraged lacquerware production from lacquer juice harvest It was during 1800s when Kaizuri Bugyōsho supervised export of Ryukyuan lacquerware with tsuishu suikin techniques. Formal tributary relations with China began in 1372, in 1427, the Xuande Emperor famously bestowed upon Hashi, King of Ryukyu, the honorary family name Shō, along with a lacquer tablet inscribed with the characters for Chūzan, a number of other lavish gifts, including lacquerwares and formal court robes; this famous lacquer tablet was installed over the entrance to Shuri Castle, where it remained until the mid-20th century. Ryukyu enjoyed a booming trade with Southeast Asia and Korea, traded many goods from these countries with China, either as tributary gifts or as regular trade goods. Beginning in 1609, when Ryukyu was invaded by Japan's Satsuma Domain, its trade with Southeast Asia and Korea all but came to an end, replaced by commerce with Satsuma.

For five hundred years, from 1372 until the mid-19th century, a small number of Ryukyuans resided in Fuzhou and Beijing at any given time, studying academic classics and various arts as well. The community of scholars in Kumemura, on Okinawa included a number of skilled artists and craftsmen. Thus, given the changes in Ryukyu's relationships with foreign countries over its history, it is easy to see why Ryukyuan lacquer prior to the 17th century shows strong Chinese and Southeast Asian influences, while objects produced after the Japanese invasion evidence far stronger Japanese influences. Developments of the 1860s–70s, chiefly results of the Meiji Restoration, brought the end of the feudal system, of tributary relations to both China and Satsuma. Thus, the state monopoly on foreign trade came to an end, regular Japanese citizens were given the opportunity to purchase Ryukyuan lacquers for the first time. A national industrial promotion exposition in Tokyo in 1881 provided, for many people, their first exposure to Ryukyuan arts.

Following World War II and the extensive destruction incurred in the islands during the battle of Okinawa, a number of surveys have been undertaken to learn more about Ryukyuan lacquer, to discover and collect objects displaced during and following that struggle. Ryukyuan lacquer, like lacquerwares from other parts of East and Southeast Asia, comes in a number of standard categories: painted lacquer, carved and filled in with gold, painted with gold, inlaid with mother-of-pearl; the use of mother-of-pearl in particular is a common feature of Ryukyuan lacquers, as is the use of particular shades of red as a background. However, it is said that the primary distinguishing feature of Ryukyuan lacquers is that they "appear to be neither purely Chinese on the one hand nor purely Japanese on the other."The distinctive red color seen in Ryukyuan lacquer is of a "deeper, more vibrant tone than that from China or... Japan", it is obtained by mixing raw lacquer with red pigment in equal amounts, a mixture which turns blood-red in the sunlight.

Though the styles and techniques of producing lacquerware were introduced to Ryukyu by China, native motifs came to be incorporated into the islands' lacquerwares. Mother-of-pearl inlay is not a Ryukyuan element, but it came to be used to depict papaya, palm trees and other motifs of the sub-tropical islands. Other designs, such as images of hibiscus and coral, were introduced in the latter half of the 20th century as part of the artificial cultural production of tourism goods. Traditionally, the use of yellow and other colored lacquers to create designs against the red background is another distinctive Ryukyuan method. There is a technique known as tsuikin, distinctive for Ryukyuan lacquers. Lacquer is mixed with pigments to create a sort of clay or putty, shaped and carved and applied onto the object, in order to create textured three-dimensional effects. Despite these decorative particularities, the basic process of producing lacquerwares differs little between Ryukyu and the mainland of Asia.

However, Ryukyu does enjoy a number of native woods growing on its islands, including that of the deigo coral tree. Some traditional processes involve the use of raw pig's blood or sea san

D. S. C. B. Jansze

Dougles St. Clive Budd Jansze was a Ceylonese lawyer, he was the 20th Solicitor General of Ceylon. He was appointed on 1955, succeeding Thusew Fernando, held the office until 1957, he was succeeded by Murugeysen Tiruchelvam. Jansze lead a BA degree from the University of London and was admitted as an Advocate on 2 March 1934, he acted as Assistant Legal Draftsman in December 1936 and a Crown Counsel between March 1937 to March 1943. He formally joined the Attorney General's Department on 1 April 1943 when he was appointed a Crown Counsel. Between December 1946 and July 1947, he served as Compensation Claims, he served as Acting Senior Crown Counsel, before appointment as Senior Crown Counsel on 1 October 1949. He was appointed Solicitor General of Ceylon in 1955 succeeding T. S. Fernando and served until 1957