SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Apostolic succession

Apostolic succession is the method whereby the ministry of the Christian Church is held to be derived from the apostles by a continuous succession, associated with a claim that the succession is through a series of bishops. Christians of the Roman Catholic, Old Catholic, Anglican and Scandinavian Lutheran traditions maintain that "a bishop cannot have regular or valid orders unless he has been consecrated in this apostolic succession." Each of these groups does not consider consecration of the other groups as valid. This series was seen as that of the bishops of a particular see founded by one or more of the apostles. According to historian Justo L. González, apostolic succession is understood today as meaning a series of bishops, regardless of see, each consecrated by other bishops, themselves consecrated in a succession going back to the apostles. According to the Joint International Commission for Theological Dialogue Between the Catholic Church and the Orthodox Church, "apostolic succession" means more than a mere transmission of powers.

It is succession in a church which witnesses to the apostolic faith, in communion with the other churches, witnesses of the same apostolic faith. The "see plays an important role in inserting the bishop into the heart of ecclesial apostolicity", once ordained, the bishop becomes in his church the guarantor of apostolicity and becomes a successor of the apostles; those who hold for the importance of apostolic succession via episcopal laying on of hands appeal to the New Testament, they say, implies a personal apostolic succession. They appeal as well to other documents of the early Church the Epistle of Clement. In this context, Clement explicitly states that the apostles appointed bishops as successors and directed that these bishops should in turn appoint their own successors. Further, proponents of the necessity of the personal apostolic succession of bishops within the Church point to the universal practice of the undivided early Church, before being divided into the Church of the East, Oriental Orthodoxy, the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Roman Catholic Church.

However, some Protestants deny the need for this type of continuity, the historical claims involved have been questioned by them. Jay comments that the account given of the emergence of the episcopate in chapter III of the encyclical Lumen Gentium "is sketchy, many ambiguities in the early history of the Christian ministry are passed over". Michael Ramsey, an English Anglican bishop and the Archbishop of Canterbury, described three meanings of "apostolic succession": One bishop succeeding another in the same see meant that there was a continuity of teaching: "while the Church as a whole is the vessel into which the truth is poured, the Bishops are an important organ in carrying out this task"; the bishops were successors of the apostles in that "the functions they performed of preaching and ordaining were the same as the Apostles had performed". It is used to signify that "grace is transmitted from the Apostles by each generation of bishops through the imposition of hands", he adds that this last has been controversial in that it has been claimed that this aspect of the doctrine is not found before the time of Augustine of Hippo, while others allege that it is implicit in the Church of the second and third centuries.

In its 1982 statement on Baptism and Ministry, the Faith and Order Commission of the World Council of Churches stated that "the primary manifestation of apostolic succession is to be found in the apostolic tradition of the Church as a whole.... Under the particular historical circumstances of the growing Church in the early centuries, the succession of bishops became one of the ways, together with the transmission of the Gospel and the life of the community, in which the apostolic tradition of the Church was expressed." It spoke of episcopal succession as something that churches that do not have bishops can see "as a sign, though not a guarantee, of the continuity and unity of the Church" and that all churches can see "as a sign of the apostolicity of the life of the whole church". The Porvoo Common Statement, agreed to by the Anglican churches of the British Isles and most of the Lutheran churches of Scandinavia and the Baltic, echoed the Munich and Finland statements of the Joint International Commission for Theological Dialogue between the Roman Catholic Church and the Orthodox Church by stating that "the continuity signified in the consecration of a bishop to episcopal ministry cannot be divorced from the continuity of life and witness of the diocese to which he is called."Some Anglicans, in addition to other Protestants, held that apostolic succession "may be understood as a continuity in doctrinal teaching from the time of the apostles to the present".

For example, the British Methodist Conference locates the "true continuity" with the Church of past ages in "the continuity of Christian experience, the fellowship in the gift of the one Spirit. "To fulfil this apostolic mission, Christ... promised the Holy Spirit to the apostles...". "enriched by Christ the Lord with a special outpouring of the Holy Spirit... This sp

Byway (road)

A byway in the United Kingdom is a track rural, too minor to be called a road. These routes are unsurfaced having the appearance of'green lanes'. Despite this, it is legal to drive any type of vehicle along certain byways, the same as any ordinary tarmac road. In 2000 the legal term'restricted byway' was introduced to cover rights of way along which it is legal to travel by any mode but excluding'mechanically propelled vehicles'. In England & Wales, a byway open to all traffic is a highway over which the public have a right of way for vehicular and all other kinds of traffic but, used by the public for the purposes for which footpaths and bridleways are used (i.e. walking, cycling or horse riding. Byways account for less than 2% of England's unsurfaced rights of way network, the remainder being footpaths and bridleways. A byway open to all traffic is sometimes waymarked using a red arrow on a metal or plastic disc or by red paint dots on posts and trees. On 2 May 2006 the Countryside and Rights of Way Act 2000 reclassified all remaining roads used as public paths as restricted byways.

The public's rights along a restricted byway are to travel: on foot on horseback or leading a horse by vehicle other than mechanically propelled vehicles, except in certain circumstances. Some byways that have not been over-modernised retain traces of the aggers or ditches that ran along each side of the lane. By contrast, straight enclosure roads which were laid out between 1760 and 1840 run through the newly enclosed lands with straight walls or hedges. Many former Roman roads were designated as parish boundaries – unlike the newer enclosure roads which ran along boundaries but were designed to give access from a village to its newly created fields and to the neighbouring villages; the latter can be seen to bend and change width at the parish boundary: this reflects the work of the different surveyors who had each built a road from a village to its boundary. If the roads did not meet up, quite common, a sharp double bend would result. Many British byways are sinuous, as the poet G. K. Chesterton wrote in The Rolling English Road: The rolling English drunkard made the rolling English road,A reeling road, a rolling road, that rambles round the shire…A merry road, a mazy road, such as we did tread The night we went to Birmingham by way of Beachy Head.

Country lane Dirt road Rights of way in England and Wales Rights of way in Scotland Road

Tor Røste Fossen

Tor Røste Fossen was a Norwegian football player and coach. He played for Rosenborg from 1964 to 1971, earning two Norwegian Premier League titles and one Norwegian Cup championship, he coached several Norwegian clubs besides coaching the Norway national football team during ten years 1978–1987. Fossen grew up in Kolbu and Vågå, he came to Trondheim in 1962. Until 1969 Fossen played. In 1970 a new goalkeeper, Geir Karlsen, arrived at Rosenborg, Fossen was benched, he became assistant coach under George Curtis, in 1972 head coach together with Nils Arne Eggen coaching Rosenborg to the double, winning both the league and the cup titles. Fossen continued without Eggen 1973–1974, the team became second both in the league and in the cup 1973. Fossen coached Start 1975–1977 to bronze medal in the league 1975. Besides this Fossen coached Norway national team for juniors 1972–1976. From 1978 to 1987 Fossen coached the Norway national football team. One of the victories in Fossen's time as Norway manager was the 2–1 win against England in the 1982 World cup qualification.

This victory is eternalized by radio reporter Bjørge Lillelien. Fossen coached Norway in the 1984 Olympics. Fossen coached Frigg Oslo, together with Hallvar Thoresen and Strømsgodset, together with Einar Sigmundstad, winning the 1991 Norwegian Football Cup, beating Rosenborg 3–1 in the final, his last post as a coach was in Frigg Oslo before taking over other managerial tasks in the club. Fossen retired 2007. Rosenborg Norwegian top division: 1967, 1969 Norwegian Cup: 1971 Strømsgodset Norwegian Cup: 1991