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Apocalyptic literature

Apocalyptic literature is a genre of prophetical writing that developed in post-Exilic Jewish culture and was popular among millennialist early Christians. Apocalypse is a Greek word meaning "revelation", "an unveiling or unfolding of things not known and which could not be known apart from the unveiling"; as a genre, apocalyptic literature details the authors' visions of the end times as revealed by an angel or other heavenly messenger. The apocalyptic literature of Judaism and Christianity embraces a considerable period, from the centuries following the Babylonian exile down to the close of the Middle Ages. Apocalyptic elements can be detected in the prophetical books of Joel and Zechariah, while Isaiah chapters 24–27 and 33 present well-developed apocalypses; the Book of Daniel offers a matured and classic example of this genre of literature. The non-fulfillment of prophecies served to popularize the methods of apocalyptic in comparison with the non-fulfillment of the advent of the Messianic kingdom.

Thus, though Jeremiah had promised that after seventy years Israelites should be restored to their own land, enjoy the blessings of the Messianic kingdom under the Messianic king, this period passed by and things remained as of old. Some believe that the Messianic kingdom was not predicted to occur at the end of the seventy years of the Babylonian exile, but at some unspecified time in the future; the only thing for certain, predicted was the return of the Jews to their land, which occurred when Cyrus the Persian conquered Babylon in circa 539 BC. Thus, the fulfillment of the Messianic kingdom remained in the future for the Jews. Haggai and Zechariah explained the delay by the failure of Judah to rebuild the temple, so hope of the kingdom persisted, until in the first half of the 2nd century the delay is explained in the Books of Daniel and Enoch as due not to man's shortcomings but to the counsels of God. Regarding the 70 years of exile predicted in Jeremiah 29:10, the Jews were first exiled in 605 BC in the reign of king Jehoiakim and were allowed to return to their land in c. 536 BC when King Cyrus conquered Babylon.

This period was 70 years, as prophesied by Jeremiah. But some people believe that the 70 years of Jeremiah were interpreted by the angel in Daniel 9 as 70 weeks of years, of which 69½ have expired, while Enoch 85 interprets the 70 years of Jeremiah as the 70 successive reigns of the 70 angelic patrons of the nations, which are to come to a close in his own generation; the Book of Enoch, was not considered inspired Scripture by the Jews, so that any failed prophecy in it is of no consequence to the Jewish faith. The Greek empire of the East was overthrown by Rome, prompted a new interpretation of Daniel; the fourth and last empire was declared to be Roman by the Apocalypse of Baruch chapters 36–40 and 4 Ezra 10:60–12:35. Again, these two books were not considered inspired Scripture by the Jews, thus were not authoritative on matters of prophecy. In addition, earlier in Daniel chapter 7 and in chapter 2, the fourth and final world empire is considered to be Rome since Babylon, Medo-Persia and Rome were world empires which all arrived in succession.

Thus, it might be interpreted that Daniel was saying that Rome would be the last world power before the kingdom of God. Such ideas as those of "the day of Yahweh" and the "new heavens and a new earth" were re-interpreted by the Jewish people with fresh nuances in conformity with their new settings, thus the inner development of Jewish apocalyptic was conditioned by the historical experiences of the nation. But the prophecies found in Jewish scriptures, which have not changed over time, await their fulfillment. Another source of apocalyptic thought was primitive mythological and cosmological traditions, in which the eye of the seer could see the secrets of the future, thus the six days of the world's creation, followed by a seventh of rest, were regarded as at once a history of the past and a forecasting of the future. As the world was made in six days its history would be accomplished in six thousand years, since each day with God was as a thousand years and a thousand years as one day; the object of this literature in general was to square the righteousness of God with the suffering condition of His righteous servants on earth.

Early Old Testament prophecy taught the need of personal and national righteousness, foretold the ultimate blessedness of the righteous nation on the present earth. Its views were not comprehensive in regard to the nations in general. Regarding the individual, it held that God’s service here was its own and adequate reward, saw no need of postulating another world to set right the evils of this one, but with the growing claims of the individual and the acknowledgment of these in the religious and intellectual life, both problems, the latter, pressed themselves irresistibly on the notice of religious thinkers, made it impossible for any conception of the divine rule and righteousness to gain acceptance, which did not render adequate satisfaction to the claims of both problems. To render such satisfaction was the task undertaken by apocalyptic, as well as to vindicate the righteousness of God alike in respect of the individual and of the nation. Prophecy incorporated an idea of future vindication of present evils including the idea of an afterlife.

Apocalyptic prophets sketched in outline the history of the world and mankind, the origin of evil and its course, the final consummation of all things. The righteous as a nation should yet po

Centre for Health and the Public Interest

The Centre for Health and the Public Interest is a London think tank founded in June 2013 to defend "the founding principles of the NHS". It is a registered charity. Professor Colin Leys was involved in its foundation, it has produced several reports on the Private finance initiative in the English NHS. It says PFI companies had made pre-tax profits of £831m in the past six years which could have been spent on patient care, it warned councillors in Newham that NHS transformation plans were untested. Its scrutiny of the role of markets and competition in the NHS found that information about quality and safety in private hospitals was not available in the same way as with NHS providers so it was not possible to compare the two. Only seven contracts with private providers had been terminated by clinical commissioning groups due to failings, though 16% of their care budget is spent in the private sector and there are some 15,000 contracts with private providers, it has reported on Social care in England It claims that “the quality of care in adult social care has declined over the past two decades as a result of privatisation”.

The CHPI estimates that £1.5bn annually, “leaks” and enriches owners or other firms linked to owners. The £1.5bn is shown as rent, directors’ fees and debt repayments, instead of going to the care of residents. It is the same amount of money the government promised to give to social care, because of worries about the large cuts to the social care since 2010 when austerity started; the CHPI stated, “It’s difficult to find out where the £15bn ends up.” Vivek Kotecha, CHPI research manager who did the above research stated, “Some of the largest care home businesses are extracting a lot of profit disguised as rent and loan repayment costs. This makes it hard for local authorities and individuals to know how much extra funding the industry needs and how financially sustainable it is.” The CHPI cautioned that a large increase in public funds for the sector could just produce bigger profits for operators, since many firms lack financial transparency. In July 2019 it produced a study on Conflicts of Interest between the NHS and the Private Hospital sector in England.

It found that more than 600 NHS doctors owned either shares or equipment or both in the private hospitals to which they referred patients. Most of the shareholding was in HCA Healthcare. In October 2019 it produced an analysis of expenditure on private providers of NHS services in England, it concluded that rather than the 7% of NHS expenditure which the government say was spent in this way in 2018-9, a fairer analysis would produce a figure of 26% - an increase of 20% over the previous year


Schufa Holding AG is a German private credit bureau supported by creditors. It has its headquarters in the capital of Hessen, Germany. Schufa's purpose is to protect its clients from credit risks, it offers protection from insolvency to borrowers. Schufa has 943 million records on 67.7 million natural persons, 6 million companies. Schufa processes more than 165 million credit checks each year. Of those, 2.5 million are self-checks by citizens. Schufa employs 900 people. In 2016 Sales amounted to approx. 190 million Euros. Hamburg's former finance senator Michael Freytag has been board chairman of Schufa Holding AG since 1 November 2010; the chairman of the supervisory board is Michael Breuer. At the beginning of the 20th century, the Berlin city electric company offered household appliances for sale on installment plans. At the time, the financing was compared with electric bills and only paying customers would be supplied with appliances; this started a system for assessing payment behavior. With the experience they gained from BEWAG, Walter and Kurt Meyer, along with Robert Kauffmann established the Schutzgemeinschaft für Absatzfinanzierung in 1927.

Soon after, 13 more regional credit bureaus were formed in Germany. In 1952, the 13 West German credit bureaus were merged into Bundes-Schufa e. V. Bundes-Schufa e. V. changed its name in 2000 to Schufa Holding AG and in 2002 acquired the shares of the 8 regional credit bureaus. The board of Schufa Holding AG is made up of three members, the supervisory board has 9 members, 3 of which are Schufa employees. In the 1970s, Schufa migrated to electronic records, which fell under the German Federal Data Protection Act when it came into force in 1979. On a case brought by the Berlin consumer protection society, the Federal Court of Justice of Germany gave the so-called "Schufa decision", ruling that personal data could not be given to Schufa without the customer's consent. Transferring data to Schufa based on a blanket statement of consent without a weighing of interests is prohibited.. Responding to Schufa’s expansion into new areas of business such as the housing and insurance sectors, as well as debt collection, the German Data Protection Office and several regional Data Protection Officers issued a joint press statement on 15 May 2003 in which they warned against the risk that Schufa was evolving into a controlled central database.

According to the joint press statement, each additional data source was moving closer “to a detailed Personality Profile of the individuals affected” This would make a reality of the “transparent citizen” In 2009 the German Ministry for Consumer Protection undertook a study of the error rates of various credit bureaus, identified a high error rate at Schufa. The German Consumers’ Association had conducted an investigation in 2003 which concluded that many items of Schufa data were incomplete, out of date, or wrong. More in 2010 the organisation checked a new sample and concluded that 1% of the data held by Schufa were wrong, 8% were out of date and 28% were incomplete; the Schufa business model is based on a so-called “reciprocity principle” whereby the company’s business partners are contractually required to report data updates. Logemann, Jan; the Development of Consumer Credit in Global Perspective: Business and Culture. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 9781137062079. Rule, James. B.. W.. Global Privacy Protection: The First Generation.

Edward Elgar. Pp. 82, 90–91. ISBN 9781848445123. Jentzsch, Nicola; the Economics and Regulation of Financial Privacy: An International Comparison of Credit Reporting Systems. Physica. ISBN 9783790817386. Hoene, Eberhard James. B.. W.. Präventiver Kreditschutz und Zwangsvollstreckung durch Private. Duncker & Humblot. ISBN 9783428424986

York park and ride

York park and ride is a park & ride system operated by City of York Council in the English city of York. It is the largest in the United Kingdom with 4,970 car spaces; the first park & ride site was established on Tadcaster Road in 1990. Since it has expanded and today six routes operate, it has been operated by First York under contract to the City of York Council since the late 1990s. In June 2016, the contract was put up for tender; however none of the bids met the council's expectations, resulting in First York being granted a 12-month extension until January 2018 with a fresh tender process to commence. First York subsequently bid to retain the contract until February 2025; the services run frequently, with buses every 10 minutes. There are six coloured routes; the service operates with a flat fare between all park and ride car parks and the city centre, offering regular tickets and day tickets, which are valid for use on all First York services. Services are operated by a combination of 2008 Wright Eclipse Volvo B7RLEs, 2009 Mercedes-Benz Citaro O530G articulated buses and 2014/15 electric Optare Versas.

The services had Wright Eclipse Metro bodied Volvo B7Ls and Wright Eclipse Fusion bodied Volvo B7LAs, the latter have left the fleet. Buses operated in a modified version of First York's white and pink livery before a silver livery was adopted. Twenty-one Optare MetroDeckers will be introduced in October 2019; this list shows the numbers of the seven routes and the six park and ride sites served by the routes. The routes are part of First York's colour-coded "Overground" network of routes. 2: Rawcliffe Bar Park and Ride - City Centre 3: Askham Bar Park and Ride - City Centre 7: York Designer Outlet and Ride - City Centre 8: Grimston Bar Park and Ride - City Centre 9: Monks Cross Park and Ride - City Centre 59: Poppleton Bar Park and Ride - City Centre HSB: Rawcliffe Bar Park and Ride - York Hospital Media related to First York at Wikimedia Commons

Pioneers Rest (Fort Worth, Texas)

Pioneers Rest is the oldest public cemetery in Fort Worth and one of the oldest in Tarrant County. Its use as a burial ground began in 1849, the same year that the fort was established by the United States Army. Pioneers Rest is located in the 600 block of Samuels Avenue near its intersection with Cold Springs Road north of downtown Fort Worth. Many early settlers are buried at Pioneers Rest, referred to as the "old cemetery," "city cemetery," or "Samuels Avenue cemetery" until 1909. Veterans of every American war from the War of 1812 to World War II are buried at Pioneers Rest. Local physician Adolphe Gouhenant donated three acres of land on a bluff overlooking the Trinity River for a public cemetery, where the first burials were the eleven soldiers who died in the months after the establishment of the fort. Sophie and Willie Arnold, the two young children of Major Ripley Allen Arnold, the officer responsible for establishment of the fort, both perished in 1850 and were buried at the cemetery.

Major Arnold, considered to be the founder of the city of Fort Worth, was killed in a duel at Fort Graham in present-day Hill County, Texas in 1853. Buried at Fort Graham, the following year his body was moved and reinterred at what was Fort Worth's only public cemetery. A cemetery association was organized in 1870 to care for the site. Loyd, W. A. Darter, W. P. Burts. By this time, the cemetery was nearly full and local leader John Peter Smith donated land to create Oakwood Cemetery, across the Trinity River from downtown Fort Worth. In 1871 an additional three acres was donated by Baldwin Samuels, after which Samuels Avenue is named, to expand the "old cemetery."In 1909, the cemetery was formally named "Pioneers Rest" and the organization known as the Samuels Avenue Cemetery Association reformed as the Pioneers Rest Cemetery Association. Plans were made for a monument to honor Ripley Allen Arnold, in 1911 a subscription fund for the monument was established under the condition that Arnold's body would be moved within the cemetery to a new Arnold Park.

In 1917 it was discovered that the Pioneers Rest property, long considered a "no-man's land," was owned by the City of Fort Worth, which had purchased it in 1880 for $76. After proposing to convert the property into a city park, the park board elected to return the property to the Pioneers Rest Cemetery Association and provide free water for maintenance of the cemetery. In 1928, the remains of Tarrant County namesake, Republic of Texas militia member and State Representative Edward H. Tarrant were moved to Pioneers Rest, having been interred for nearly seventy years at his family cemetery in Ellis County, for one year at Fondren Cemetery in Parker County. A new monument honoring Tarrant was placed in 1931. During the Great Depression, Pioneers Rest became a popular campsite for hobos because it was near the railroad, offered dense shrubs as cover, the Tarrant County Courthouse lawn in downtown Fort Worth had become overcrowded. Inscriptions from all grave markers were recorded for Fort Worth's centennial in 1948, updated in 1976.

A Texas Historical Marker honoring Edward H. Tarrant was dedicated in 1987. All grave plots in Pioneers Rest had been sold by the 1920s, but the last burial did not take place until 1993. A marker for the first eleven soldiers buried at Pioneers Rest was placed in 1999 and a monument for Confederate Civil War veterans was dedicated in 2000. Pioneers Rest continues to be maintained by the Pioneers Rest Cemetery Association and is open to the public on weekdays. Numerous original Peters Colony settlers, local civic figures, Civil War veterans are buried at Pioneers Rest. Notable graves include: Ripley Allen Arnold - Founder of Fort Worth and major in the United States Army James J. Byrne - The youngest general in the Union Army during the Civil War Ephraim Merrill "Bud" Daggett - Fort Worth cattleman and father of Mary Daggett Lake Ephraim Merrill "Eph" Daggett - The "Father of Fort Worth" and participant in the Regulator-Moderator War Lemuel James Edwards - Early Peters Colony settler and landowner in present-day southwest Fort Worth and Benbrook James Franklin Ellis - Early Fort Worth settler and luxury hotel owner Merida Green Ellis - One of the founders of the Fort Worth Stockyards Gustavus Adolphus Everts - Judge and Fannin County representative at the Convention of 1845, which approved annexation and drafted a state constitution Abraham "Abe" Harris - Mexican War veteran who helped build the original fort in 1849, Confederate officer, president of the Texas Association of Mexican War Veterans Etta O. Price Newby - Civic leader who donated the Newby Memorial Building to the Woman's Club of Fort Worth Carroll Marion Peak - Fort Worth's first physician and founder of the First Christian Church Baldwin L. Samuel - Early Fort Worth settler and donor of land for Pioneers Rest Anna Shelton - First president of The Woman's Club of Fort Worth May Hendricks Swayne - Founder of the Woman's Wednesday Club and granddaughter of Gustavus Adolphus Everts Roger Tandy - Peters Colony settler and rancher in present-day east Fort Worth Edward H. Tarrant - U.

S Army General and Texas State Representative after which Tarrant County is named Jesse Shelton Zane-Cetti - Entrepreneur and one of the founders of the Texas Brewing Company in Hell's Half Acre Pioneers Rest Cemetery Association Records in the Fort Worth Public Library Archives

New Brunswick Route 130

Route 130 is a north/south provincial highway in the Canadian province of New Brunswick. The road has a length of 108 kilometers, services small, otherwise isolated rural communities. In these areas, the highway is unofficially referred to as "Main Street." The highway is known as Broadway and Portage Road in Grand Falls, West Riverside Drive in Perth-Andover. Route 130 was created in 1965 as a short spur from the Trans-Canada Highway into Grand Falls; when a new 4-lane TCH was opened in 2007, the route was extended by over 95 km south from Grand Falls along the former TCH to Aroostook, along a unnumbered route from Aroostook to Perth-Andover, the former TCH again from Perth-Andover to Somerville, a new access road that meets up with the new highway at Waterville. Grand Falls Grand Falls Portage Lower Portage Four Falls Aroostook Aroostook Junction Perth-Andover Hillandale Beaconsfield Bairdsville River de Chute Clearview Upper Wicklow Wicklow Florenceville Riverbank Stickney Lansdowne Upper Brighton Somerville Waterville List of New Brunswick provincial highways