The white-tailed deer, known as the whitetail, is a medium-sized deer native to the United States, Mexico, Central America, and South America as far south as Peru and Bolivia. It has introduced to New Zealand, Jamaica, Puerto Rico, Lesser Antilles, and some countries in Europe, such as Finland, the Czech Republic. In the Americas, it is the most widely distributed wild ungulate, in North America, the species is widely distributed east of the Rocky Mountains, but elsewhere, it is mostly replaced by the black-tailed or mule deer. Some taxonomists have attempted to separate white-tailed deer into a host of subspecies, genetic studies, suggest fewer subspecies within the animals range, as compared to the 30 to 40 subspecies that some scientists described in the last century. The Florida Key deer, O. virginianus clavium, and the Columbian white-tailed deer, in the United States, the Virginia white-tail, O. virginianus virginianus, is among the most widespread subspecies. The white-tailed deer species has tremendous genetic variation and is adaptable to several environments, several local deer populations, especially in the southern states, are descended from white-tailed deer transplanted from various localities east of the Continental Divide.
Some of these populations may have been from as far north as the Great Lakes region to as far west as Texas, yet are quite at home in the Appalachian. These deer over time have intermixed with the indigenous deer populations. Central and South America have a number of white-tailed deer subspecies that range from Guatemala as far south as Peru. This list of subspecies of deer is more exhaustive than the list of North American subspecies, the white-tailed deer populations in these areas are difficult to study, due to overhunting in many parts and a lack of protection. Some areas no longer carry deer, so it is difficult to assess the genetic difference of these animals, the deer can be recognized by the characteristic white underside to its tail. It raises its tail when it is alarmed to warn the predator that it has been detected, a population of white-tailed deer in New York is entirely white —not albino—in color. The former Seneca Army Depot in Romulus, New York, has the largest known concentration of white deer, strong conservation efforts have allowed white deer to thrive within the confines of the depot.
White-tailed deers horizontally slit pupils allow for night vision and color vision during the day. The white-tailed deer is highly variable in size, generally following Bergmanns rule that the size is larger farther away from the Equator. North American male deer usually weigh 45 kilograms, but in rare cases, mature bucks over 180 kilograms have been recorded in the northernmost reaches of their native range, specifically and Ontario. In 1926, Carl J. Lenander, Jr. took a white-tailed buck near Tofte, MN, the female in North America usually weighs from 40 to 90 kg. White-tailed deer from the tropics and the Florida Keys are markedly smaller-bodied than temperate populations, averaging 35 to 50 kg, white-tailed deer from the Andes are larger than other tropical deer of this species and have thick, slightly woolly looking fur
Sand Island Light (Wisconsin)
The Sand Island Light is a lighthouse located on the northern tip of Sand Island, one of the Apostle Islands, in Lake Superior in Bayfield County, near the city of Bayfield. The Lighthouse Board chose to use a design that had used on McGulpin Point Light in 1868, Eagle Harbor Light in 1871. Currently owned by the National Park Service and part of the Apostle Islands National Lakeshore, it was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1977, listed in the Library of Congress Historic American Buildings Survey, WI-313. Attached to the lighthouse is a Norman gothic keepers quarters, Congress rejected the request for this and the next six years. In 1880, Congress finally agreed to erect a lighthouse, Sand Island Light was built from the same designs as three other lighthouses, but with the local Apostle Islands Brownstone instead of brick. The masons opened a hole for the cellar, and building the 26-by-30-foot dwelling. As the lighthouse neared completion, a fixed white Fourth Order Fresnel lens was placed in the lantern room, an acting keeper was appointed, and the light was first lit on September 25,1881.
The acting keeper, Charles Lederle, was appointed permanent keeper the next year, Lederle grew weary of the isolation that came with being the keeper of an island lighthouse and was reappointed the keeper of Two Harbors Light in Minnesota. The first assistant on nearby Outer Island, Emmanuel Luick, was offered the position of keeper at the Sand Island Light, in 1901, Luick fell ill, leaving all duties at the lighthouse for Ella. Although she managed to do everything, the incident pointed out the dangers of having a single keeper on Sand Island, the Lighthouse Board authorized the addition of an assistant keeper and on May 22,1902, Henry Irvine moved onto the island. In October 1903, Irvine was transferred to Devils Island, Luick appointed his wife as his acting assistant keeper, but the following day Edward Derry arrived on the island as the new assistant keeper. On April 30,1904, Derry resigned, leaving Ella as acting assistant keeper once again, ten days later, Frederick Hudson arrived on the island to take over as assistant keeper.
On May 9,1905, Ella boarded a steamer for nearby Bayfield, Luick married again, this time to a woman named Oramill, and with her served the Sand Island Light for the next sixteen years. Over the course of time, Luick went through twelve assistants. By the end of the 1910s, local shipping patterns had changing, in 1921, the Lighthouse Board automated the tower, and Luick was reassigned to Grand Marais Light in Minnesota. In 1933, the light was dismantled, and the Coast Guard constructed a 50-foot steel tower in front of the lighthouse. The automated light was placed on top until 1985, when the light was placed back in the lighthouse, most of the Apostle Islands light stations may be reached on the Apostle Islands Cruise Service water taxi or by private boat during the summer. During the Annual Apostle Island Lighthouse Celebration ferry tour service is available for all the lighthouses, in the tourist season, volunteer park rangers are on many of the islands to greet visitors
Wisconsin is a U. S. state located in the north-central United States, in the Midwest and Great Lakes regions. It is bordered by Minnesota to the west, Iowa to the southwest, Illinois to the south, Lake Michigan to the east, Michigan to the northeast, Wisconsin is the 23rd largest state by total area and the 20th most populous. The state capital is Madison, and its largest city is Milwaukee, the state is divided into 72 counties. Wisconsin is second to Michigan in the length of its Great Lakes coastline, Wisconsin is known as Americas Dairyland because it is one of the nations leading dairy producers, particularly famous for its cheese. Manufacturing, especially paper products, information technology, and tourism are major contributors to the states economy. The word Wisconsin originates from the given to the Wisconsin River by one of the Algonquian-speaking Native American groups living in the region at the time of European contact. French explorer Jacques Marquette was the first European to reach the Wisconsin River, arriving in 1673, subsequent French writers changed the spelling from Meskousing to Ouisconsin, and over time this became the name for both the Wisconsin River and the surrounding lands.
English speakers anglicized the spelling from Ouisconsin to Wisconsin when they began to arrive in numbers during the early 19th century. The legislature of Wisconsin Territory made the current spelling official in 1845, the Algonquin word for Wisconsin and its original meaning have both grown obscure. Interpretations vary, but most implicate the river and the red sandstone that lines its banks, other theories include claims that the name originated from one of a variety of Ojibwa words meaning red stone place, where the waters gather, or great rock. Wisconsin has been home to a variety of cultures over the past 12,000 years. The first people arrived around 10,000 BCE during the Wisconsin Glaciation and these early inhabitants, called Paleo-Indians, hunted now-extinct ice age animals such as the Boaz mastodon, a prehistoric mastodon skeleton unearthed along with spear points in southwest Wisconsin. After the ice age ended around 8000 BCE, people in the subsequent Archaic period lived by hunting, agricultural societies emerged gradually over the Woodland period between 1000 BCE to 1000 CE.
Toward the end of period, Wisconsin was the heartland of the Effigy Mound culture. Later, between 1000 and 1500 CE, the Mississippian and Oneota cultures built substantial settlements including the village at Aztalan in southeast Wisconsin. The Oneota may be the ancestors of the modern Ioway and Ho-Chunk tribes who shared the Wisconsin region with the Menominee at the time of European contact, the first European to visit what became Wisconsin was probably the French explorer Jean Nicolet. He canoed west from Georgian Bay through the Great Lakes in 1634, pierre Radisson and Médard des Groseilliers visited Green Bay again in 1654–1666 and Chequamegon Bay in 1659–1660, where they traded for fur with local Native Americans. In 1673, Jacques Marquette and Louis Jolliet became the first to record a journey on the Fox-Wisconsin Waterway all the way to the Mississippi River near Prairie du Chien
National Park Service
It was created on August 25,1916, by Congress through the National Park Service Organic Act and is an agency of the United States Department of the Interior. As of 2014, the NPS employs 21,651 employees who oversee 417 units, the National Park Service celebrated its centennial in 2016. National parks and national monuments in the United States were originally individually managed under the auspices of the Department of the Interior, the movement for an independent agency to oversee these federal lands was spearheaded by business magnate and conservationist Stephen Mather, as well as J. Horace McFarland. With the help of journalist Robert Sterling Yard, Mather ran a publicity campaign for the Department of the Interior and they wrote numerous articles that praised the scenic and historic qualities of the parks and their possibilities for educational and recreational benefits. This campaign resulted in the creation of a National Park Service, Mather became the first director of the newly formed NPS.
On March 3,1933, President Herbert Hoover signed the Reorganization Act of 1933, the act would allow the President to reorganize the executive branch of the United States government. It wasnt until that summer when the new President, Franklin D. Roosevelt, President Roosevelt agreed and issued two Executive orders to make it happen. In 1951, Conrad Wirth became director of the National Park Service, the demand for parks after the end of the World War II had left the parks overburdened with demands that could not be met. In 1952, with the support of President Dwight D. Eisenhower, he began Mission 66, New parks were added to preserve unique resources and existing park facilities were upgraded and expanded. In 1966, as the Park Service turned 50 years old, emphasis began to turn from just saving great and wonderful scenery, Director George Hartzog began the process with the creation of the National Lakeshores and National Recreation Areas. Since its inception in 1916, the National Park Service has managed each of the United States national parks, Yellowstone National Park was the first national park in the United States.
In 1872, there was no government to manage it. Yosemite National Park began as a park, the land for the park was donated by the federal government to the state of California in 1864 for perpetual conservation. Yosemite was returned to federal ownership, at first, each national park was managed independently, with varying degrees of success. In Yellowstone, the staff was replaced by the U. S. Army in 1886. Due to the irregularities in managing these national treasures, Stephen Mather petitioned the government to improve the situation. In response, Secretary of the Interior Franklin K. Lane challenged him to lobby for creating a new agency, Mather was successful with the ratification of the National Park Service Organic Act in 1916. Later, the agency was given authority over other protected areas, the National Park System includes all properties managed by the National Park Service
In November 1886, she sank due to bad weather in Lake Superior, off Long Island in Chequamegon Bay. The site of the wreck was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1991, Lucerne was launched on April 23,1873. She was nearly 195 feet long and reportedly cost $55,000 to build, on November 15,1886, Lucerne was loaded with 1,200 tons of iron ore at her home port, Wisconsin. The load was consigned to Little and Company of Cleveland, after the delivery, the captain and crew began a voyage back to Ashland. With new canvas sails and a wind blowing, all the signs pointed to a speedy voyage home. However, a November snowstorm on the lake began developing that night, on November 17 or 18,1886, Lucerne succumbed to the violent storm, and sank off Long Island. At the height of the storm, the captain of the ship Fred Kelly had been sighted Lucerne, nobody witnessed Lucernes final minutes, and none of the crew survived. William Mack, part owner of Lucerne, became worried when the ship never arrived back Ashland and he telegraphed Bayfield and asked for a search vessel to be sent.
The boat S. B. Barker was dispatched for the purpose, barker′s crew discovered three masts sticking out of the water. Upon closer inspection, they saw three of the crew members there, frozen solid in three inches of ice. Apparently they had climbed to the top of the masts to escape the waters of Lake Superior and had perished there while waiting to be rescued. Lucerne Apostle Islands List of shipwrecks in the Great Lakes
American black bear
The American black bear is a medium-sized bear native to North America. It is the continents smallest and most widely distributed bear species, Black bears are omnivores, with their diets varying greatly depending on season and location. They typically live in forested areas, but do leave forests in search of food. Sometimes they become attracted to human communities because of the availability of food. The American black bear is the worlds most common bear species, along with the brown bear, it is one of only two of the eight modern bear species not considered globally threatened with extinction by the IUCN. American black bears often mark trees using their teeth and claws as a form of communication with other bears, a behavior common to many species of bears. Despite living in North America, American black bears are not closely related to bears and polar bears. American and Asian black bears are considered sister taxa, and are closely related to each other than to other species of bear. Reportedly, the sun bear is a recent split from this lineage.
A small primitive bear called Ursus abstrusus is the oldest known North American fossil member of the genus Ursus and this suggests that U. abstrusus may be the direct ancestor of the American black bear, which evolved in North America. Although Wolverton and Lyman still consider U. vitabilis an apparent precursor to modern black bears, the ancestors of American black bears and Asiatic black bears diverged from sun bears 4.58 mya. The American black bear split from the Asian black bear 4.08 mya, the earliest American black bear fossils, which were located in Port Kennedy, greatly resemble the Asiatic species, though specimens grew to sizes comparable to grizzlies. From the Holocene to present, American black bears seem to have shrunk in size, the American black bear lived during the same period as short-faced bears and the Florida spectacled bear. These Tremarctine bears evolved from bears that had emigrated from Asia to North America 7–8 ma, both Arctodus and Tremarctos had survived several other ice ages.
American black bears are reproductively compatible with several other bear species, according to Jack Hannas Monkeys on the Interstate, a bear captured in Sanford, was thought to have been the offspring of an escaped female Asian black bear and a male American black bear. In 1859, a bear and a Eurasian brown bear were bred together in the London Zoological Gardens. In the reports published since this date three species have produced young, a black bear shot in autumn 1986 in Michigan was thought by some to be a black bear/grizzly bear hybrid, due to its unusually large size and its proportionately larger braincase and skull. DNA testing was unable to determine whether it was a black bear or grizzly
America the Beautiful Quarters
The America the Beautiful Quarters are a series of 25-cent pieces issued by the United States Mint starting in 2010 and scheduled to continue until at least 2021. The series may be extended at the option of the Secretary of the Treasury, the obverse of all the coins depicts George Washington in a restored version of the original portrait used for the 1932 Washington quarter. There will be five new designs each year, each depicting a national park or national site – one from each state, the federal district. The program is authorized by the America’s Beautiful National Parks Quarter Dollar Coin Act of 2008, Quarters will be issued depicting designs of national parks and sites in the order of which that park or site was deemed a national site. The quarters from three different states will depict parks or sites that were portrayed on the state quarters. Though they will depict the sites, they bear new designs. There are collector versions of the America the Beautiful 5 ounce Silver Bullion Coin Program which debuted in December 10,2010 and they feature an uncirculated finish and contain a ‘P’ mintmark indicating they were struck at the US Mint’s facility in Philadelphia.
The bullion coins were struck in Philadelphia but contain no mintmark. The United States Mint struck these coins late in 2010 with a limited mintage of only 27,000. The Mint apparently had insufficient time to strike more before the end of the year owing to production difficulties with both America the Beautiful Five Ounce Coin series. This forced the Mint to only release these Hot Springs Coins the following year on April 28,2011, demand was intense in the first hours of availability with collectors ordering 19,000 of them in the first nine hours. Within two weeks, the Mint indicated a sell-out of the limited mintage strikes, each coins price is determined by the current value of silver and the 2010 issues sold for $279.95. Many subsequent issues have even lower mintages and higher market values. These 5 oz. silver quarters are the Big Boys quarter collection and due to their low mintage, have increased their value over issue price, even in the face of declining silver prices
Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci
Devils Island Light
The Devils Island Lighthouse is a lighthouse located on Devils Island, one of the Apostle Islands, in Lake Superior in Ashland County, near the city of Bayfield. Currently owned by the National Park Service and part of the Apostle Islands National Lakeshore, it was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1977, listed in the Library of Congress Historic American Buildings Survey, WI-324. Several other structures in the vicinity are listed in HABS. The original third order Fresnel lens manufactured by Henry-Lepaute was removed by the U. S. Coast Guard in 1989, the site originally had a 10-inch steam whistle in a fog signal building. That was removed in 1925, and a much improved air-operated diaphone fog signal was accomplished, in 1928, a diesel-powered electrical generator was installed, and the light intensity increased to 300,000 candela for the white flash and 180,000 candela for the red. A previous skeletal, wooden structure was constructed in 1891 has since been demolished, historical brick Queen Anne style keepers quarters are collocated with the current lighthouse.
Also on the premises were two oil houses, a tramway, a brownstone tramway engine building, a dock, wooden boathouse, most of the Apostle Islands Lighthouses may be reached on the Apostle Islands Cruise Service water taxi or by private boat during the summer. During the Annual Apostle Island Lighthouse Celebration ferry tour service is available for all the lighthouses, in the tourist season, volunteer park rangers are on many of the islands to greet visitors. Wisconsin lighthouses Aerial photos of Devils Island Light, Marina. com, Lighthouse friends Devils Island Light article. NPS - Devils Island Light Station Terry Pepper, Seeing the Light, Lighthouses of the United States, Northern Wisconsin. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Light List, Volume VII, Great Lakes. Wobser, Devils Island Lights, boatnerd. com
Raspberry Island Light
It was erected in 1862, marking the western channel. It is said to be one of the few surviving wood framed lighthouses left on Lake Superior. The complex includes a tower rising up from the attached Lighthouse keepers quarters. The light was automated in 1947 and was transferred to the National Park Service as part of the Apostle Islands National Lakeshore. It was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1977, listed in the Library of Congress Historic American Buildings Survey, WI-312. The original Fresnel lens is on display at the Madeline Island Historical Museum, the old battery system in the fog signal building was replaced by a solar powered 300 mm Tideland Signal acrylic optic atop a pole, which continues to light the island to this day. The location is an aid to navigation, with a characteristic white flash every 2.5 seconds. Most of the Apostle Islands light stations may be viewed on the Apostle Islands Cruise Service water taxi or by boat during the summer. During the Annual Apostle Island Lighthouse Celebration Ferry tour service is available for all the lighthouses, in the tourist season, park rangers are on the island to greet visitors.
Apostle Islands Lighthouses Havighurst, Walter The Long Ships Passing, The Story of the Great Lakes, Wes, Great Lakes Lighthouses and Canadian, A Comprehensive Directory/Guide to Great Lakes Lighthouses, ISBN 0-932212-98-0. Seeing the Light, Lighthouses on the western Great Lakes, Wright and Wright, Great Lakes Lighthouses Encyclopedia Hardback ISBN 1-55046-399-3. Aerial photos of Raspberry Island Light, Historic Light Station Information and Photography, Wisconsin. United States Coast Guard Historians Office, Lighthouse Restored Video produced by Wisconsin Public Television