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Apoptosis is a form of programmed cell death that occurs in multicellular organisms. Biochemical events lead to death; these changes include blebbing, cell shrinkage, nuclear fragmentation, chromatin condensation, chromosomal DNA fragmentation, global mRNA decay. The average adult human loses between 70 billion cells each day due to apoptosis. For an average human child between the ages of 8 and 14 20–30 billion cells die per day. In contrast to necrosis, a form of traumatic cell death that results from acute cellular injury, apoptosis is a regulated and controlled process that confers advantages during an organism's life cycle. For example, the separation of fingers and toes in a developing human embryo occurs because cells between the digits undergo apoptosis. Unlike necrosis, apoptosis produces cell fragments called apoptotic bodies that phagocytic cells are able to engulf and remove before the contents of the cell can spill out onto surrounding cells and cause damage to them; because apoptosis cannot stop once it has begun, it is a regulated process.

Apoptosis can be initiated through one of two pathways. In the intrinsic pathway the cell kills itself because it senses cell stress, while in the extrinsic pathway the cell kills itself because of signals from other cells. Weak external signals may activate the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis. Both pathways induce cell death by activating caspases, which are proteases, or enzymes that degrade proteins; the two pathways both activate initiator caspases, which activate executioner caspases, which kill the cell by degrading proteins indiscriminately. Research on apoptosis has increased since the early 1990s. In addition to its importance as a biological phenomenon, defective apoptotic processes have been implicated in a wide variety of diseases. Excessive apoptosis causes atrophy, whereas an insufficient amount results in uncontrolled cell proliferation, such as cancer; some factors like Fas receptors and caspases promote apoptosis, while some members of the Bcl-2 family of proteins inhibit apoptosis.

German scientist Karl Vogt was first to describe the principle of apoptosis in 1842. In 1885, anatomist Walther Flemming delivered a more precise description of the process of programmed cell death. However, it was not until 1965. While studying tissues using electron microscopy, John Foxton Ross Kerr at the University of Queensland was able to distinguish apoptosis from traumatic cell death. Following the publication of a paper describing the phenomenon, Kerr was invited to join Alastair R. Currie, as well as Andrew Wyllie, Currie's graduate student, at University of Aberdeen. In 1972, the trio published a seminal article in the British Journal of Cancer. Kerr had used the term programmed cell necrosis, but in the article, the process of natural cell death was called apoptosis. Kerr and Currie credited James Cormack, a professor of Greek language at University of Aberdeen, with suggesting the term apoptosis. Kerr received the Paul Ehrlich and Ludwig Darmstaedter Prize on March 14, 2000, for his description of apoptosis.

He shared the prize with Boston biologist H. Robert Horvitz. For many years, neither "apoptosis" nor "programmed cell death" was a cited term. Two discoveries brought cell death from obscurity to a major field of research: identification of components of the cell death control and effector mechanisms, linkage of abnormalities in cell death to human disease, in particular cancer; the 2002 Nobel Prize in Medicine was awarded to Sydney Brenner and John E. Sulston for their work identifying genes that control apoptosis; the genes were identified by studies in the nematode C. elegans and homologues of these genes function in humans to regulate apoptosis. In Greek, apoptosis translates to the "falling off" of leaves from a tree. Cormack, professor of Greek language, reintroduced the term for medical use as it had a medical meaning for the Greeks over two thousand years before. Hippocrates used the term to mean "the falling off of the bones". Galen extended its meaning to "the dropping of the scabs".

Cormack was no doubt aware of this usage. Debate continues over the correct pronunciation, with opinion divided between a pronunciation with the second p silent and the second p pronounced, as in the original Greek. In English, the p of the Greek -pt- consonant cluster is silent at the beginning of a word, but articulated when used in combining forms preceded by a vowel, as in helicopter or the orders of insects: diptera, etc. In the original Kerr, Wyllie & Currie paper, there is a footnote regarding the pronunciation: "We are most grateful to Professor James Cormack of the Department of Greek, University of Aberdeen, for suggesting this term; the word "apoptosis" is used in Greek to describe the "dropping off" or "falling off" of petals from flowers, or leaves from trees. To show the derivation we propose that the stress should be on the penultimate syllable, the second half of the word being pronounced like "ptosis", which comes from the same root "to fall", is used to describe the drooping of the upper eyelid."

The initiation of apoptosis is regulated by activation mechanisms, because once apoptosis has begun, it leads to the death of the cell. The two best-understood activation mechanisms are the extrinsic pathway; the intrinsic pathway is activated by intracellular signals generated when cells are stressed and depends on the release of proteins from

Fran├žoise de Panafieu

Françoise de Panafieu is a French politician, member of The Republicans party and mayor of the 17th arrondissement of Paris between 2001 and 2008. De Panafieu was a member of the French Cabinet as Minister of Tourism in 1995 and she has been a member of the National Assembly for Paris since 2002, she unsuccessfully ran for Paris mayorship in the 2008 municipal elections against Bertrand Delanoë, losing by 20 points. Rencontres d'Arles, Member of the Board of Directors Media related to Françoise de Panafieu at Wikimedia Commons Françoise de Panafieu page on the Assemblée nationale Page of Françoise de Panafieu on

Red Lion Square disorders

The Red Lion Square disorders were a series of events in 1974. On 15 June that year, the National Front marched through London's West End; the London Area Council for Liberation conducted a counter demonstration which consisted of a march through London ending with a public meeting in Red Lion Square. Warwick student Kevin Gately was killed during the demonstrations and a public enquiry was conducted by Lord Scarman into the disorders at Red Lion Square; the British far-right organisation, the National Front booked Conway Hall in Red Lion Square for a meeting to take place on 15 June 1974. A counter-demonstration was called by the London Area Council of Liberation; this counter-demonstration attracted support from groups not directly under the control of Liberation, including the International Marxist Group, the Communist Party of England and the International Socialists. The counter-demonstration assembled on the Embankment and marched to Red Lion Square without incident, they planned to hold an open-air meeting on the north side of the Square, away from Conway Hall.

The front of the Liberation march came westwards along Theobald's Road and entered Red Lion Square by Old North Street before turning right where a platform was set up for the meeting. A police cordon blocked the square to the left of Old North Street. A substantial number of marchers passed this cordon peacefully and assembled in front of the platform where the Labour MP for Southall Syd Bidwell was to address them; the cordon was charged by the larger contingent from the IMG who were followed by the smaller CPE contingent. Several minutes of pushing and scuffling followed. There were several counter-charges; the police cordon was reinforced by members of the Special Patrol Group and by mounted police who succeeded in forcing the demonstrators back. Photos show the use of truncheons by some police officers. At least one demonstrator reported being trampled by a police horse. Many demonstrators were forced back up Old North Street but a few retreated into the square; the police forcibly cleared all remaining demonstrators from the square whether they had taken part in the original confrontation or not.

A large number of demonstrators had passed the police cordon peacefully before the charge. Demonstrators from the International Socialists were instructed by their stewards to withdraw from the area of fighting. Nonetheless, the police aggressively forced all the Liberation marchers from the square, in spite of the remonstrations of Syd Bidwell MP. Soon after this, word spread among the Liberation demonstrators that the National Front were approaching. Many demonstrators regrouped at the junction of Vernon Place and Southampton Row where they were held back by a police cordon on the east side; the National Front, accompanied by an Orange fife and drum band, marched down Bloomsbury Way to the west side of Southampton Row where another police cordon stopped them. Neither side attempted to breach the cordons. After a few minutes mounted police came up Southampton Row from Red Lion Square and moved straight into the Liberation crowd without warning. Supported by foot police, they used truncheons on demonstrators in an indiscriminate manner.

Another police cordon behind the crowd prevented their escape and a large number of arrests were made. A large number of demonstrators were arrested. Photos show that many who were arrested had their hair pulled or were otherwise treated with what appeared to be excessive force by police. While this was happening the National Front were allowed to turn right into Southampton Row and escorted round the south side of Red Lion Square into Conway Hall. A small remnant of the IMG contingent went up Boswell Street in an attempt to disperse, they were followed and trapped by police who detained the group while they were attempting to arrest Brian Heron, one of the IMG leaders. They succeeded but he escaped from them a few minutes later; this incident was overlooked in most of the media coverage but was reported in the following week's edition of Time Out. Kevin Gately was a student at Warwick University who accompanied fellow students to the counter-demonstration. Gately had never been on a demonstration before.

As some of the Warwick students were supporters of the IMG, all of them marched with the IMG contingent and were caught up in the initial clash in Red Lion Square. Photos show Gately moving through the crowd trying to escape from the tight press of bodies during the pushing at the police cordon, his unconscious body was found by police after the crowd was driven back and taken in an ambulance to University College Hospital. Gately's fellow students only realised that he was missing when they met after the demonstration ended. A student who enquired at University College Hospital was shown Gately's body and asked to identify him. A coroner's inquest at St Pancras Coroner's Court concluded that Gately's death was the result of a blow to the head from a blunt instrument. Left wing newspapers at the time blamed his death on the mounted police though this was based on supposition and conclusive evidence has not been forthcoming. Kevin Gately was the first demonstrator to be killed in Britain in 55 years.

There was widespread press and media coverage of the disorders in Red Lion Square Warwick University students held a march and vigil in Coventry during the following week. The next Saturday, 22 June 1974, a silent march retraced the route of the Liberation counter-demonstration from the embankment to Red Lion Square; the march was

Statesville, Tennessee

Statesville is an unincorporated community in Wilson County, Tennessee. It is located along Tennessee State Route 267 between Prosperity; the community was first called Smith's Fork and was established in 1812, making it the second oldest town in Wilson County. Local resident William Bumpass donated land to be divided into 19 town lots; the community was named "Marysville" in honor of Mary Bumpass, William's wife. In 1818 the community applied for a post office. To avoid confusion with Maryville in east Tennessee, the town's name was changed to Statesville, chosen in honor of Statesville, North Carolina, as many residents had come from that location; the post office was established on March 29, 1819, was twice discontinued before closing in 1935. The town became prominent in 1834. During that time there were seven stores, five saloons, a wood shop, three blacksmith shops, three harness and shoe shops

Deepak Kumar (historian)

Deepak Kumar is an Indian historian. His specialization is history of science in India, he is a Professor of History of Science and Education, at Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India. Kumar has lectured at numerous universities within India and abroad, has held visiting fellowships at the universities of Cambridge, Leiden, The Smithsonian Institution, etc. and has taught at Wisconsin University, Madison, USA, York University in Toronto, Canada. He has sought to demonstrate in several of his books that British colonialism in India played a major role in how European scientific fields developed. Science and the Raj: A study of British India is one of the pioneer contribution in the field of history of science in India, his latest work The Trishanku Nation encapsulates his reflections on contemporary India. In describing medical encounters in colonial India, Kumar argues that Western medical discourse occupied an important place in the process of colonization and it worked towards a scientific hegemony.

"Indigenous systems were so marginalised that their practitioners sought survival in resistance rather than collaboration." Kumar, Deepak and Empire: Essays in Indian Context, 1700-1947. Delhi: Anamika Prakashan, 1991 Kumar, Deepak and Medicine in India: A Historical Overview, Tulika, 2001 ISBN 81-85229-51-1 Kumar, Deepak and the Raj: A Study of British India, Oxford University Press, 2006 ISBN 0-19-568003-0 Kumar, Deepak & Roy MacLeod and the Raj, SAGE, New Delhi, 1995 Kumar, Vinita Damodaran, Rohan D'Souza, The British Empire and the Natural World: Environmental Encounters in South Asia, OUP, Delhi, 2010. Kumar, Deepak & Chaube, Hashiye ka Vritanta, in Hindi, Aadhar Publications, Panchkula, 2011. Kumar and Rajsekhar Basu Medical Encounter in British India, OUP, Delhi, 2013. Kumar, Deepak, J. Bara, N. Khadria and R. Gayathri, Education in Colonial India: Historical Insights, Manohar Books, Delhi, 2013. Kumar, The Trishanku Nation: Memory and Society in Contemporary India, OUP, Delhi, 2016. Kumar and Raha, Tilling the Land: Agricultural Knowledge and Practices in Colonial India, Delhi, 2016.2016.

Kumar and Rajsekhar Basu Medical Encounter in British India, OUP, Delhi, 2013. Sardar and Loon, Borin Van 2001. Introducing Science. US: Totem Books. India - Historical Setting: Bibliography Prof. Deepak Kumar's Jawaharlal Nehru University Faculty Page

John Frohling

John Frohling was a key figure, along with Charles Kohler, in development of the Northern and Southern California wine industry and was the founder of Anaheim, California, in the mid 19th Century. He was a member of the Los Angeles, Common Council, the governing body of that city. Frohling was born in 1827 in Prussia, he was a professional flutist, in a San Francisco band "that became famous as the Germania Society."In Anaheim's first wedding, November, 1859, Frohling was married to Amelie Hammes, the daughter of Philips Hammes, "in her parents' not-quite-finished new home." He was 31 and she born in Prussia, was 22. He died in 1862. In 1852, Frohling and Charles Kohler planted 3,000 vines of wine grapes in the Los Angeles area. "The firm of Frohling and Kohler was so successful that they began looking for a steady sources of grapes for their wine making. Frohling was elected to the Los Angeles Common Council on May 4, 1857, for a term that ended on May 10, 1858. Anaheim was born in 1857, when 50 German-American families from the San Francisco area paid $750 each to invest in the Los Angeles Vineyard Society.

Founders John Frohling and Charles Kohler hired George Hansen, Los Angeles County's assistant surveyor, to purchase and lay out the new wine-making colony. Judi Gerber, "Laying the Foundation: How Los Angeles Became the Commercial Wine Capital of America," Los Angeles Agriculture, February 26, 2011 Victor W. Geraci, "Fermenting a Twenty-First Century California Wine Industry," Agricultural History, Autumn 2004, pages 438–465