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Apollo

Apollo is one of the most important and complex of the Olympian deities in classical Greek and Roman religion and Greek and Roman mythology. The national divinity of the Greeks, Apollo has been recognized as a god of archery and dance, truth and prophecy and diseases, the Sun and light and more, he is the son of Zeus and Leto, the twin brother of Artemis, goddess of the hunt. Seen as the most beautiful god and the ideal of the kouros, Apollo is considered to be the most Greek of all the gods. Apollo is known in Greek-influenced Etruscan mythology as Apulu; as the patron deity of Delphi, Apollo is an oracular god—the prophetic deity of the Delphic Oracle. Apollo is the god who wards off evil. Delphic Apollo is the patron of seafarers and the protector of fugitives and refugees. Medicine and healing are associated with Apollo, whether through the god himself or mediated through his son Asclepius. Apollo delivered people from epidemics, yet he is a god who could bring ill-health and deadly plague with his arrows.

The invention of archery itself is credited to his sister Artemis. Apollo is described as carrying a golden bow and a quiver of silver arrows. Apollo's capacity to make youths grow is one of the best attested facets of his panhellenic cult persona; as the protector of young, Apollo is concerned with the education of children. He presided over their passage into adulthood. Long hair, the prerogative of boys, was cut at the coming of age and dedicated to Apollo. Apollo is an important pastoral deity, was the patron of herdsmen and shepherds. Protection of herds and crops from diseases and predators were his primary duties. On the other hand, Apollo encouraged founding new towns and establishment of civil constitution, he is associated with dominion over colonists. He was the giver of laws, his oracles were consulted before setting laws in a city; as the god of Mousike, Apollo presides over all music, songs and poetry. He is the inventor of string-music, the frequent companion of the Muses, functioning as their chorus leader in celebrations.

The lyre is a common attribute of Apollo. In Hellenistic times during the 5th century BCE, as Apollo Helios he became identified among Greeks with Helios, Titan god of the sun. In Latin texts, there was no conflation of Apollo with Sol among the classical Latin poets until 1st century CE. Apollo and Helios/Sol remained separate beings in literary and mythological texts until the 5th century CE. Apollo The name Apollo—unlike the related older name Paean—is not found in the Linear B texts, although there is a possible attestation in the lacunose form ]pe-rjo--[) on the KN E 842 tablet; the etymology of the name is uncertain. The spelling Ἀπόλλων had superseded all other forms by the beginning of the common era, but the Doric form, Apellon, is more archaic, as it is derived from an earlier *Ἀπέλjων, it is a cognate to the Doric month Apellaios, the offerings apellaia at the initiation of the young men during the family-festival apellai. According to some scholars, the words are derived from the Doric word apella, which meant "wall," "fence for animals" and "assembly within the limits of the square."

Apella is the name of the popular assembly in corresponding to the ecclesia. R. S. P. Beekes rejected the connection of the theonym with the noun apellai and suggested a Pre-Greek proto-form *Apalyun. Several instances of popular etymology are attested from ancient authors. Thus, the Greeks most associated Apollo's name with the Greek verb ἀπόλλυμι, "to destroy". Plato in Cratylus connects the name with ἀπόλυσις, "redemption", with ἀπόλουσις, "purification", with ἁπλοῦν, "simple", in particular in reference to the Thessalian form of the name, Ἄπλουν, with Ἀειβάλλων, "ever-shooting". Hesychius connects the name Apollo with the Doric ἀπέλλα, which means "assembly", so that Apollo would be the god of political life, he gives the explanation σηκός, "fold", in which case Apollo would be the god of flocks and herds. In the ancient Macedonian language πέλλα means "stone," and some toponyms may be derived from this word: Πέλλα and Πελλήνη. A number of non-Greek etymologies have been suggested for the name, The Hittite form Apaliunas is attested in the Manapa-Tarhunta letter related to Hurrian Aplu, a god of plague, in turn from Akkadian Aplu Enlil meaning "the son of Enlil", a title, given to the god Nergal, linked to Shamash, Babylonian god of the sun.

The role of Apollo as god of plague is evident in the invocation of Apollo Smintheus by Chryses, the Trojan priest of Apollo, with the purpose of sending a plague against the Greeks. The Hittite testimony reflects an early form *Apeljōn, which may be surmised from comparison of Cypriot Ἀπείλων with Doric Ἀπέλλων; the name of the Lydian god Qλdãns /kʷʎðãns/ may reflect an earlier /k

Music instrument technology

Music instrument technology refers to the construction of instruments and the way they have changed over time. Such change has produced modern instruments that are different from their historical antecedents. An example is the way in which many instruments associated with a modern symphony orchestra are markedly different from the same instruments for which European composers were composing music centuries ago; such changes include the addition of piston valves to brass instruments, the design of more complex fingering systems for woodwind instruments such as the flute, the standardization of the family of orchestral string instruments. Many advancements were made in music instrument technology during the Middle Ages and 19th Century; the introduction of copper smelting allowed for trumpets, organ pipes, slides to be constructed with sheet metal which had a smooth texture and consistency in thickness, allowing for more range of tones and sounds. Improvements in molding and casting during the 19th Century allowed for technological advancement to pianos.

While constructed with wooden frames, limiting the amount of sound that could be produced, pianos began to be constructed of one-piece iron frames. This provided a more amplified volume from the instrument and allowed musicians to use less force when playing the instrument. Improvements in drum tuning were established at this time; the "Dresden" model of tuning, involving steel technology and employing a foot petal with ratchet in order to attach the device to the timpani, was invented by Carl Pittrich. This technology allowed for timpani to be tuned much faster by the musician; the Dresden tuners could be added onto existing timpani, allowing symphonies to continue using their existing instruments while still employing this new technology. Lastly, the 19th century lead to the development of valves, when added in to the construction of trumpets and horns, they allowed for the instruments to express a broader range to the harmonic series of notes being produced; some of this technology represents patentable advancements in the musical instrument industry.

See Musical Instrument Patent of Week Organology New Interfaces for Musical Expression Category:Musical instrument makers Category:Musical instrument manufacturing companies Bowles, Edmund A. "The Impact of Technology on Musical Instruments." Cosmos Club. N.p. n.d. Web 16 Oct. 2013

Balto Star

Balto Star is an American Thoroughbred racehorse and the winner of the 2003 United Nations Stakes. Balto Star's first race was on September 2000 at Belmont Park, where he finished in 8th place, he did not pick up his first win until January 2001, at Aqueduct. He picked up another win at the Aqueduct on February 18th, 2001 won his first graded race, the Turfway Spiral Stakes on March 24th, 2001, he won his next graded race, the 2001 Arkansas Derby. This would be his last graded in for two years, until he came back with a win at the 2003 Whirlaway Handicap. In July, he picked up a win at the 2003 United Nations Stakes. In late 2003, he picked up two more graded wins, he won the 2003 Red Smith Handicap in November, won the December 27th, 2003 W. L. McKnight Handicap, his final race was on October 8th, 2004 where he won the Breeders' Cup Stakes