Guldberg's hymnal

Guldberg's hymnal is a hymnal, created by Bishop Ludvig Harboe and Ove Høegh-Guldberg and was authorized for use in 1778. On behalf of King Christian VII of Denmark, Denmark's de facto prime minister, Ove Høegh-Guldberg, appointed a two-person committee, consisting of himself and the bishop of Zealand, Ludvig Harboe, to prepare a new hymnal, they sought to modernize Kingo's hymnal by removing the hymns that lacked the requisite "correctness and strength" or whose poetic quality was too weak. To replace the hymns that would be removed from the authorized hymnal, Birgitte Cathrine Boye received royal funding to write and translate hymns; the hymnal contains 438 hymns taken from various sources: 32 from Thomissøn's hymnal 101 from Kingo's hymnal 144 from Erik Pontoppidan's hymnal 161 new hymns, of which 24 were from Germany, 133 from Denmark, two from Norway. Birgitte Cathrine Boye wrote 124 of the 133 new Danish hymns in the volume; the two Norwegian hymns were written by Johan Vibe. Boye translated some hymns, so overall 146 hymns, or one-third of those in the volume, can be credited to her.

The book is arranged following the liturgical year, with hymns designated for each Sunday and hymns for other church events. The book contains some morning and evening hymns, at the end 38 hymns with the Passion of Jesus as their theme. Guldberg's hymnal introduced some Pietist hymns from Pontoppidan's hymnal into use in Norwegian churches; when Niels Schiørring's book of melodies was added to Guldberg's hymnal, some new hymn melodies came into use. The hymnal was issued for the first time in 1778 and was printed in new editions in the following years, it was authorized for use and adopted in Copenhagen in 1781 and in other towns in 1783. The book came into more widespread use in Norway than in Denmark and, when Norway received its own assembly in 1814, the book was one of the three authorized hymnals in Norway, alongside Kingo's hymnal and the Lutheran-Christian Hymnal. Rynning, Paul Emil. 1954. Salmediktingi i Noreg. Oslo: Det norske Samlaget. Aanestad, Lars. 1962. Kristen sang og musikk. Oslo: Runa

Luca Ghiotto

Luca Ghiotto is an Italian racing driver competing in Formula 2 for Hitech Grand Prix, FIA WEC with Ginetta. Born in Arzignano, Ghiotto entered karting in 2008, when he took the title in the KF3 class of the Champions Cup, before he finished fourth the following year. Ghiotto remained in the KF3 category until the end of 2010. In 2011, Ghiotto made his début in single-seaters, taking part in the Formula Abarth series for Prema Powerteam, he finished ninth in the Italian Series standings with a single podium at Misano, while in the European Series he finished sixth with four podiums. He contested a sophomore campaign with the same team in 2012, improving to runner-up spots in both championships. Ghiotto remained with Prema, as they moved to the 2-litre Formula Renault machinery to compete in the final rounds of Formula Renault 2.0 Alps and Formula Renault 2.0 NEC at the end of 2012. For 2013, Ghiotto had full-time campaigns in both Formula Renault 2.0 Alps and the Eurocup Formula Renault 2.0, staying with Prema.

He took a podium finish at Le Castellet, as well as a victory at Spa, finished ninth in the final championship standings. In the Alps series, he finished as runner-up to teammate Antonio Fuoco, he won the main race of the Formula Renault 2.0 Pau Trophy. Ghiotto graduated to the Formula Renault 3.5 Series in 2014, competing for International Draco Racing. Ghiotto made his debut with Trident, at Spa, taking pole position on his debut, he remained with Trident for 2015, taking five victories in the season, but losing the title to Esteban Ocon by eight points. In February 2016, it was announced that Ghiotto would be graduating to the series, whilst continuing his collaboration with Trident. After a shaky start to the season, he claimed his first victory at the sprint race in Sepang and finished eighth in the overall standings. In 2017, Ghiotto switched to Russian Time, he took one victory at this season, with finishing fourth at the championship. He won two races at both races in Monza, but he was denied race one win due to leave the track after having avoiding contact with Nyck de Vries and Charles Leclerc.

After Ghiotto was stripped of his win, the victory belongs to his country-mate Antonio Fuoco. At 2018, he makes contract with both Campos Racing along with driver Roy Nissany, he took four podiums of the year to finish 8th in the championship. In 2019, he takes the contract with Virtuosi Racing, alongside Chinese driver Guanyu Zhou. Ghiotto started the season well with pole position, second place at race 1, victory at race 2 at Bahrain. However, he scored only 2 points at Azerbaijan, he was hit by Campos driver Dorian Boccolacci. He takes a nice charge to the 4th place. However, Boccolacci was given a drive-through penalty for causing a collision, he took another podium in Race 2 with taking silver trophy. At Monaco he finished second at the feature race, but was disqualified, in the second race he hits Arden car of Tatiana Calderon and MP Motorsport car Mahaveer Raghunathan. Ghiotto has retired, was given a three-place grid penalty for causing a collision with Colombian and Indian driver. At Le Castellet, he has a nightmare weekend.

At Race 1, he was hit by Juan Manuel Correa, causing him to retire, because of problem with suspension. In Race 2, he finished only 13th, with no points. In Spielberg, he has a good weekend. After that, he took two podium finishes with two second places. In Great Britain, he qualified 2nd behind his teammate Guanyu Zhou. Zhou makes history with first pole position to the all Chinese drivers in GP2 or F2, he passed Guanyu before first corner, took victory at the feature race. At Hungaroring, he has not good weekend, by finishing 8th respectively. In Spa-Francorchamps, the two races were cancelled after tragic accident on the first race, after Giuliano Alesi lost control of his car and suffers a serious accident, which provided in serious injures for Juan Manuel Correa, the death of French driver Anthoine Hubert. In Monza, he took, but after making contact with Sérgio Sette Câmara and Nyck de Vries, he left only with 15th position at the finish for the second race. At Sochi he finished fourth at the first race with taking fastest lap once again, he lost podium to Louis Delétraz on the final lap.

In second race, however, he comebacked from fifth in the grid to 1st place, by taking his third win of the year. In his last weekend, at Abu Dhabi he has taking 8 points at the first race by finishing sixth. In sprint race, he has overtook Nicholas Latifi for second place. 7 laps he passed Trident driver Giuliano Alesi for the race lead. Due to the retirements of Artem Markelov, Sean Gelael and contact between two Russian drivers Nikita Mazepin and Matevos Isaakyan, there were three virtual safety cars. By that, Ghiotto has extends his race lead and comfortably winning his fourth race of the year. By the way, Italian driver finished third in the championship, just behind champion Nyck de Vries and runner-up Nicholas Latifi respectively. In August 2017, Ghiotto participated in the post-Hungarian Grand Prix test for Williams Martini Racing. * Season still in progress. * Season still in progress. Official website Luca Ghiotto career summary at