Ajwain, ajowan, or Trachyspermum ammi—also known as ajowan caraway, bishop's weed, or carom—is an annual herb in the family Apiaceae. Both the leaves and the seed‑like fruit of the plant are consumed by humans; the name "bishop's weed" is a common name for other plants. The "seed" is confused with lovage "seed". Ajwain's small, oval-shaped, seed-like fruits are pale brown schizocarps, which resemble the seeds of other plants in the Apiaceae family such as caraway and fennel, they have a pungent taste, with a flavor similar to anise and oregano. They smell exactly like thyme because they contain thymol, but they are more aromatic and less subtle in taste, as well as being somewhat bitter and pungent. A small number of fruits tends to dominate the flavor of a dish; the plant is cultivated in Iran and India. Rajasthan produced about 55% of India's total output in 2006; the fruits are eaten raw. This allows the spice to develop a more complex aroma. In Indian cuisine, it is part of a chaunk, a mixture of spices fried in oil or butter, used to flavor lentil dishes.
It is used in South Asian cuisines like Indian and Pakistani cuisine as well, it is an important ingredient for herbal medicine practiced there. In Afghanistan, the fruits are sprinkled over bread and biscuits; the leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus, sometimes called "Indian borage", are occasionally called "ajwain leaves", with the plant itself sometimes called the ajwain plant. It should not be confused with the true ajwain plant, used for its fruits and whose leaves may or may not be edible. Ajwain is used in traditional Ayurveda for stomach disorders such as indigestion, fatigue, abdominal pain, flatulence and colic. along with respiratory distress and loss of appetite. In Siddha medicine, the crushed fruits are applied externally as a poultice. Hydrodistillation of ajwain fruits yields an essential oil consisting of thymol, gamma-terpinene, p-cymene, more than 20 trace compounds which are predominantly terpenoids. Ajwain from The Encyclopedia of Spices
A perennial plant or perennial is a plant that lives more than two years. Some sources cite perennial plants being plants; the term is used to differentiate a plant from shorter-lived annuals and biennials. The term is widely used to distinguish plants with little or no woody growth from trees and shrubs, which are technically perennials. Perennials small flowering plants, that grow and bloom over the spring and summer, die back every autumn and winter, return in the spring from their rootstock, are known as herbaceous perennials. However, depending on the rigors of local climate, a plant, a perennial in its native habitat, or in a milder garden, may be treated by a gardener as an annual and planted out every year, from seed, from cuttings or from divisions. Tomato vines, for example, live several years in their natural tropical/subtropical habitat but are grown as annuals in temperate regions because they don't survive the winter. There is a class of evergreen, or non-herbaceous, including plants like Bergenia which retain a mantle of leaves throughout the year.
An intermediate class of plants is known as subshrubs, which retain a vestigial woody structure in winter, e.g. Penstemon; the local climate may dictate whether plants are treated as perennials. For instance, many varieties of Fuchsia are shrubs in warm regions, but in colder temperate climates may be cut to the ground every year as a result of winter frosts; the symbol for a perennial plant, based on Species Plantarum by Linnaeus, is, the astronomical symbol for the planet Jupiter. Perennial plants can be short-lived or they can be long-lived, as are some woody plants like trees, they include a wide assortment of plant groups from ferns and liverworts to the diverse flowering plants like orchids and grasses. Plants that flower and fruit only once and die are termed monocarpic or semelparous. However, most perennials are polycarpic. Perennials grow structures that allow them to adapt to living from one year to the next through a form of vegetative reproduction rather than seeding; these structures include bulbs, woody crowns, rhizomes plus others.
They might have specialized stems or crowns that allow them to survive periods of dormancy over cold or dry seasons during the year. Annuals produce seeds to continue the species as a new generation while the growing season is suitable, the seeds survive over the cold or dry period to begin growth when the conditions are again suitable. Many perennials have developed specialized features that allow them to survive extreme climatic and environmental conditions; some have adapted to survive cold temperatures. Those plants tend to invest a lot of resource into their adaptations and do not flower and set seed until after a few years of growth. Many perennials produce large seeds, which can have an advantage, with larger seedlings produced after germination that can better compete with other plants; some annuals produce many more seeds per plant in one season, while some perennials are not under the same pressure to produce large numbers of seeds but can produce seeds over many years. Dividing perennial plants is something that gardeners do around the months of October.
The point of doing the division at this time is to allow 6 weeks for adequate root growth prior to the ground reaching a freezing temperature. Due to the leaves falling from trees, as well as the excessive amount of rain received in most places during the fall weeks, the ground has adequate moisture for rapid growth; each type of plant must be separated differently. However, plants such as Irises have a root system known as a Rhizomes, these root systems should be planted with the bulb of the plant just above ground level, with leaves from the following year showing; the point of dividing perennials is to increase the amount of a single breed of plant in your garden. The more you divide your perennial plants every year, the more vast your garden will grow. In warmer and more favorable climates, perennials grow continuously. In seasonal climates, their growth is limited to the growing season. In some species, perennials retain their foliage all year round. Other plants are deciduous perennials, for example, in temperate regions a perennial plant may grow and bloom during the warm part of the year, with the foliage dying back in the winter.
In many parts of the world, seasonality is expressed as wet and dry periods rather than warm and cold periods, deciduous perennials lose their leaves in the dry season. With their roots protected below ground in the soil layer, perennial plants are notably tolerant of wildfire. Herbaceous perennials are able to tolerate the extremes of cold in temperate and Arctic winters, with less sensitivity than trees or shrubs. Perennial plants can be differentiated from annuals and biennials in that perennials have the ability to remain dormant over long periods of time and continue growth and reproduction; the meristem of perennial plants communicates with the hormones produced due to environmental situations and stage of development to begin and halt the ability to grow or flower. There is a distinction between the ability to grow and actual task of growth. For example, most trees regain the ability to grow in the midst of winter but do not initiate physical growth until the spring and summer months.
The start of dormancy can be seen in perennials pla
Daucus carota, whose common names include wild carrot, bird's nest, bishop's lace, Queen Anne's lace, is a white, flowering plant in the family Apiaceae, native to temperate regions of Europe and southwest Asia, naturalized to North America and Australia. Domesticated carrots are cultivars of Daucus carota subsp.. Sativus; the wild carrot is a herbaceous, somewhat variable biennial plant that grows between 30 and 60 cm tall, is hairy, with a stiff, solid stem. The leaves are tripinnate, finely divided and lacy, overall triangular in shape; the leaves are alternate in a pinnate pattern that separates into thin segments. The flowers are dull white, clustered in flat, dense umbels; the umbels are terminal and 3–4 inches wide. They may have a reddish or purple flower in the centre of the umbel; the lower bracts are three-forked or pinnate, which distinguishes the plant from other white-flowered umbellifers. As the seeds develop, the umbel curls up at the edges, becomes more congested, develops a concave surface.
The fruits are oval and hooked spines. The fruit is small and bumpy with protective hairs surrounding it; the fruit of Daucus carota has bicarpellate. The endosperm of the fruit grows before the embryo; the dried umbels detach from the plant. The function of the tiny red flower, coloured by anthocyanin, is to attract insects. Wild carrot blooms in fall, it thrives best in sun to partial shade. Daucus carota is found along roadsides and in unused fields. Similar in appearance to the deadly poison hemlock, D. carota is distinguished by a mix of tripinnate leaves, fine hairs on its solid green stems and on its leaves, a root that smells like carrots, a single dark red flower in the center of the umbel. Like the cultivated carrot, the D. carota root is edible while young, but it becomes too woody to consume. The flowers are sometimes fried; the leaves are edible except in large quantities. Extra caution should be used when collecting D. carota because it bears a close resemblance to poison hemlock. In addition, the leaves of the wild carrot may cause phytophotodermatitis, so caution should be used when handling the plant.
It has been used as an abortifacient for centuries. If used as a dyestuff, the flowers give a off-white color. D. carota, when freshly cut, will draw or change color depending on the color of the water in which it is held. This effect is only visible on flower of the plant. Carnations exhibit this effect; this occurrence is a popular science demonstration in primary grade school. This beneficial weed can be used as a companion plant to crops. Like most members of the umbellifer family, it attracts wasps to its small flowers in its native land. In northeast Wisconsin, when introduced with blueberries it did succeed in attracting butterflies and wasps; this species is documented to boost tomato plant production when kept nearby, it can provide a microclimate of cooler, moister air for lettuce, when intercropped with it. However, the states of Iowa, Ohio and Washington have listed it as a noxious weed, it is considered a serious pest in pastures, it persists in the soil seed bank for two to five years.
Several different factors can cause the root of a carrot to have abnormal metabolites that can cause a bitter taste in the roots. For example, carrots have a more bitter taste. Ethylene can produce stress, causing an abnormal, bitter taste. D. carota was introduced and naturalized in North America, where it is known as Queen Anne's lace. Both Anne, Queen of Great Britain, her great grandmother, Anne of Denmark, are taken to be the Queen Anne for which the plant is named, it is so called. The history of Daucus carota and its cultivation in different parts of the world can be traced back through historical texts and artwork. Paintings from the 16th and 17th century, for example, that are of maids in a market or farmers' most recent crops can provide information on carrots' history. Studying such paintings shows that yellow or red roots were cultivated in Turkey, North Africa, Spain. Orange roots were cultivated in 17th century Netherlands; the carrot was first described by Carl Linnaeus in his 1753 work Species Plantarum.
In 2016 an international team has sequenced the full genome of Daucus carota. "As far as known cultivated forms have only been derived from the species Daucus carota L. Classification of the wild forms of this species is difficult because of a more or less continuous variation in the material, but THELLUNG classifies them in two groups and gummiferi, each consisting of five main types. Plants of the group eucarota are annuals or biennials. Plants of the group gummiferi are perennials, but they die after flowering once. Daucus carota subsp. Carota is the most common wild carrot of Europe and S. W. Asia."Both domestic and wild carrot are from the same species, Daucus carota L. There are several subspecies of Daucus carota that have evolved to different climates and atmospheres. Two examples o
In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is defined as the largest group of organisms in which any two individuals of the appropriate sexes or mating types can produce fertile offspring by sexual reproduction. Other ways of defining species include their karyotype, DNA sequence, behaviour or ecological niche. In addition, paleontologists use the concept of the chronospecies since fossil reproduction cannot be examined. While these definitions may seem adequate, when looked at more they represent problematic species concepts. For example, the boundaries between related species become unclear with hybridisation, in a species complex of hundreds of similar microspecies, in a ring species. Among organisms that reproduce only asexually, the concept of a reproductive species breaks down, each clone is a microspecies. All species are given a two-part name, a "binomial"; the first part of a binomial is the genus.
The second part is called the specific epithet. For example, Boa constrictor is one of four species of the genus Boa. None of these is satisfactory definitions, but scientists and conservationists need a species definition which allows them to work, regardless of the theoretical difficulties. If species were fixed and distinct from one another, there would be no problem, but evolutionary processes cause species to change continually, to grade into one another. Species were seen from the time of Aristotle until the 18th century as fixed kinds that could be arranged in a hierarchy, the great chain of being. In the 19th century, biologists grasped. Charles Darwin's 1859 book The Origin of Species explained how species could arise by natural selection; that understanding was extended in the 20th century through genetics and population ecology. Genetic variability arises from mutations and recombination, while organisms themselves are mobile, leading to geographical isolation and genetic drift with varying selection pressures.
Genes can sometimes be exchanged between species by horizontal gene transfer. Viruses are a special case, driven by a balance of mutation and selection, can be treated as quasispecies. Biologists and taxonomists have made many attempts to define species, beginning from morphology and moving towards genetics. Early taxonomists such as Linnaeus had no option but to describe what they saw: this was formalised as the typological or morphological species concept. Ernst Mayr emphasised reproductive isolation, but this, like other species concepts, is hard or impossible to test. Biologists have tried to refine Mayr's definition with the recognition and cohesion concepts, among others. Many of the concepts are quite similar or overlap, so they are not easy to count: the biologist R. L. Mayden recorded about 24 concepts, the philosopher of science John Wilkins counted 26. Wilkins further grouped the species concepts into seven basic kinds of concepts: agamospecies for asexual organisms biospecies for reproductively isolated sexual organisms ecospecies based on ecological niches evolutionary species based on lineage genetic species based on gene pool morphospecies based on form or phenotype and taxonomic species, a species as determined by a taxonomist.
A typological species is a group of organisms in which individuals conform to certain fixed properties, so that pre-literate people recognise the same taxon as do modern taxonomists. The clusters of variations or phenotypes within specimens would differentiate the species; this method was used as a "classical" method of determining species, such as with Linnaeus early in evolutionary theory. However, different phenotypes are not different species. Species named in this manner are called morphospecies. In the 1970s, Robert R. Sokal, Theodore J. Crovello and Peter Sneath proposed a variation on this, a phenetic species, defined as a set of organisms with a similar phenotype to each other, but a different phenotype from other sets of organisms, it differs from the morphological species concept in including a numerical measure of distance or similarity to cluster entities based on multivariate comparisons of a reasonably large number of phenotypic traits. A mate-recognition species is a group of sexually reproducing organisms that recognize one another as potential mates.
Expanding on this to allow for post-mating isolation, a cohesion species is the most inclusive population of individuals having the potential for phenotypic cohesion through intrinsic cohesion mechanisms. A further development of the recognition concept is provided by the biosemiotic concept of species. In microbiology, genes can move even between distantly related bacteria extending to the whole bacterial domain; as a rule of thumb, microbiologists have assumed that kinds of Bacteria or Archaea with 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences more similar than 97% to each other need to be checked by DNA-DNA hybridisation to decide if they belong to the same species or not. This concept was narrowed in 2006 to a similarity of 98.7%. DNA-DNA hybri
In biology, a hermaphrodite is an organism that has complete or partial reproductive organs and produces gametes associated with both male and female sexes. Many taxonomic groups of animals do not have separate sexes. In these groups, hermaphroditism is a normal condition, enabling a form of sexual reproduction in which either partner can act as the "female" or "male." For example, the great majority of tunicates, pulmonate snails, opisthobranch snails and slugs are hermaphrodites. Hermaphroditism is found in some fish species and to a lesser degree in other vertebrates. Most plants are hermaphrodites; the term hermaphrodite has been used to describe ambiguous genitalia and gonadal mosaicism in individuals of gonochoristic species human beings. The word intersex has come into preferred usage for humans, since the word hermaphrodite is considered to be misleading and stigmatizing, as well as "scientifically specious and clinically problematic."A rough estimate of the number of hermaphroditic animal species is 65,000.
The percentage of animal species that are hermaphroditic is about 5%.. Most hermaphroditic species exhibit some degree of self-fertilization; the distribution of self-fertilization rates among animals is similar to that of plants, suggesting that similar processes are operating to direct the evolution of selfing in animals and plants. The term derives from the Latin: hermaphroditus, from Ancient Greek: ἑρμαφρόδιτος, translit. Hermaphroditos, which derives from Hermaphroditus, the son of Hermes and Aphrodite in Greek mythology. According to Ovid, he fused with the nymph Salmacis resulting in one individual possessing physical traits of male and female sexes; the word hermaphrodite entered the English lexicon as early as the late fourteenth century. Alexander ab Alexandro stated, using the term hermaphrodite, that the people who bore the sexes of both man and woman were regarded by the Athenians and the Romans as monsters, thrown into the sea at Athens and into the Tiber at Rome. Sequential hermaphrodites occur in species in which the individual is born as one sex, but can change into the opposite sex.
This contrasts simultaneous hermaphrodites, in which an individual may possess functional male and female genitalia. Sequential hermaphroditism is common in fish and many gastropods, some flowering plants. Sequential hermaphrodites can only change sex once. Sequential hermaphroditism can best be understood in terms of behavioral ecology and evolutionary life history theory, as described in the size-advantage mode first proposed by Michael T. Ghiselin which states that if an individual of a certain sex could increase its reproductive success after reaching a certain size, it would be to their advantage to switch to that sex. Sequential hermaphrodites can be divided into three broad categories: Protandry: Where an organism is born as a male, changes sex to a female. Example: The clownfish are colorful reef fish found living in symbiosis with sea anemones. One anemone contains a'harem', consisting of a large female, a smaller reproductive male, smaller non-reproductive males. If the female is removed, the reproductive male will change sex and the largest of the non-reproductive males will mature and become reproductive.
It has been shown that fishing pressure can change when the switch from male to female occurs, since fishermen prefer to catch the larger fish. The populations are changing sex at a smaller size, due to natural selection. Protogyny: Where the organism is born as a female, changes sex to a male. Example: wrasses are a group of reef fish in which protogyny is common. Wrasses have an uncommon life history strategy, termed diandry. In these species, two male morphs exists: a terminal phase male. Initial phase males do not spawn in groups with other females, they are not territorial. They are female mimics. Terminal phase males have a distinctively bright coloration. Individuals are born as males or females, but if they are born males, they are not born as terminal phase males. Females and initial phase males can become terminal phase males; the most dominant female or initial phase male replaces any terminal phase male when those males die or abandon the group. Bidirectional Sex Changers: where an organism has female and male reproductive organs, but act as either female or male during different stages in life.
Example: Lythrypnus dalli are a group of coral reef fish in which bidirectional sex change occurs. Once a social hierarchy is established a fish changes sex according to its social status, regardless of the initial sex, based on a simple principle: if the fish expresses subordinate behavior it changes its sex to female, if the fish expresses dominant or not subordinate behavior the fish changes its sex to male. Dichogamy can have both conservation-related implications for humans, as mentioned above, as well as economic implications. For instance, groupers are favoured fish for eating in many Asian countries and are aquacultured. Since the adults take several
Fennel is a flowering plant species in the carrot family. It is a perennial herb with yellow flowers and feathery leaves, it is indigenous to the shores of the Mediterranean but has become naturalized in many parts of the world on dry soils near the sea-coast and on riverbanks. It is a aromatic and flavorful herb used in cookery and, along with the similar-tasting anise, is one of the primary ingredients of absinthe. Florence fennel or finocchio is a selection with a swollen, bulb-like stem base, used as a vegetable. Fennel is used as a food plant by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including in its native range the mouse moth and the Old-World swallowtail. Where it has been introduced in North America it may be used by the anise swallowtail; the word "fennel" aka "saunf" developed from the Middle English fenyl. This came from the Old English fenol or finol, which in turn came from the Latin feniculum or foeniculum, the diminutive of fenum or faenum, meaning "hay"; the Latin word for the plant was ferula, now used as the genus name of a related plant.
Fennel was prized by the ancient Greeks and Romans who used it as medicine and insect repellent. A fennel tea was believed to give courage to the warriors prior to battle. According to Greek mythology, Prometheus used a giant stalk of fennel to carry fire from Olympus to earth. Emperor Charlemagne required the cultivation of fennel on all imperial farms; the Greek name for fennel is marathon or marathos, the place of the famous battle of Marathon means a plain with fennel. The word is first attested in Mycenaean Linear B form as ma-ra-tu-wo; as Old English finule, fennel is one of the nine plants invoked in the pagan Anglo-Saxon Nine Herbs Charm, recorded in the 10th century. In the 15th century, Portuguese settlers on Madeira noticed the abundance of wild fennel, used the Portuguese word funcho and the suffix -al to form the name of a new town, Funchal. Longfellow's 1842 poem "The Goblet of Life" refers to the plant and mentions its purported ability to strengthen eyesight: Above the lower plants it towers, The Fennel with its yellow flowers.
Fennel, Foeniculum vulgare, is a perennial herb. It is erect, glaucous green, grows to heights of up to 2.5 metres, with hollow stems. The leaves grow up to 40 centimetres long; the flowers are produced in terminal compound umbels 5–15 centimetres wide, each umbel section having 20–50 tiny yellow flowers on short pedicels. The fruit is a dry schizocarp from 4–10 millimetres long, half as wide or less, grooved. Since the seed in the fruit is attached to the pericarp, the whole fruit is mistakenly called "seed". Fennel is cultivated, both in its native range and elsewhere, for its edible flavored leaves and fruits, its aniseed flavor comes from anethole, an aromatic compound found in anise and star anise, its taste and aroma are similar to theirs, though not as strong. Florence fennel is a cultivar group with inflated leaf bases, it is of cultivated origin, has a mild anise-like flavor, but is sweeter and more aromatic. Florence fennel plants are smaller than the wild type; the inflated leaf bases are cooked.
Several cultivars of Florence fennel are known by several other names, notably the Italian name finocchio. In North American supermarkets, it is mislabeled as "anise". Foeniculum vulgare'Purpureum' or'Nigra', "bronze-leaved" fennel, is available as a decorative garden plant. Fennel has become naturalized along roadsides, in pastures, in other open sites in many regions, including northern Europe, the United States, southern Canada, much of Asia and Australia, it propagates well by seed, is considered an invasive species and a weed in Australia and the United States. In western North America, fennel can be found from the coastal and inland wildland-urban interface east into hill and mountain areas, excluding desert habitats. Florence fennel is one of the three main herbs used in the preparation of absinthe, an alcoholic mixture which originated as a medicinal elixir in Switzerland and became, by the late 19th century, a popular alcoholic drink in France and other countries. Fennel fruit is used in the production of akvavit.
A 100-gram portion of fennel fruits provides 1,440 kilojoules of food energy, it is a rich source of protein, dietary fiber, B vitamins and several dietary minerals calcium, iron and manganese, all of which exceed 100% DV. Fennel fruits are 15 % fat, 40 % dietary fiber, 16 % protein and 9 % water; the bulb and fruits of the fennel plant are used in many of the culinary traditions of the world. The small flowers of wild fennel are the most potent form of fennel, but the most expensive. Dried fennel fruit is an aromatic, anise-flavored spice, brown or green in color when fresh turning a dull grey as the fruit ages. For cooking, green fruits are optimal; the leaves are delicately similar in shape to those of dill. The bulb is a crisp vegetable that can be sautéed, braised, grilled, or eaten raw. Young tender leaves are used for garnishes, as a salad, to add flavor to salads, to flavor sauces to be served with puddings, in soups and
Anise called aniseed, is a flowering plant in the family Apiaceae native to the eastern Mediterranean region and Southwest Asia. Its flavor has similarities with some other spices, such as star anise and liquorice, it is cultivated and used to flavor food and alcoholic drinks around the Mediterranean. It served as a carminative in herbal medicine; the name "anise" is derived via Old French from the Latin word, anisum, or Greek, referring to dill. Anise is an herbaceous annual plant growing to 3 ft or more tall; the leaves at the base of the plant are simple, 3⁄8–2 in long and shallowly lobed, while leaves higher on the stems are feathery pinnate, divided into numerous small leaflets. The flowers are white 1⁄8 inch in diameter, produced in dense umbels; the fruit is an oblong dry schizocarp, 1⁄8–1⁄4 in long called "aniseed". Anise is a food plant for the larvae of some Lepidoptera species, including the lime-speck pug and wormwood pug. Anise was first cultivated in Egypt and the Middle East, was brought to Europe for its medicinal value.
Anise plants grow best in light, well-drained soil. The seeds should be planted as soon; because the plants have a taproot, they do not transplant well after being established, so they should either be started in their final location or be transplanted while the seedlings are still small. Western cuisines have long used anise to flavor dishes and candies; the word is used for both the species of its licorice-like flavor. The most powerful flavor component of the essential oil of anise, anethole, is found in both anise and an unrelated spice indigenous to northern China called star anise used in South Asian, Southeast Asian, East Asian dishes. Star anise is less expensive to produce, has displaced P. anisum in Western markets. While produced in larger quantities, by 1999 world production of the essential oil of anise was only 8 tons, compared to 400 tons of star anise; as with all spices, the composition of anise varies with origin and cultivation method. These are typical values for the main constituents.
Moisture: 9–13% Protein: 18% Fatty oil: 8–23% Essential oil: 2–7% Starch: 5% N-free extract: 22–28% Crude fibre: 12–25%In particular, the anise seeds products should contain more than 0.2 milliliter volatile oil per 100 grams of spice. Anise essential oil can be obtained from the fruits by either steam distillation or extraction using supercritical carbon dioxide; the yield of essential oil is influenced by the growing conditions and extraction process, with supercritical extraction being more efficient. Regardless of the method of isolation the main component of the oil is anethole, with minor components including 4-anisaldehyde and pseudoisoeugenyl-2-methylbutyrates, amongst others. Anise is sweet and aromatic, distinguished by its characteristic flavour; the seeds, whole or ground, are used for preparation of teas and tisanes, as well as in a wide variety of regional and ethnic confectioneries, including black jelly beans, British aniseed balls and "troach" drops, Australian humbugs, New Zealand aniseed wheels, Italian pizzelle, German Pfeffernüsse and Springerle, Austrian Anisbögen, Dutch muisjes, New Mexican bizcochitos, Peruvian picarones.
It is a key ingredient in Mexican atole de anís and champurrado, similar to hot chocolate, it is taken as a digestive after meals in Pakistan and India. The Ancient Romans served spiced cakes with aniseed called mustaceoe at the end of feasts as a digestive; this tradition of serving cake at the end of festivities is the basis for the tradition of serving cake at weddings. Anise is used to flavor Greek ouzo. Outside the Mediterranean region, it is found in Mexican Xtabentún; these liquors are clear, but on addition of water become cloudy, a phenomenon known as the ouzo effect. Anise is used together with other herbs and spices in some root beers, such as Virgil's in the United States; the main use of anise in traditional European herbal medicine was for its carminative effect, as noted by John Gerard in his Great Herball, an early encyclopedia of herbal medicine: The seed wasteth and consumeth winde, is good against belchings and upbraidings of the stomacke, alaieth gripings of the belly, provoketh urine maketh abundance of milke, stirreth up bodily lust: it staieth the laske, the white flux in women.
In Turkish folk medicine, its seeds have been used as appetizer and diuretic drug. Anise has been thought a treatment for menstrual cramps and colic. In the 1860s, American Civil War nurse Maureen Hellstrom used anise seeds as an early form of antiseptic; this method was found to have caused high levels of toxicity in the blood and was discontinued shortly thereafter. According to Pliny the Elder, anise was used as a cure for sleeplessness, chewed with alexanders and a little honey in the morning to freshen the breath, when mixed with wine, as a remedy for asp bites. In 19th-century medicine, anise was prepared as aqua anisi in doses of an ounce or more and as spiritus anisi in doses of 5–20 minims. Builders of steam locomotives in Britain incorporated capsules of aniseed oil into white metal plain bearings, so