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Apotheosis

Apotheosis is the glorification of a subject to divine level and most the treatment of a human like a god. The term has meanings in theology, where it refers to a belief, in art, where it refers to a genre. In theology, apotheosis refers to the idea. In art, the term refers to the treatment of any subject in a grand or exalted manner. Before the Hellenistic period, imperial cults were known in Ancient Mesopotamia. From the New Kingdom, all deceased pharaohs were deified as the god Osiris. From at least the Geometric period of the ninth century BC, the long-deceased heroes linked with founding myths of Greek sites were accorded chthonic rites in their heroon, or "hero-temple". In the Greek world, the first leader who accorded himself divine honours was Philip II of Macedon. At his wedding to his sixth wife, Philip's enthroned image was carried in procession among the Olympian gods; such Hellenistic state leaders might be raised to a status equal to the gods before death or afterwards. A heroic cult status similar to apotheosis was an honour given to a few revered artists of the distant past, notably Homer.

Archaic and Classical Greek hero-cults became civic, extended from their familial origins, in the sixth century. The Greek hero cults can be distinguished on the other hand from the Roman cult of dead emperors, because the hero was not thought of as having ascended to Olympus or become a god: he was beneath the earth, his power purely local. For this reason, hero cults were chthonic in nature, their rituals more resembled those for Hecate and Persephone than those for Zeus and Apollo. Two exceptions were Heracles and Asclepius, who might be honoured as either gods or heroes, sometimes by chthonic night-time rites and sacrifice on the following day. Up to the end of the Republic, the god Quirinus was the only one the Romans accepted as having undergone apotheosis, for his identification/syncretism with Romulus.. Subsequently, apotheosis in ancient Rome was a process whereby a deceased ruler was recognized as having been divine by his successor also by a decree of the Senate and popular consent.

In addition to showing respect the present ruler deified a popular predecessor to legitimize himself and gain popularity with the people. The upper-class did not always take part in the imperial cult, some ridiculed the apotheosis of inept and feeble emperors, as in the satire The Pumpkinification of Claudius attributed to Seneca. At the height of the imperial cult during the Roman Empire, sometimes the emperor's deceased loved ones—heirs, empresses, or lovers, as Hadrian's Antinous—were deified as well. Deified people were awarded posthumously the title Divus to their names to signify their divinity. Traditional Roman religion distinguished between a divus, though not consistently. Temples and columns were erected to provide a space for worship; the Ming dynasty epic Investiture of the Gods deals with deification legends. Numerous mortals have been deified into the Taoist pantheon, such as Guan Yu, Iron-crutch Li and Fan Kuai. Song Dynasty General Yue Fei was deified during the Ming Dynasty and is considered by some practitioners to be one of the three highest-ranking heavenly generals.

Various Hindu and Buddhist rulers in the past have been represented as deities after death, from Thailand to Indonesia. Deceased North Korean leader Kim Il-Sung is the principal object of the North Korean cult of personality in which he is treated to an explicitly apotheosized leader, with statues of and monuments dedicated to the "Eternal President", the annual commemoration of his birth, the paying of respects by newlyweds to his nearest statue, the North Korean calendar being a Juche calendar based on Kim Il-sung's date of birth. Instead of the word "apotheosis", Christian theology uses in English the words "deification" or "divinization" or the Greek word "theosis". Traditional mainstream theology, both East and West, views Jesus Christ as the preexisting God who undertook mortal existence, not as a mortal being who attained divinity, it holds that he has made it possible for human beings to be raised to the level of sharing the divine nature: he became human to make humans "partakers of the divine nature" "For this is why the Word became man, the Son of God became the Son of man: so that man, by entering into communion with the Word and thus receiving divine sonship, might become a son of God."

"For He was made man that we might be made God." "The only-begotten Son of God, wanting to make us sharers in his divinity, assumed our nature, so that he, made man, might make men gods." The Westminster Dictionary of Christian Theology contains the following in an article titled "Deification": Deification is for Orthodoxy the goal of every Christian. Man, according to the Bible, is'made in the image and likeness of God.'... It is possi

Municipalities of Albania

Municipalities are the second-level administrative divisions of Albania. Prior to 2015, there were two types of municipalities in Albania: municipalities with an urban character called bashki, municipalities with a rural character called komunë. Municipalities are all divided into at least two "administrative units", which are sometimes referred to as "municipal units" or "units of local governance". Administrative units are composed of one or more cities, villages, or neighbourhoods and constitute the third- and final-level administrative divisions of Albania. In 2014, the government introduced a new administrative scheme, implemented in June 2015 with local elections, whereby municipalities were reduced to 61 in total and rural komuna were abolished. Most defunct municipalities are now administrative units and may be cities, villages, or neighbourhoods

Paul Freiherr von Eltz-RĂ¼benach

Peter Paul Freiherr von Eltz-Rübenach was Minister of Mail and Minister of Transport of Germany between 1932 and 1937. Eltz-Rübenach was born in a scion of the Rhenish noble house of Eltz; as a nonpartisan he had been appointed Reich Minister for both Transport and Postal Affairs in Chancellor Franz von Papen's "cabinet of barons" on 1 June 1932. He retained the posts under Chancellor Kurt von Schleicher and after the Nazi Machtergreifung under Adolf Hitler. In the course of the rising conflict between the Nazi government and the Catholic Church, Eltz-Rübenach, a devout Catholic, in a cabinet meeting on 30 January 1937 rejected the Golden Party Badge offered by Hitler and resigned. Afterwards he became a "suspect person" monitored by the Gestapo, while his pension claims were temporarily revoked. Eltz-Rübenach died in Linz am Rhein, aged 68. Regarding personal names: Freiherr is a former title. In Germany since 1919, it forms part of family names; the feminine forms are Freiin. Newspaper clippings about Paul Freiherr von Eltz-Rübenach in the 20th Century Press Archives of the ZBW