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Apostasy in Islam

Apostasy in Islam is defined as the conscious abandonment of Islam by a Muslim in word or through deed. It includes the act of converting to another religion or non-acceptance of faith to be irreligious, by a person, born in a Muslim family or who had accepted Islam; the definition of apostasy from Islam, whether and how it should be punished, are matters of controversy and Islamic scholars differ in their opinions on these questions. According to the classical legal doctrine, apostasy in Islam includes not only an explicit renunciation of the Islamic faith, but any deed or utterance implying unbelief, such as one denying a "fundamental tenet or creed" of Islam. Islamic jurists did not formulate general rules for establishing unbelief, instead compiling sometimes lengthy lists of statements and actions which in their view implied apostasy. Apostasy does not include individuals who were forced to embrace Islam under conditions of duress, or acts against Islam or conversion to another religion, involuntary, forced or done as concealment out of fear of persecution or during war.

Until the late 19th century, the vast majority of Sunni and Shia jurists held that for adult men, apostasy from Islam was a crime as well as a sin, an act of treason punishable with the death penalty after a waiting period to allow the apostate time to repent and to return to Islam. The kind of apostasy which the jurists deemed punishable was of the political kind, although there were considerable legal differences of opinion on this matter. Wael Hallaq states that " a culture whose lynchpin is religion, religious principles and religious morality, apostasy is in some way equivalent to high treason in the modern nation-state". Early Islamic jurists developed legal institutions to circumvent this harsh punishment, the standard for apostasy from Islam was set so high that no apostasy verdict could be passed before the 11th century; however jurists lowered the bar for applying the death penalty, allowing judges to interpret the apostasy law in different ways, which they did sometimes leniently and sometimes strictly.

In the late 19th century, the use of criminal penalties for apostasy fell into disuse, although civil penalties were still applied. According to Abdul Rashied Omar, the majority of modern Islamic jurists continue to regard apostasy as a crime deserving the death penalty; some regard apostasy in Islam as a form of religious crime. Others argue that the death penalty is an inappropriate punishment, inconsistent with the Qur'anic injunctions such as Quran 88:21–22 or "no compulsion in religion". According to Khaled Abou El Fadl, moderate Muslims do not believe. Critics argue that the death penalty or other punishment for apostasy in Islam is a violation of universal human rights, an issue of freedom of faith and conscience; as of 2014, laws in various Muslim-majority countries prescribed for the apostate sentences ranging from execution to a prison term to no punishment. Sharia courts in some countries use civil code to void the Muslim apostate's marriage and to deny child-custody rights as well as inheritance rights.

From 1985 to 2006, three governments executed four individuals for apostasy from Islam: "one in Sudan in 1985. Twenty-three Muslim-majority countries, as of 2013, additionally covered apostasy from Islam through their criminal laws; the Tunisian Constitution of 2014 stipulates protection from attacks based on accusations of apostasy. In a Pew Research Center poll, public support for capital punishment for apostasy among Muslims ranged from 78% in Afghanistan to less than 1% in Kazakhstan; the Quran discusses apostasy in many of its verses. For example: But those who reject Faith after they accepted it, go on adding to their defiance of Faith, – never will their repentance be accepted. You will find others who desire that they should secure from their own people. Make ye no excuses: ye have rejected Faith after ye had accepted it. If We pardon some of you, We will punish others amongst you, he who disbelieves in Allah after his having believed, not he, compelled while his heart is at rest on account of faith, but he who opens breast to disbelief-- on these is the wrath of Allah, they shall have a grievous chastisement.

Other Qur'anic verses refer to apostasy. According to professor of anthropology Dale F. Eickelman, some verses in the Quran appear to justify coercion and severe punishment for apostates. In contrast, legal historian Wael Hallaq writes that "nothing in the law governing apostates and apostasy derives from the letter" of the Quran. There is no mention of any specific corporal punishment for apostates to which they are to be subjected in this world, nor do Qur'anic verses refer, whether explicitly or implicitly, to the need to force an apostate to return to Islam or to kill him if he refuses to do so. In contrast to the Qur'an, hadith literature gives contradictory statements about punishments fo

New York State Route 418

New York State Route 418 is a 3.50-mile state highway located within the Adirondack Park in Warren County, New York, in the United States. The route begins just west of the hamlet of Thurman Station, where Athol Road changes designations from County Route 4 to NY 418, it heads eastward through the towns of Thurman and Warrensburg, following the Schroon River to an intersection with U. S. Route 9 in the hamlet of Warrensburg. All of NY 418 is part of the Dude Ranch Trail, a New York State Scenic Byway that runs through Warren County and Saratoga County; the origins of NY 418 date back to the 19th century when Thurman Station and Warrensburg were first connected by way of a road. This highway was reconstructed by the state of New York during the early 1910s and added to the state highway system in 1915, it was designated as NY 418 as part of the 1930 renumbering of state highways in New York. The highway has remained unchanged since, save for the replacement of its bridges over the Schroon and the Hudson Rivers in the 1930s and 1940s, respectively.

NY 418 begins just southwest of Thurman Station, a hamlet within the town of Thurman, where Athol Road shifts from county maintenance to state maintenance. It heads northeastward along the base of Sugarloaf Mountain, one of the Three Sisters Mountains, as it passes an area with little development; the route continues along a northeasterly trek to Thurman Station, where it intersects with River Road in the center of the isolated community. At this point, the route turns southeastward and crosses the Upper Hudson River Railroad at-grade before passing over the Hudson River on the Thurman Station Bridge. NY 418 passes into the town of Warrensburg at the midpoint of the bridge. On the opposite riverbank, the route turns eastward to follow the eastern bank of the Schroon River through an undeveloped portion of Warrensburg comprising little more than forests; the route winds along the bank of river to the hamlet of Warrensburg, where the route becomes River Street and heads past several blocks of houses.

At Alden Avenue, the route curves to the northeast, mirroring the curvature of the river through Warrensburg. It continues along the waterway to the junction of Ridge and River Streets, where NY 418 turns north onto Richards Avenue and crosses the river on a truss bridge; the route meets Water Street on the opposite bank before continuing northward past several commercial properties to the center of Warrensburg, where NY 418 ends at an intersection with US 9. The origins of NY 418 date back to 1896, by which time a road had been constructed between Thurman Station and Warrensburg. In 1912, the state of New York solicited bids for a project to improve the road to state highway standards. On June 12, 1912, the contract for the project was awarded to the Joseph Walker Construction Company of Albany for $35,776. About $3,400 worth of upgrades were made to the highway; the state resolicited bids for the project in February 1914 and let a $35,231 contract for the project on February 20, 1914. The highway was rebuilt as a stone highway bound by asphalt.

The upgraded highway was accepted into the state highway system on January 8, 1915. The Thurman Station–Warrensburg state highway was designated as NY 418 as part of the 1930 renumbering of state highways in New York. NY 418's alignment has not been altered since that time. In 1933, the original bridge that carried NY 418 over the Schroon River in Warrensburg was replaced with a new truss bridge 50.3 meters in length. The route's original bridge over the Hudson River near Thurman Station was replaced in 1941 with the Thurman Station Bridge, another truss bridge 133.5 meters long. The bridges were reconstructed by the New York State Department of Transportation in 2000 and 1995, respectively. Parts of NY 418 run through a proposed tourism district known as the First Wilderness Heritage Corridor; the corridor, conceived by Warren County, is intended to revitalize the Hudson River corridor by turning it into a tourist destination. Areas being studied for future development include the residential and agricultural areas around Thurman Station, the owned train station along NY 418 in this same area, two vacant lots adjacent to the Hudson River on NY 418.

At some point in time, the entire length of NY 418 was included as part of the Dude Ranch Trail, a New York State Scenic Byway that connects Lake George to the Hudson River. The entire route is in Warren County. U. S. roads portal New York State Route 418 at New York Routes

Thankful (Mary Mary album)

Thankful is the debut studio album by American duo Mary Mary. It was released on May 2000 through Columbia Records in the United States. Chiefly produced by Warryn Campbell, the album comprises urban contemporary gospel, R&B and hip hop soul music, it produced the smash crossover hit "Shackles", which reached the top-ten in seven countries and the single "I Sings", a significant hit – although it did not match the success of its predecessor. Thankful established Mary Mary as one of the leading artists in contemporary Christian music, won the duo the Grammy Award for Best Contemporary R&B Gospel Album at the 43rd awards ceremony as well as a Dove Award, a Lady of Soul Award, a Stellar Award; the album received favorable reviews from music critics. William Ruhlmann from AllMusic gave Thankful a grade of four and a half out of five stars, he found that "Thankful is pure gospel music, a series of praise songs and cautionary tales with religious messages, but it is to have a broader appeal than most gospel music."

Cross Rhythms felt that Mary Mary "look set for big things both on the gospel market. That's because they have attractive vocals and the use the same musical styles and beats popular within secular R&B, but somehow though their lyrical content is much gospel-based, they've managed to appeal to the secular market." Thankful peaked at number one on the US Top Gospel Albums, number twenty-two on the US Billboard Top R&B/Hip-Hop Albums and number fifty-nine on the US Billboard 200. It was certified platinum by the Recording Industry Association of America for selling over 1.2 million copies in the United States. Samples"Shackles" contains a replayed bass sample from "Don't Look Any Further", performed by Dennis Edwards & Siedah Garrett. "Can't Give Up Now" contains a replayed sample from "I Don't Feel No Ways Tired", performed by Rev. James Cleveland. "Good to Me" contains a replayed sample from "Give Me Your Love", written & performed by Curtis Mayfield

Wonder Woman (JoJo song)

"Wonder Woman" is a song by American singer and songwriter JoJo. It was released on June 22, 2017, serves as her first release since her third studio album Mad Love. "Wonder Woman" is a mid-tempo ballad with "slinky R&B" production. The song was written by JoJo, Nikki Flores and Joshua "Igloo" Monroy, with the latter handling production. Levesque and Flores handled vocal production for the song; the song lyrically talks about feelings towards a former lover, wondering if they feel the same way as the protagonist. JoJo raps in the song's bridge. Bianca Gracie of FUSE called the rap in the song's bridge the "best part" of the song. ThatGrapeJuice. Net wrote that the "scintillating slow jam melts everything folk have come to love from the 26-year-old – vocals and lyrics exquisite. Kristie Rowhedder, writing for Bustle, praised the song, writing that "JoJo’s voice sounds beautiful, Josh “Igloo” Monroy’s production simmers and crackles like a fire that's fueled by pop music magic, the lyrics to “Wonder Woman”are all things wistful and evocative."

The song was uploaded to SoundCloud and YouTube on June 22, 2017. English singer-songwriter Louise has recorded the track for her forth studio album Heavy Love

Ian McGettigan

Ian McGettigan is a Canadian rock musician and producer. He was a singer and songwriter for Thrush Hermit. McGettigan toured through the United States with Thrush Hermit; the band released two EPs on Smart Bomb and Great Pacific Ocean. They released their full length Sweet Homewrecker, their 1999 album Clayton Park, on Sonic Unyon Records, was their most successful album, both critically and commercially. Following Thrush Hermit's break-up, McGettigan produced and contributed to a number of acts and projects, including Joel Plaskett Emergency, Peter Elkas, Jewish Legend, Two Hours Traffic. McGettigan performed with Thrush Hermit's Rob Benvie in the band Camouflage Nights; the band played at a number of festivals. Their debut album, some of, recorded as early as 2004, includes musical contributions by Buck 65, Matt Murphy. Although recording wrapped up in 2008, it was not released until 2012

Dance Theater Workshop

Dance Theater Workshop, colloquially known as DTW, was a New York City performance space and service organization for dance companies that operated from 1965 to 2011. Located as 219 West 19th Street between Seventh and Eighth Avenues in the Chelsea neighborhood of Manhattan, DTW was founded in 1965 by Jeff Duncan, Art Bauman and Jack Moore as a choreographers' collective. In 2002 DTW opened its new Doris Duke Performance Center, which contains the 192-seat Bessie Schönberg Theatre. From 1975-2003, DTW was led by Executive Director and Producer. Under White's leadership, DTW became one of the most influential contemporary performing arts centers and artist incubators in the United States and abroad, responsible for identifying and nurturing some of the most important dance and other performing artists of our time, including: Bill T. Jones, Mark Morris, Susan Marshall, Whoopi Goldberg, Bill Irwin, Guillermo Gomez-Pena, Anne Teresa de Keersmaeker, Annie-B Parson and Paul Lazar, Donald Byrd and John Jasperse, among many others.

In 2011, DTW merged with the Bill T. Jones/Arnie Zane Dance Company to become New York Live Arts The move was prompted by a need for financial security, with the dance company coming in as the more financially secure organization of the two – DTW took on a considerable amount of debt in building its new facility. More than 200 concerts and exhibits by some 70 contemporary dance, music and video artists were sponsored annually by Dance Theater Workshop; such notable artists as Mark Morris, David Gordon, Bill T. Jones, Laura Dean, Susan Marshall, Ron Brown, Donald Byrd, H. T. Chen, David Dorfman, Doug Elkins, Molissa Fenley, Whoopi Goldberg, Lawrence Goldhuber, Margaret Fisher, Janie Geiser, Bill Irwin, LadyGourd Sangoma, Ralph Lemon, Bebe Miller, Michael Moschen, David Parsons, Lenny Pickett, Merián Soto, Pepón Osorio, Paul Zaloom and hundreds of others found an early artistic home at Dance Theater Workshop; the Dance Theater Workshop received funding from organizations including: The Adolph and Ruth Schnurmacher Foundation, Inc.

Altria Group, Inc. The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation Arts & Business Council of New York Asian Cultural Council Association of Performing Arts Presenters Arts Partners Program Australian Consulate-General Big Apple Lights Corp. Capezio/Ballet Makers Dance Foundation, Inc. Carnegie Corporation of New York Consolidated Edison Company of New York Eileen Fisher Electronic Theatre Controls, Inc; the Fan Fox and Leslie R. Samuels Foundation, Inc; the Ford Foundation Foundation for Contemporary Arts, Inc. Gay City News Goldman, Sachs & Co; the Harkness Foundation for Dance The Horace W. Goldsmith Foundation The James E. Robison Foundation, Inc; the Jarvis and Constance Doctorow Family Foundation The Jerome Foundation The Jerome Robbins Foundation JPMorgan Chase The Lila Acheson Wallace Theater Fund Meet The Composer Fund Mid Atlantic Arts Foundation National Dance Project of the New England Foundation for the Arts National Performance Network New York City Department of Cultural Affairs New York State DanceForce The New York Times Company Foundation Pennsylvania Performing Arts on Tour The Peter Jay Sharp Foundation The Rockefeller Brothers Fund The Scherman Foundation The Shubert Foundation The Starr Foundation The Starry Night Fund of the Tides Foundation Time Out New York Trust for Mutual Understanding The William Randolph Hearst Foundation List of theaters for dance Notes Dance Theater Workshop page at Dance Heritage Coalition