A placebo is a substance or treatment of no intended therapeutic value. Common placebos include inert tablets, inert injections, sham surgery, other procedures. In drug testing and medical research, a placebo can be made to resemble an active medication or therapy so that it functions as a control. In a clinical trial any change in the placebo arm is known as the placebo response, the difference between this and the result of no treatment is the placebo effect. A placebo may be given to a person in a clinical context in order to deceive the recipient into thinking that it is an active treatment; the use of placebos as treatment in clinical medicine is ethically problematic as it introduces deception and dishonesty into the doctor–patient relationship. An influential 1955 study entitled The Powerful Placebo established the idea that placebo effects were clinically important, were a result of the brain's role in physical health, but a 1997 review of the study found "no evidence of any placebo effect in any of the studies cited".
Subsequent research has found. Improvements that patients experience after being treated with a placebo can be due to unrelated factors, such as a natural recovery from the illness; the word "placebo", Latin for "I will please", dates back to a Latin translation of the Bible by St Jerome. The American Society of Pain Management Nursing define a placebo as "any sham medication or procedure designed to be void of any known therapeutic value". In a clinical trial, a placebo response is the measured response of subjects to a placebo, it is part of the recorded response to any active medical intervention. Any measurable placebo effect is termed either objective or subjective. Placebos have no meaningful therapeutic worth, they have no effect on disease, can only affect some people's subjective judgement of their symptoms. Sometimes they can make people feel better, sometimes worse – in which case they are termed a nocebo; because the placebo response is the patient response that cannot be attributed to an investigational intervention, there are multiple possible components of a measured placebo effect.
These components have varying relevance depending on the types of observations. While there is some evidence that placebo interventions can alter levels of endocannabinoids or endogenous opioids, other prominent components include expectancy effects, regression to the mean, flawed research methodologies. Children seem to have greater response than adults to placebos. A review published in JAMA Psychiatry found that, in trials of antipsychotic medications, the change in response to receiving a placebo had increased between 1960 and 2013; the review's authors identified several factors that could be responsible for this change, including inflation of baseline scores and enrollment of fewer ill patients. Another analysis published in Pain in 2015 found that placebo responses had increased in neuropathic pain clinical trials conducted in the United States from 1990 to 2013; the researchers suggested that this may be because such trials have "increased in study size and length" during this time period.
A 2010 Cochrane review suggests that placebo effects are only apparent in subjective, continuous measures, in the treatment of pain and related conditions. Placebos are believed to be capable of altering a person's perception of pain. "A person might reinterpret a sharp pain as uncomfortable tingling."One way in which the magnitude of placebo analgesia can be measured is by conducting "open/hidden" studies, in which some patients receive an analgesic and are informed that they will be receiving it, while others are administered the same drug without their knowledge. Such studies have found that analgesics are more effective when the patient knows they are receiving them. In 2008, a controversial meta-analysis led by psychologist Irving Kirsch, analyzing data from the FDA, concluded that 82% of the response to antidepressants was accounted for by placebos. However, there are serious doubts about the used methods and the interpretation of the results the use of 0.5 as cut-off point for the effect-size.
A complete reanalysis and recalculation based on the same FDA data discovered that the Kirsch study suffered from "important flaws in the calculations". The authors concluded that although a large percentage of the placebo response was due to expectancy, this was not true for the active drug. Besides confirming drug effectiveness, they found that the drug effect was not related to depression severity. Another meta-analysis found that 79% of depressed patients receiving placebo remained well compared to 93% of those receiving antidepressants. In the continuation phase however, patients on placebo relapsed more than patients on antidepressants, it was assumed that placebo response rates in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome are unusually high, "at least 30% to 50%", because of the subjective reporting of symptoms and the fluctuating nature of the condition. According to a meta-analysis and contrary to conventional wisdom, the pooled response rate in the placebo group was 19.6% lower than in some other medical conditions.
The authors offer possible explanatio
Testosterone is the primary male sex hormone and an anabolic steroid. In male humans, testosterone plays a key role in the development of male reproductive tissues such as testes and prostate, as well as promoting secondary sexual characteristics such as increased muscle and bone mass, the growth of body hair. In addition, testosterone is involved in health and well-being, the prevention of osteoporosis. Insufficient levels of testosterone in men may lead to abnormalities including frailty and bone loss. Testosterone is a steroid from the androstane class containing a keto and hydroxyl groups at the three and seventeen positions respectively, it is biosynthesized in several steps from cholesterol and is converted in the liver to inactive metabolites. It exerts its action through binding to and activation of the androgen receptor. In humans and most other vertebrates, testosterone is secreted by the testicles of males and, to a lesser extent, the ovaries of females. On average, in adult males, levels of testosterone are about 7 to 8 times as great as in adult females.
As the metabolism of testosterone in males is more pronounced, the daily production is about 20 times greater in men. Females are more sensitive to the hormone. In addition to its role as a natural hormone, testosterone is used as a medication, for instance in the treatment of low testosterone levels in men and breast cancer in women. Since testosterone levels decrease as men age, testosterone is sometimes used in older men to counteract this deficiency, it is used illicitly to enhance physique and performance, for instance in athletes. In general, androgens such as testosterone promote protein synthesis and thus growth of tissues with androgen receptors. Testosterone can be described as having anabolic effects. Anabolic effects include growth of muscle mass and strength, increased bone density and strength, stimulation of linear growth and bone maturation. Androgenic effects include maturation of the sex organs the penis and the formation of the scrotum in the fetus, after birth a deepening of the voice, growth of facial hair and axillary hair.
Many of these fall into the category of male secondary sex characteristics. Testosterone effects can be classified by the age of usual occurrence. For postnatal effects in both males and females, these are dependent on the levels and duration of circulating free testosterone. Effects before birth are divided into two categories, classified in relation to the stages of development; the first period occurs between 6 weeks of the gestation. Examples include genital virilisation such as midline fusion, phallic urethra, scrotal thinning and rugation, phallic enlargement. There is development of the prostate gland and seminal vesicles. During the second trimester, androgen level is associated with sex formation; this period affects the femininization or masculinization of the fetus and can be a better predictor of feminine or masculine behaviours such as sex typed behaviour than an adult's own levels. A mother's testosterone level during pregnancy is correlated with her daughter's sex-typical behavior as an adult, the correlation is stronger than with the daughter's own adult testosterone level.
Early infancy androgen effects are the least understood. In the first weeks of life for male infants, testosterone levels rise; the levels remain in a pubertal range for a few months, but reach the detectable levels of childhood by 4–7 months of age. The function of this rise in humans is unknown, it has been theorized that brain masculinization is occurring since no significant changes have been identified in other parts of the body. The male brain is masculinized by the aromatization of testosterone into estrogen, which crosses the blood–brain barrier and enters the male brain, whereas female fetuses have α-fetoprotein, which binds the estrogen so that female brains are not affected. Before puberty effects of rising androgen levels occur in both girls; these include adult-type body odor, increased oiliness of skin and hair, pubarche, axillary hair, growth spurt, accelerated bone maturation, facial hair. Pubertal effects begin to occur when androgen has been higher than normal adult female levels for months or years.
In males, these are usual late pubertal effects, occur in women after prolonged periods of heightened levels of free testosterone in the blood. The effects include:Growth of spermatogenic tissue in testicles, male fertility, penis or clitoris enlargement, increased libido and frequency of erection or clitoral engorgement occurs. Growth of jaw, brow and nose and remodeling of facial bone contours, in conjunction with human growth hormone occurs. Completion of bone maturation and termination of growth; this occurs indirectly via estradiol metabolites and hence more in men than women. Increased muscle strength and mass, shoulders become broader and rib cage expands, deepening of voice, growth of the Adam's apple. Enlargement of sebaceous glands; this might cause subcutaneous fat in face decreases. Pubic hair extends to thighs and up toward umbilicus, development of facial hair, loss of scalp hair, increase in chest hair, periareolar hair, perianal hair, leg hair, armpit hair. Testosterone is necessary for normal sperm development.
It activates genes in Sertoli cells. It regulates acute HPA response
Spanish fly is an emerald-green beetle in the blister beetle family. It and other such species were used in preparations offered by traditional apothecaries referred to as Cantharides or Spanish fly; the insect is the source of the terpenoid cantharidin, a toxic blistering agent once used as an aphrodisiac. L. vesicatoria is sometimes called Cantharis vesicatoria, although the genus Cantharis is in an unrelated family, the soldier beetles. Lytta vesicatoria is a slender, soft-bodied metallic and iridescent golden-green insect, one of the blister beetles, it is 5 mm wide by 20 mm long. The generic and specific names derive from the Greek λύττα for martial rage, raging madness, Bacchic frenzy, or rabies, Latin vesica for blister; the Spanish fly is a southern European species although its range of habitats is more described as being "throughout southern Europe and eastward to Central Asia and Siberia," alternatively as being throughout Europe, parts of northern and southern Asia. It occurs locally in southern Great Poland.
Adult beetles feed on leaves of ash, amur privet, honey suckle and white willow tree while being found on plum and elm. The defensive chemical cantharidin, for which the beetle is known, is produced only by males; this may be a nuptial gift, increasing the value of mating to the female, thus increasing the male's reproductive fitness. The female lays her fertilised eggs near the nest of a ground-nesting solitary bee; the larvae are active as soon as they hatch. They await the arrival of a solitary bee, they hook themselves on to the bee using the three claws on their legs that give the first instar larvae their name, triungulins. The bee carries the larvae back to its nest, where they feed on bee larvae and the bees' food supplies; the larvae are thus somewhere between parasites. The active larvae moult into different, more scarabaeoid larvae for the remaining two or more instars, in a development type called hypermetamorphosis; the adults fly to the woody plants on which they feed. Cantharidin, the principal active component in preparations of Spanish fly, was first isolated and named in 1810 by the French chemist Pierre Robiquet, who demonstrated that it was the principal agent responsible for the aggressively blistering properties of this insect's egg coating.
It was asserted at that time that it was as toxic as the most violent poisons known, such as strychnine. The active agent has been estimated present at about 0.2–0.7 mg per beetle, males producing more than females. The beetle secretes the agent orally, exudes it from its joints as a milky fluid; the potency of the insect species as a vesicant has been known since antiquity and the activity has been used in various ways. This has led to its small-scale commercial preparation and sale, in a powdered form known as cantharides, obtained from dried and ground beetles; the crushed powder is of yellow-brown to brown-olive color with iridescent reflections, is of disagreeable scent, is bitter to taste. Cantharidin, the active agent, is a terpenoid, is produced by some other insects, such as Epicauta immaculata. Cantharidin is dangerously toxic, inhibiting the enzyme phosphatase 2A, it causes irritation, blistering and discomfort. These effects can escalate to erosion and bleeding of mucosa in each system, sometimes followed by severe gastro-intestinal bleeding and acute tubular necrosis and glomerular destruction, resulting in gastro-intestinal and renal dysfunction, by organ failure, death.
Preparations from L. vesicatoria and its active agent have been implicated in both inadvertent and intentional poisonings. Froberg notes a 1954 manslaughter case where cantharidin was administered in a coconut-flavoured candy as an intended aphrodisiac, resulting in illness and eventual death of two women, in facial blistering and criminal conviction of the perpetrator. In Morocco and other parts of North Africa, spice blends known as ras el hanout sometimes included as a minor ingredient "green metallic beetles", inferred to be cantharides from L. vesicatoria, although sale of this in Moroccan spice markets was banned in the 1990s. Dawamesk, a spread or jam made in North Africa and containing hashish, almond paste, pistachio nuts, orange or tamarind peel and other various spices included cantharides. In ancient China, the beetles were mixed with human excrement and wolfsbane to make the world's first recorded stink bomb; the Venezuelan leader Simón Bolívar may have been accidentally poisoned by application of Spanish fly.
Arthur Kendrick Ford was convicted and given a multiyear prison sentence in 1954 for the unintended deaths of two women surreptitiously given candies laced with cantharidin, which were intended to act as an aphrodisiac
Fork Me, Spoon Me
Fork Me, Spoon Me: The sensual cookbook is a cookbook by Amy Reiley. It was published in 2006 by Life of Reiley, the author’s publishing and speaking company. Fork Me, Spoon Me is 142 pages of recipes using ingredients which are thought to have an aphrodisiac effect; the book features 12 ingredients noted for their aphrodisiac history which are: mint, ginger root, vanilla, almonds, peaches, chile peppers and saffron. Each ingredient is used in three to four recipes with tips for presentation. Reiley includes references to ancient cultures and individuals that have mentioned foods having an aphrodisiac potential. Fork Me, Spoon Me was inspired by and fashioned after the Joy of Sex — the chapter layout and flow of content is similar; the recipes in Fork Me, Spoon Me were created. Only a fork, spoon and/or fingers are needed, hence the title of the cookbook. Fork Me, Spoon Me has been mentioned by the National Geographic, The Times, Marie Claire and The New York Daily News; the cookbook has led to appearances on news and entertainment programs throughout the United States and Canada and Britain.
The Joy of Cooking Fork Me, Spoon Me website Life of Reiley website
Love Potion No. 9 (film)
Love Potion No. 9 is a 1992 American romantic comedy film starring Sandra Bullock and Tate Donovan. Paul Matthews is a lonely biochemist with a crush on his unavailable co-worker, biologist Diane Farrow, his friends take him to a gypsy on Vine named Madame Ruth. After reading his palm and seeing no romance in his life, Ruth gives him a small amount of Love Potion No. 8 on a piece of paper. As a scientist, Paul ends up throwing it in the trash when he gets home. Around this time, Paul's friends buy him the services of Marisa, his cat gets into the trash and eats some of the potion meows and attracts all the other cats in the neighborhood. When Paul sees the results, he takes it to Diane, they find out the "scientific" properties of it. After analyzing it, they decide to use themselves as human test subjects. Diane ends up attracting an Italian car mogul and the prince of England, ending up getting a makeover in the process, while Paul has a string of hookups with women in bars, cars, sorority houses, female dormitories.
Paul and Diane become involved. Paul plans a proposal to Diane, she tells him she has fallen for Gary. Paul is devastated and decides he wants to get her back. Marisa comes to his house to steal his stereo, after trying the potion in his bathroom, she makes Paul gladly give her all his valuables, including the potion. After "waking up" from his infatuation, Paul gets an idea, Madame Ruth confirms that somebody looking like Gary has bought all the potion No. 8. He phones Diane to tell her Gary is using the potion on her. After weeks of unsuccessful attempts, Paul goes back to Madame Ruth. 9, which will not create remove things obscuring it. But if Diane was never in love with him, Paul will love her for his entire life and she will eternally hate him. Paul asks three friends to help him force Diane to take No. 9, but they can't believe him. Marisa uses No. 8 to rob all of them, proving the power of the potion. When they arrive at the house, Diane's friend and matron of honor tells them Diane and Gary are marrying in an hour, but that she suspects something is wrong with Diane.
Paul explains, she agrees to give Diane the potion, things go wrong, but Marisa, having tricked Gary's potion bottle from him, causes havoc and ends the wedding, which gives Paul the chance to drink Potion No. 9, kiss Diane and wait five minutes as per the instructions. The effect kicks in too late but in the end, Diane runs away from Gary into Paul's arms; the film gives a pseudoscientific explanation as to how Love Potion No. 8 "works." It's explained: When swallowed it affects the vocal cords directly so that when you speak micro-tremors encoded within your voice stimulate tiny little hairs in the inner ear of the opposite sex. The hair vibrates, sending a signal along a nerve to the brain, which in turn produces a combination of mood-altering, endogenous chemicals responsible for the biochemical process of falling in love, it makes members of the same sex hostile. It only works for four hours at a time. Love Potion No. 9 prevents love from fading, overrides the effects of Love Potion No. 8.
Tate Donovan as Paul Matthews Sandra Bullock as Diane Farrow Mary Mara as Marisa Dale Midkiff as Gary Logan Hillary B. Smith as Sally Anne Bancroft as Madame Ruth Dylan Baker as Prince Geoffrey Blake Clark as Motorcycle Cop Bruce McCarty as Jeff Rebecca Staab as Cheryl Adrian Paul as Enrico Fazzoli Ric Reitz as Dave Love Potion No. 9 received poor reviews from critics, as the film holds a 27% rating on Rotten Tomatoes from a sample of 11 reviews. Love Potion No. 9 on IMDb Love Potion No. 9 at Rotten Tomatoes Love Potion No. 9 at Box Office Mojo
In ancient Greek religion and mythology, the twelve Olympians are the major deities of the Greek pantheon considered to be Zeus, Poseidon, Athena, Artemis, Aphrodite, Hephaestus and either Hestia or Dionysus. They were called Olympians. Although Hades was a major ancient Greek god, was the brother of the first generation of Olympians, he resided in the underworld, far from Olympus, thus was not considered to be one of the Olympians. Besides the twelve Olympians, there were many other cultic groupings of twelve gods; the Olympians were a race of deities consisting of a third and fourth generation of immortal beings, worshipped as the principal gods of the Greek pantheon and so named because of their residency atop Mount Olympus. They gained their supremacy in a ten-year-long war of gods, in which Zeus led his siblings to victory over the previous generation of ruling gods, the Titans, they were a family of gods, the most important consisting of the first generation of Olympians, offspring of the Titans Cronus and Rhea: Zeus, Hera and Hestia, along with the principal offspring of Zeus: Athena, Artemis, Aphrodite, Hephaestus and Dionysus.
Although Hades was a major deity in the Greek pantheon, was the brother of Zeus and the other first generation of Olympians, his realm was far away from Olympus in the underworld, thus he was not considered to be one of the Olympians. Olympic gods can be contrasted to chthonic gods including Hades, by mode of sacrifice, the latter receiving sacrifices in a bothros or megaron rather than at an altar; the canonical number of Olympian gods was twelve, but besides the principal Olympians listed above, there were many other residents of Olympus, who thus might be called Olympians. Heracles became a resident of Olympus after his apotheosis and married another Olympian resident Hebe; some others who might be considered Olympians, include the Muses, the Graces, Dione, the Horae, Ganymede. Besides the twelve Olympians, there were many other various cultic groupings of twelve gods throughout ancient Greece; the earliest evidence of Greek religious practice involving twelve gods comes no earlier than the late sixth century BC.
According to Thucydides, an altar of the twelve gods was established in the agora of Athens by the archon Pisistratus, in c. 522 BC. The altar became the central point from which distances from Athens were measured and a place of supplication and refuge. Olympia also had an early tradition of twelve gods; the Homeric Hymn to Hermes has the god Hermes divide a sacrifice of two cows he has stolen from Apollo, into twelve parts, on the banks of the river Alpheius: "Next glad-hearted Hermes dragged the rich meats he had prepared and put them on a smooth, flat stone, divided them into twelve portions distributed by lot, making each portion wholly honorable."Pindar, in an ode written to be sung at Olympia c. 480 BC, has Heracles sacrificing, alongside the Alpheius, to the "twelve ruling gods": "He enclosed the Altis all around and marked it off in the open, he made the encircling area a resting-place for feasting, honoring the stream of the Alpheus along with the twelve ruling gods."Another of Pindar's Olympian odes mentions "six double altars".
Herodorus of Heraclea has Heracles founding a shrine at Olympia, with six pairs of gods, each pair sharing a single altar. Many other places had cults of the twelve gods, including Delos, Magnesia on the Maeander, Leontinoi in Sicily; as with the twelve Olympians, although the number of gods was fixed at twelve, the membership varied. While the majority of the gods included as members of these other cults of twelve gods were Olympians, non-Olympians were sometimes included. For example, Herodorus of Heraclea identified the six pairs of gods at Olympia as: Zeus and Poseidon and Athena, Hermes and Apollo, the Graces and Dionysus and Alpheus, Cronus and Rhea, thus while this list includes the eight Olympians: Zeus, Hera, Hermes, Apollo and Dionysus, it contains three clear non-Olympians: the Titan parents of the first generation of Olympians and Rhea, the river god Alpheius, with the status of the Graces being unclear. Plato connected "twelve gods" with the twelve months, implies that he considered Pluto one of the twelve in proposing that the final month be devoted to him and the spirits of the dead.
The Roman poet Ennius gives the Roman equivalents as six male-female complements, preserving the place of Vesta, who played a crucial role in Roman religion as a state goddess maintained by the Vestals. There is no single canonical list of the twelve Olympian gods; the thirteen gods and goddesses most considered to be one of the twelve Olympians are listed below. Most listings include either one or the other of the following deities as one of the twelve Olympians. Notes^ Romans associated Phoebus with Helios and the sun itself, they used the Greek name Apollon in a Latinized form Apollo.^ According to an alternate version of her birth, Aphrodite was born of Uranus, Zeus' grandfather, after Cronus threw his castrated genitals into the sea. This supports the etymology of her name, "foam-born"; as such, Aphrodite would belong to the same generation as Cronus, Zeus' father, would be Zeus' aunt
An extract is a substance made by extracting a part of a raw material by using a solvent such as ethanol or water. Extracts may be sold in powder form; the aromatic principles of many spices, herbs, etc. and some flowers, are marketed as extracts, among the best known of true extracts being almond, cloves, lemon, orange, pistachio, spearmint, violet and wintergreen. The majority of natural essences are obtained by extracting the essential oil from the blossoms, roots, etc. or the whole plants, through four techniques: 1) expression, 2) absorption, 3) maceration, 4) distillation. Expression is used when the oil is plentiful and obtained, as in lemon peel. Absorption is accomplished by steeping in alcohol, as vanilla beans. Maceration is used to create smaller bits of the whole, as in making peppermint extract, etc. Distillation is used with maceration, but in many cases, it requires expert chemical knowledge and the erection of costly stills; the distinctive flavors of nearly all fruits, in the popular acceptance of the word, are desirable adjuncts to many food preparations, but only a few are practical sources of sufficiently concentrated flavor extract.
The most important among those that lend themselves to "pure" extract manufacture include lemons and vanilla beans. The majority of concentrated fruit flavors such as banana, peach, pineapple and strawberry, are produced by combining a variety of esters with special oils; the desired colors are obtained by the use of dyes. Among the esters most employed are ethyl acetate and ethyl butyrate; the chief factors in the production of artificial banana and strawberry extract are amyl acetate and amyl butyrate. Artificial extracts do not possess the delicacy of natural fruit flavor, but taste sufficiently similar to be useful when true essences are unobtainable or too expensive. Vanilla extract Spagyric This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Ward, Artemas; the Grocer's Encyclopedia