The Apostolic Fathers were core Christian theologians among the Church Fathers who lived in the 1st and 2nd centuries AD, who are believed to have known some of the Twelve Apostles, or to have been influenced by them. Their writings, though circulated in Early Christianity, were not included in the canon of the New Testament. Many of the writings derive from the same time period and geographical location as other works of early Christian literature which came to be part of the New Testament; some of the writings found among the Apostolic Fathers appear to have been as regarded as some of the writings which became the New Testament. The label Apostolic Fathers has been applied to these writers only since the 17th century, to indicate that they were thought of as representing the generation that had personal contact with the Twelve Apostles; the earliest known use of the term "Apostolic Fathers" was by William Wake in 1693, when he was chaplain in ordinary to King William and Queen Mary of England.
According to the Catholic Encyclopedia, the use of the term Apostolic Fathers can be traced to the title of a 1672 work by Jean-Baptiste Cotelier, SS. Patrum qui temporibus apostolicis floruerunt opera, abbreviated to Bibliotheca Patrum Apostolicorum by L. J. Ittig in his 1699 edition of the same; the history of the title for these writers was explained by Joseph Lightfoot, in his 1890 translation of the Apostolic Fathers' works:...he expression itself does not occur, so far as I have observed, until comparatively recent times. Its origin, or at least its general currency, should be traced to the idea of gathering together the literary remains of those who flourished in the age succeeding the Apostles, who therefore were their direct personal disciples; this idea first took shape in the edition of Cotelier during the last half of the seventeenth century. Indeed such a collection would have been an impossibility a few years earlier; the first half of that century saw in print for the first time the Epistles of Clement, of Barnabas, to say nothing of the original Greek of Polycarp's Epistle and the Ignatian Letters in their genuine form.
The materials therefore would have been too scanty for such a project at any previous epoch. In his title page however Cotelier does not use the actual expression, though he approximates to it, SS. Patrum qui temporibus Apostolicis floruerunt opera; the following writings are grouped together as having been written by the Apostolic Fathers: All or most of these works were written in Greek. Older English translations of these works can be found online in the Ante-Nicene Fathers series on the Christian Classics Ethereal Library website. Published English translations have been made by various scholars of early Christianity, such as Joseph Lightfoot, Kirsopp Lake, Bart D. Ehrman and Michael W. Holmes; the first English translation of the Apostolic Fathers' works was published in 1693, by William Wake rector of Westminster St James Archbishop of Canterbury. It was the only English translation available until the mid-19th century. Since its publication many better manuscripts of the Apostolic Fathers' works have been discovered.
There are several Greek text editions: The Apostolic Fathers. Vol. 1. I Clement. II Clement. Ignatius. Polycarp. Didache. Barnabas. Loeb Classical Library. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1912 Kirsopp Lake The Apostolic Fathers. Vol. 2. Shepherd of Hermas. Martyrdom of Polycarp. Epistle to Diognetus. Loeb Classical Library. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1913 Kirsopp Lake The Apostolic Fathers. Vol. 1. I Clement. II Clement. Ignatius. Polycarp. Didache. Loeb Classical Library. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2003 Bart Ehrman The Apostolic Fathers. Vol. 2. Epistle of Barnabas. Papias and Quadratus. Epistle to Diognetus; the Shepherd of Hermas. Loeb Classical Library. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2005 Bart Ehrman The Apostolic Fathers: Greek Texts and English Translations. 3rd Edition. Grand Rapids: Baker, 2007 Michael Holmes Die Apostolischen Väter. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 1992 Andreas Lindemann and Henning Paulsen The First Epistle of Clement was copied and read and is considered to be the oldest Christian epistle in existence outside of the New Testament.
The letter is lengthy, twice as long as the Epistle to the Hebrews, it demonstrates the author's familiarity with many books of both the Old Testament and New Testament. The epistle refers to the Old Testament as scripture and includes numerous references to the Book of Judith, thereby establishing usage or at least familiarity with Judith in his time. Within the letter, Clement calls on the Christians of Corinth to maintain order. Tradition identifies the author as Clement, bishop of Rome, scholarly consensus is overwhelmingly in favor of the letter's authenticity. Early church lists place him as the second or third bishop of Rome, although "there is no evidence for monarchical episcopacy in Rome at so early a date"; the Second Epistle of Clement was traditionally ascribed to Clement, but it is now considered to have been written c. AD 140–160, therefore could not be the work of Clement, who died in AD 99. Whereas 1 Clement was an epistle, 2 Clement appears to be a transcript of an oral homily or sermon, making it the oldest surviving Christian sermon outside of the New T
Terrorism in Chile has occurred since the 1980s and continues until the present. A number of bombings targeted public places, such as subway stations, as well as commercial institutions and interests, such as banks and ATMs. State sponsored terrorism occurred under the dictatorship of Augusto Pinochet which lasted from 1973 to 1990. At the end of the military regime in 1986, a bomb exploded in the Tobalaba station in Santiago, killing one person and injuring seven others. Over 200 individual bombings occurred from 2005 to 2014, over eighty groups claimed responsibility, authorities were not sure if it was multiple groups, related splinter cells or a single group which changed names; the names were changed to obie. On 8 September 2014, a bombing occurred at the Escuela Militar metro station in Chile. Fourteen people were injured, several seriously. No group has claimed responsibility, the attacks have been attributed to a Chilean Anarchist group, the Conspiracy of Cells of Fire. On 2 May 2018 Members of Carabineros de Chile and the Fiscalía sur investigate an improvised explosive device abandoned in the metropolitan area of Santiago.
The explosive was destroyed by members of the anti-explosive unit. The group Individualistas Tendiendo a los Salvaje claim responsibility for this and other bombs that didn't detonate. From 1973 to 1990, Chile was governed by the dictatorship of Augusto Pinochet. Under Pinochet's rule, political repression and state terrorism was committed by the Chilean armed forces, the Police, government agents and civilians in the service of security agencies. There has been a debate on whether some attacks linked to the Mapuche conflict in southern Chile constitute terrorism or not; these attacks arson, concentrate in Araucanía Region but have occurred in neighboring Bío Bío and Los Ríos Region. During the Pinochet dictatorship in Chile, an anti-terror law was enacted which allows suspects to be held in isolation without charges; the law permits the use of phone taps and secret witnesses in investigations. This anti-terror law is in use by the government in its response to bombing attacks. Human Rights Watch has criticized the Chilean government for inappropriately using anti-terrorist legislation against indigenous groups involved in land conflicts.
While recognizing that crimes have been committed, HRW believes that they are not comparable to terrorist acts. Crime in Chile
Walter Garrett Riddick was a United States Circuit Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit. Born in Gainesville, Riddick attended Washington and Lee University and received a Bachelor of Laws from the University of Arkansas School of Law in 1908, he was an attorney for the Missouri Pacific Railroad from 1908 to 1913. He was in private practice in Little Rock, Arkansas from 1913 to 1942. Riddick was nominated by President Franklin D. Roosevelt on December 1, 1941, to the United States Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit, to a new seat created by 54 Stat. 219. He was confirmed by the United States Senate on December 16, 1941, received his commission on December 19, 1941. Riddick served in that capacity until his death on July 31, 1953. Walter Garrett Riddick at the Biographical Directory of Federal Judges, a public domain publication of the Federal Judicial Center
Le Vibrazioni is an Italian rock and pop band formed in Milan in 1999. They made their breakthrough in 2003 with their debut single Dedicato a te, which went platinum in Italy. All their albums have been released on BMG; the four founding members, all born in Milan or its metropolitan area, are Francesco Sarcina, Stefano Verderi, Marco Castellani, Alessandro Deidda. After many years spent playing in clubs around Milan, the group signed with BMG and debuted with the single Dedicato a te, which topped the Italian charts and became one of 2003 best-selling singles. In the same year they published their first album,'Le Vibrazioni', whose sales exceeded 300,000 copies and from which the singles In una notte d'estate, Vieni da me, Sono più sereno and... E se ne va were extracted.... E se ne va would be included in the soundtrack of Luca Lucini's film Tre metri sopra il cielo; the music video for Dedicato a te was subsequently spoofed by Elio e le Storie Tese in their song Shpalman. In 2008 Emanuele Gardossi replaced Marco Castellani on bass.
Castelani would rejoin the band in 2017. The band participated at the Sanremo Music Festival 2020 with the song "Dov'è". Francesco Sarcina – singer, guitar Stefano Verderi – guitar, sitar Marco Castellani – bass guitar Alessandro Deidda – drums Emanuele Gardossi – bass guitar Le Vibrazioni Le Vibrazioni II Officine Meccaniche En Vivo Le Strade Del Tempo V 2003 – Dedicato a te / Video 2003 – In una notte d'estate / Video 2003 – E se ne va / Video 2003 – Vieni da me / Video 2004 – Sono più sereno / Video 2005 – Raggio di sole / Video 2005 – Ovunque andrò / Video 2005 – Angelica 2005 – Aspettando / Video 2005 – Ogni giorno ad ogni ora / Video 2006 – Fermi senza forma / Video 2006 – Se / Video 2007 – Portami via / Video 2007 – Dimmi / Video 2008 – Drammaturgia / Video 2008 – Insolita / Video 2008 – Su un altro pianeta / Video 2010 – Respiro / Video 2010 – Senza indugio / Single 2010 – Invocazioni al cielo / Video 2011 – Come far nascere un fiore / Single 2012 – Il sangue e anche il resto / Single 2018 – Così sbagliato / Single Live all'Alcatraz Le Vibrazioni II En Vivo Official site
A school timetable is a table for coordinating these four elements: Learners Teachers Rooms Time slots Other factors include the subject of the class, the type of classrooms available. School timetables cycle every week or every fortnight; the phrase "school timetables" refers to high schools, because primary schools have simple structures. High school timetables are quite different from university timetables; the main difference is that in high schools, students have to be occupied and supervised every hour of the school day, or nearly every hour. High school teachers have much higher teaching loads than is the case in universities; as a result, it is considered that university timetables involve more human judgement whereas high school timetabling is a more computationally intensive task, see constraint satisfaction problem. Block: This term is ambiguous, but in this article it refers to a set of lessons of different courses that must be placed concurrently. Student body: A set of students who are timetabled together, for example the 8A roll-call group.
Band: A set of classes involving the same student body, which are therefore horizontally linked, meaning they must be on separate periods. Year group or year level: A set of students at the same stage of their schooling, for example Year 9. Elective line: A block of many classes of many subjects such that each student may choose one subject from the line. Primary school has timetables, however the timetable is so simple that it can be constructed manually or in a basic spreadsheet package. In some countries and regions, such as China and East Africa, high school students are not given any choice in subjects, this makes timetabling easy - the students can remain in the one room all day while the teachers rotate. In other countries, such as United States, the whole school is run on a system of units, where each subject has the same number of lessons per cycle and subjects are placed into'lines'; this makes timetabling easy. In countries, such as Australia and most European countries, there exists a combination of the variants above, timetables can be difficult to construct.
The process can take weeks of effort and computers are needed in the process. The task of constructing a high school timetable involves the following issues: Some schools assign the same number of periods to all subjects, but more there are a variety of lengths of classes: 9 periods per cycle, 8, 7, 5 and so on. If this is the case, it means that it's not possible to have a'coherent' structure to the timetable.'Coherent' means that the classes in each year match up neatly with classes in other years in school-wide'super-columns'. Non coherent timetables are much more difficult to construct. There is'vertical integration': a class from one year has a requirement to line up with a particular class from the next year; this happens when students are allowed to take subjects in a higher not teach on those periods. Part-time teachers need to have certain entire days off, they will either specify to the school which weekdays they are or how many days per cycle they need off. Such teachers can add to the difficulty of timetabling when they are assigned to large blocks.
Sometimes two schools try to coordinate their timetables in order to be able to share a small number of staff. The schools have different bell times. There is travel time between campuses which must be taken into consideration. Sometimes a school is spread over two or more campuses, the timetable should minimise the amount of cross-campus travel for students and teachers. Furthermore, where travel occurs, the travel time must be taken into consideration. Sometimes there are constraints imposed from external organizations, such as sports venues bookings or technical education for senior students. Sometimes there are 3 subjects which rotate between student bodies throughout the year. For example, the 8A students might take Art in the first half of the year and Music in the second half. Classes should be assigned rooms in a way which attempts to give the same room to the same class or the same room to the same teacher for all or most lessons. Sometimes it is unavoidable to have what is known as a'split class': this is a class where one teacher takes it for some lessons and another teacher for other lessons.
This can happen e.g. because no single teacher is available on all scheduled periods, or because no single teacher can take it without going over their maximum teaching load. Another definition for a split class is when a teacher must teach two different grade levels in one period; this occurs with less popular subjects, which are not big enough to be made into separate classes. Split classes are deemed undesirable. Off-timetable lessons: sometimes an occasional lesson is scheduled "off the timetable" meaning before school or after school or during lunch; this happens with older students. It can be a desperate response to intractable timetabling problems or a compromise reached in order for the school to be able to offer less popular subjects. A central issue which exists both in the American model and the European model is to provide an individualised curriculum for each student that provides for his/her strengths and personal preferences. Certain subjects lend themselves to setting, or organising students into a
This is a list of members of the third parliament of the South Australian House of Assembly, which sat from 27 February 1863 until 25 January 1865. The members were elected at the November 1862 colonial election. 1 Barossa MHA Joseph Barritt resigned on 1 March 1864. John Williams won the resulting by-election on 8 June. 2 Seat of The Murray subsumed in Mount Barker 1863. William Rogers won the resulting by-election on 8 June. 3 East Adelaide MHA William Bakewell resigned on 27 October 1864. Thomas Reynolds won the resulting by-election on 5 November