Connecticut is the southernmost state in the New England region of the United States. As of the 2010 Census, it has the highest per-capita income, Human Development Index, median household income in the United States, it is bordered by Rhode Island to the east, Massachusetts to the north, New York to the west, Long Island Sound to the south. Its capital is Hartford and its most populous city is Bridgeport, it is part of New England, although portions of it are grouped with New York and New Jersey as the Tri-state area. The state is named for the Connecticut River which bisects the state; the word "Connecticut" is derived from various anglicized spellings of an Algonquian word for "long tidal river". Connecticut's first European settlers were Dutchmen who established a small, short-lived settlement called Fort Hoop in Hartford at the confluence of the Park and Connecticut Rivers. Half of Connecticut was part of the Dutch colony New Netherland, which included much of the land between the Connecticut and Delaware Rivers, although the first major settlements were established in the 1630s by the English.
Thomas Hooker led a band of followers from the Massachusetts Bay Colony and founded the Connecticut Colony. The Connecticut and New Haven colonies established documents of Fundamental Orders, considered the first constitutions in America. In 1662, the three colonies were merged under a royal charter; this was one of the Thirteen Colonies. Connecticut is the third smallest state by area, the 29th most populous, the fourth most densely populated of the 50 states, it is known as the "Constitution State", the "Nutmeg State", the "Provisions State", the "Land of Steady Habits". It was influential in the development of the federal government of the United States; the Connecticut River, Thames River, ports along Long Island Sound have given Connecticut a strong maritime tradition which continues today. The state has a long history of hosting the financial services industry, including insurance companies in Hartford and hedge funds in Fairfield County. Landmarks and cities of Connecticut Connecticut is bordered on the south by Long Island Sound, on the west by New York, on the north by Massachusetts, on the east by Rhode Island.
The state capital and fourth largest city is Hartford, other major cities and towns include Bridgeport, New Haven, Waterbury, Danbury, New Britain and Bristol. Connecticut is larger than the country of Montenegro. There are 169 incorporated towns in Connecticut; the highest peak in Connecticut is Bear Mountain in Salisbury in the northwest corner of the state. The highest point is just east of where Connecticut and New York meet, on the southern slope of Mount Frissell, whose peak lies nearby in Massachusetts. At the opposite extreme, many of the coastal towns have areas that are less than 20 feet above sea level. Connecticut has a long maritime history and a reputation based on that history—yet the state has no direct oceanfront; the coast of Connecticut sits on Long Island Sound, an estuary. The state's access to the open Atlantic Ocean is both to the east; this situation provides many safe harbors from ocean storms, many transatlantic ships seek anchor inside Long Island Sound when tropical cyclones pass off the upper East Coast.
The Connecticut River cuts through the center of the state. The most populous metropolitan region centered within the state lies in the Connecticut River Valley. Despite Connecticut's small size, it features wide regional variations in its landscape. Connecticut's rural areas and small towns in the northeast and northwest corners of the state contrast with its industrial cities such as Stamford and New Haven, located along the coastal highways from the New York border to New London northward up the Connecticut River to Hartford. Many towns in northeastern and northwestern Connecticut center around a green, such as the Litchfield Green, Lebanon Green, Wethersfield Green. Near the green stand historical visual symbols of New England towns, such as a white church, a colonial meeting house, a colonial tavern or inn, several colonial houses, so on, establishing a scenic historical appearance maintained for both historic preservation and tourism. Many of the areas in southern and coastal Connecticut have been built up and rebuilt over the years, look less visually like traditional New England.
The northern boundary of the state with Massachusetts is marked by the Southwick Jog or Granby Notch, an 2.5 miles square detour into Connecticut. The origin of this anomaly is established in a long line of disputes and temporary agreements which were concluded in 1804, when southern Southwick's residents sought to leave Massachusetts, the town was split in half; the southwestern border of Connecticut where it abuts New York State is marked by a panhandle in Fairfield County, containing the towns of Greenwich, New Canaan and parts of Norwalk and Wilton. This irregularity in the boundary is the result of territorial disputes in the late 17th century, culminating
New York Post
The New York Post is a daily newspaper in New York City. The Post operates the celebrity gossip site PageSix.com, the entertainment site Decider.com, co-produces the television show Page Six TV. The modern version of the paper is published in tabloid format. Established in 1801 by Federalist and Founding Father Alexander Hamilton, it became a respected broadsheet in the 19th century, under the name New York Evening Post. In 1976, Rupert Murdoch bought the Post for US$30.5 million. Since 1993, the Post has been owned by News Corporation and its successor, News Corp, which had owned it from 1976 to 1988, its editorial offices are located at 1211 Avenue of the Americas. Its distribution ranked 5th in the US in 2018; the New York Post, established on November 16, 1801, as the New-York Evening Post, describes itself as the nation's oldest continuously published daily newspaper. The Providence Journal, which began daily publication on July 21, 1829 bills itself as the nation's oldest continuously published daily newspaper because the New York Post halted publication during strikes in 1958 and 1978.
The Hartford Courant, believed to be the oldest continuously published newspaper, was founded in 1764 as a semi-weekly paper. The New Hampshire Gazette, which has trademarked its claim of being The Nation's Oldest Newspaper, was founded in 1756 as a weekly. Since the 1890s it has been published only on weekends; the Post was founded by Alexander Hamilton with about US$10,000 from a group of investors in the autumn of 1801 as the New-York Evening Post, a broadsheet. Hamilton's co-investors included other New York members of the Federalist Party, such as Robert Troup and Oliver Wolcott, who were dismayed by the election of Thomas Jefferson as U. S. President and the rise in popularity of the Democratic-Republican Party; the meeting at which Hamilton first recruited investors for the new paper took place in the then-country weekend villa, now Gracie Mansion. Hamilton chose William Coleman as his first editor; the most famous 19th-century Evening Post editor was the poet and abolitionist William Cullen Bryant.
So well respected was the Evening Post under Bryant's editorship, it received praise from the English philosopher John Stuart Mill, in 1864. In the summer of 1829, Bryant invited William Leggett, the Locofoco Democrat, to write for the paper. There, in addition to literary and drama reviews, Leggett began to write political editorials. Leggett's classical liberal philosophy entailed a fierce opposition to central banking, a support for voluntary labor unions, a dedication to laissez-faire economics, he was a member of the Equal Rights Party. Leggett became a co-owner and editor at the Post in 1831 working as sole editor of the newspaper while Bryant traveled in Europe in 1834 through 1835. Another co-owner of the paper was John Bigelow. Born in Malden-on-Hudson, New York, John Bigelow, Sr. graduated in 1835 from Union College, where he was a member of the Sigma Phi Society and the Philomathean Society, was admitted to the bar in 1838. From 1849 to 1861, he was one of the co-owners of the Evening Post.
In 1881 Henry Villard took control of the Evening Post, as well as The Nation, which became the Post's weekly edition. With this acquisition, the paper was managed by the triumvirate of Carl Schurz, Horace White, Edwin L. Godkin; when Schurz left the paper in 1883, Godkin became editor-in-chief. White became editor-in-chief in 1899, remained in that role until his retirement in 1903. In 1897, both publications passed to the management of Villard's son, Oswald Garrison Villard, a founding member of both the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People and the American Civil Liberties Union. Villard sold the paper in 1918, after widespread allegations of pro-German sympathies during World War I hurt its circulation; the new owner was Thomas Lamont, a senior partner in the Wall Street firm of J. P. Morgan & Co.. Unable to stem the paper's financial losses, he sold it to a consortium of 34 financial and reform political leaders, headed by Edwin Francis Gay, dean of the Harvard Business School, whose members included Franklin Delano Roosevelt.
Conservative Cyrus H. K. Curtis—publisher of the Ladies Home Journal—purchased the Evening Post in 1924 and turned it into a non-sensational tabloid in 1933. In 1934, J. David Stern purchased the paper, changed its name to the New York Post, restored its broadsheet size and liberal perspective. In 1939, Dorothy Schiff purchased the paper, her husband, George Backer, was named publisher. Her second editor Ted Thackrey became co-publisher and co-editor with Schiff in 1942. Together, they recast the newspaper into its current tabloid format. In 1948 The Bronx Home News merged with it. In 1949, James Wechsler became editor of the paper, running both the editorial pages. In 1961, he turned over the news section to Paul Sann and remained as editorial-page editor until 1980. Under Schiff's tenure the Post was devoted to liberalism, supporting trade unions and social welfare, featured some of the most-popular columnists of the time, such as Joseph Cookman, Drew Pearson, Eleanor Roosevelt, Max Lerner, Murray Kempton, Pete Hamill, Eric Sevareid, in addition to theatre critic Richard Watts, Jr. and gossip columnist Earl Wilson.
In November 1976, it was announced that Rupert Murdoch had bought the Post from Schiff with the intention she would remain as a consultant for five years. It emerged that Murdoch bought the newspaper for US$30.5 million. The Post at this point was the only surviving afternoon daily in New York City and its circulation under Schiff had grown by two-thirds after the failure of the competing World Journal Tribu
Raymond H. Torrey
Raymond Hezekiah Torrey was the author of weekly columns and The Long Brown Path in the New York Evening Post in the 1920s and 1930s. The column played a major role in the development of the 2,100-mile Appalachian Trail, the Long Path and the popularity of hiking generally, he was a founding member of the New York–New Jersey Trail Conference and one of the authors of the first edition of the New York Walk Book. He had extensive scientific knowledge, writing about everything from the short-billed marsh wren to marine fossils and lichens, he was secretary of the Association for the Preservation of the Adirondacks, secretary of the American Scenic and Historic Preservation Society. Born in Georgetown, where his father was a sea captain, he began a career in journalism in newspapers in the Berkshires first, but soon moved to New York City. In 1903 he started at the New York American moved to the Tribune and the Evening Post in 1918, he became involved in the New York hiking scene at a time when the forests and mountains of the Hudson Highlands were unknown but interest in the outdoors was increasing and city hiking clubs were coming into existence.
In the early 1920s Torrey developed a weekly outdoor column for the Post, called the Long Brown Path, named for a line in Walt Whitman's "Song of the Open Road". Major William A. Welch, General Manager of the Palisades Interstate Park Commission, was interested in creating hiking trails in Bear Mountain-Harriman State Parks, but was lacking funds. Welch suggested that Torrey use his influential column to help organize New York metropolitan area hiking clubs into a volunteer trail-building confederation. Torrey not only wrote the columns, he organized and coordinated the resulting volunteers and did plenty of route-scouting and trail building himself; the column was popular: along with news of the clubs and their trails, it included a listing of hikes, as many as 20 or 30 weekly. He used the column as a "bully pulpit", railing against litter, championing environmental causes, giving notice of upcoming conservation bills in New York and New Jersey, organizing letter-writing campaigns in support of reforestation measures and proposals for the creation of new parks.
In 1922 Torrey publicized a proposal by forester Benton MacKaye to build a 2,100-mile trail from Maine to Georgia with a story under a full-page banner headline reading "A Great Trail from Maine to Georgia!". Working with volunteers organized by J. Ashton Allis of the Trail Conference, Torrey helped blaze the first 6 miles of the AT running from the Ramapo River to Fingerboard Mountain. By January 4, 1924, the 20-mile stretch from the Hudson to the Ramapo River was complete. On November 18 of that year, he worked with the Tramp and Trail Club on what he dubbed a "Speed Special", clearing and blazing a 20-mile section through Sterling Forest, New York; the effort involved much more than the physical effort of building and blazing trails— complex negotiations with property owners were required as well east of the Hudson where no established system of hiking trails existed. By 1929, with the help of New Jersey state park officials, a 43-mile section from the Delaware River to High Point along the Kittatinny Ridge was completed.
Two years 160 miles of the AT, from the Delaware River to Kent, was in place. That year, he tangled with Robert Moses, a onetime ally who had named him secretary of the New York State Parks Council, a forerunner to the current New York State Office of Parks and Historic Preservation, in order to help establish Letchworth State Park. Torrey opposed the route Moses wanted for the Northern State Parkway along Long Island's central glacial moraine, he had arranged for the reprinting of an article sharing this view in the ASHPS newsletter, which enraged Moses. On September 12, Moses learned that Torrey had been providing information about Parks Council meetings, information, available to the public in any event, to an attorney for wealthy North Shore landowners opposed to the road project, he called Torrey to his office, where the council's finance committee was meeting, berated him for this and the newsletter article, which he considered serious breaches of trust. Torrey defended both actions; when Moses responded to Torrey's telling him he had no right to tell him what he could and could not print by saying "Goddamn you!
What do you mean by doing something like that?", who had many Jewish friends, lost his temper and said "You big noisy kike. Moses had to be pulled off Torrey by other members of the committee. While Torrey apologized for the incident, he resigned from the Parks Council, a move which gave Moses control of that body. Torrey died of a heart attack on his 58th birthday; the NY/NJTC soon found. A memorial was placed on Long Mountain in Harriman State Park, which had one of his favorite views, reading "In Memory of Raymond H. Torrey, A Great Disciple of the Long Brown Path, 1880-1938." His ashes were scattered to the winds there in a brief ceremony. Scherer, Glenn D. Vistas and vision: A history of the New York-New Jersey Trail Conference; the New York-New Jers
Georgia Appalachian Trail Club
The Georgia Appalachian Trail Club, Inc. is a non-profit organization, organized in 1930 in Dahlonega, GA. Its membership consists of individual volunteers; the GATC is responsible for the maintenance of the AT in Georgia. This is accomplished through cooperation with the Appalachian Trail Conservancy and the U. S. Forest Service; the GATC is active in the conservation community on issues relating to the protection of the Appalachian Trail. It conducts a wide range of outdoor recreational events for its membership. Georgia Peaks on the Appalachian Trail Georgia Appalachian Trail Club Appalachian Trail Conservancy U. S. Forest Service
West Virginia is a state located in the Appalachian region in the Southern United States, considered to be a part of the Middle Atlantic States. It is bordered by Pennsylvania to the north, Maryland to the east and northeast, Virginia to the southeast, Kentucky to the southwest, Ohio to the northwest. West Virginia is the 41st largest state by area, is ranked 38th in population; the capital and largest city is Charleston. West Virginia became a state following the Wheeling Conventions of 1861, after the American Civil War had begun. Delegates from some Unionist counties of northwestern Virginia decided to break away from Virginia, although they included many secessionist counties in the new state. West Virginia was admitted to the Union on June 20, 1863, was a key border state during the war. West Virginia was the only state to form by separating from a Confederate state, the first to separate from any state since Maine separated from Massachusetts, was one of two states admitted to the Union during the American Civil War.
While a portion of its residents held slaves, most of the residents were yeomen farmers, the delegates provided for gradual abolition of slavery in the new state Constitution. The Census Bureau and the Association of American Geographers classify West Virginia as part of the Southern United States; however the Bureau of Labor Statistics classifies West Virginia as a part of the Mid-Atlantic. The northern panhandle extends adjacent to Pennsylvania and Ohio, with the West Virginia cities of Wheeling and Weirton just across the border from the Pittsburgh metropolitan area, while Bluefield is less than 70 miles from North Carolina. Huntington in the southwest is close to the states of Ohio and Kentucky, while Martinsburg and Harpers Ferry in the Eastern Panhandle region are considered part of the Washington metropolitan area, in between the states of Maryland and Virginia; the unique position of West Virginia means that it is included in several geographical regions, including the Mid-Atlantic, the Upland South, the Southeastern United States.
It is the only state, within the area served by the Appalachian Regional Commission. The state is noted for its mountains and rolling hills, its significant logging and coal mining industries, its political and labor history, it is known for a wide range of outdoor recreational opportunities, including skiing, whitewater rafting, hiking, mountain biking, rock climbing, hunting. Many ancient man-made earthen mounds from various prehistoric mound builder cultures survive in the areas of present-day Moundsville, South Charleston, Romney; the artifacts uncovered in these give evidence of village societies. They had a tribal trade system culture. In the 1670s during the Beaver Wars, the powerful Iroquois, five allied nations based in present-day New York and Pennsylvania, drove out other American Indian tribes from the region in order to reserve the upper Ohio Valley as a hunting ground. Siouan language tribes, such as the Moneton, had been recorded in the area. A century the area now identified as West Virginia was contested territory among Anglo-Americans as well, with the colonies of Pennsylvania and Virginia claiming territorial rights under their colonial charters to this area before the American Revolutionary War.
Some speculative land companies, such as the Vandalia Company, the Ohio Company and Indiana Company, tried to legitimize their claims to land in parts of West Virginia and present day Kentucky, but failed. This rivalry resulted in some settlers petitioning the Continental Congress to create a new territory called Westsylvania. With the federal settlement of the Pennsylvania and Virginia border dispute, creating Kentucky County, Kentuckians "were satisfied, the inhabitants of a large part of West Virginia were grateful."The Crown considered the area of West Virginia to be part of the British Virginia Colony from 1607 to 1776. The United States considered this area to be the western part of the state of Virginia from 1776 to 1863, before the formation of West Virginia, its residents were discontented for years with their position in Virginia, as the government was dominated by the planter elite of the Tidewater and Piedmont areas. The legislature had electoral malapportionment, based on the counting of slaves toward regional populations, the western white residents were underrepresented in the state legislature.
More subsistence and yeoman farmers lived in the west and they were less supportive of slavery, although many counties were divided on their support. The residents of this area became more divided after the planter elite of eastern Virginia voted to secede from the Union during the Civil War. Residents of the western and northern counties set up a separate government under Francis Pierpont in 1861, which they called the Restored Government. Most voted to separate from Virginia, the new state was admitted to the Union in 1863. In 1864 a state constitutional convention drafted a constitution, ratified by the legislature without putting it to popular vote. West Virginia abolished slavery by a gradual process and temporarily disenfranchised men who had held Confederate office or fought for the Confederacy. West Virginia's history has been profoundly affected by its mountainous terrain and vast river valleys, rich natural resources; these were all factors driving its economy and the lifestyles of its residents, who tended to live in many small isolated communities in the mountain valleys.
A 2010 analysis of
Connecticut Forest and Park Association
The Connecticut Forest and Park Association, established in 1895, is the oldest private, nonprofit conservation organization in Connecticut. The organization is credited as an important early pioneer of the national land conservation movement and as an early advocate of long distance trail building; the mission of the CFPA is “to conserve the land and natural resources of Connecticut. The CFPA established and maintains the 825-mile Blue-Blazed Trails Hiking Trail system and has been instrumental in acquiring more than 100 state parks and forests across Connecticut; the organization publishes guidebooks and maps, conducts ecological surveys, provides advice on sustainable forestry, advocates for land conservation and builds trails, conducts a variety of educational programs for adults and children. It publishes the “Connecticut Walk Book East” and “Connecticut Walk Book West” for their Blue-Blazed Trails in Eastern and Western Connecticut that are available at many public libraries; the CFPA established the Blue-Blazed Hiking Trail System in 1929, when the Quinnipiac Trail was created.
This trail system includes more than 825 miles of Blue-Blazed Hiking Trails that pass through 88 towns traversing both public and private lands. Notable trails managed by the CFPA include the Quinnipiac, Nipmuck, Tunxis and Shenipsit Trails; the Metacomet and Mattabesett Trails are part of the New England National Scenic Trail referred to as Triple-M Trail. This 220 mile route extends from Long Island Sound to Mount Monadnock in Southern New Hampshire. Connecticut Woodlands is a quarterly magazine publication of the CFPA, it began publication in 1936. The print magazine is a benefit for members and supporters of the CFPA, but a collection of previous issues are accessible directly from the website. Connecticut Forest and Park Association
Appalachian Development Highway System
The Appalachian Development Highway System is part of the Appalachian Regional Commission in the United States. It consists of a series of highway corridors in the Appalachia region of the eastern United States; the routes are designed as local and regional routes for improving economic development in the isolated region. It was established as part of the Appalachian Regional Development Act of 1965, has been supplemented by various federal and state legislative and regulatory actions; the system consists of a mixture of state, U. S. and Interstate routes. The routes are formally assigned a letter. Signage of these corridors varies from place to place, but where signed are done so with a distinctive blue-colored sign. A 2019 study found that the construction of the ADHS led to economic net gains of $54 billion and boosted incomes in the Appalachian region by reducing the costs of trade. In 1964, the President's Appalachian Regional Commission reported to Congress that economic growth in Appalachia would not be possible until the region's isolation had been overcome.
Because the cost of building highways through Appalachia's mountainous terrain was high, the region's local residents had never been served by adequate roads. The existing network of narrow, two-lane roads, snaking through narrow stream valleys or over mountaintops, was slow to drive, in many places worn out; the nation's Interstate Highway System, though extensive through the region, was designed to serve cross-country traffic rather than local residents. The PARC report and the Appalachian governors placed top priority on a modern highway system as the key to economic development; as a result, Congress authorized the construction of the Appalachian Development Highway System in the Appalachian Development Act of 1965. The ADHS was designed to generate economic development in isolated areas, supplement the interstate system, provide access to areas within the region as well as to markets in the rest of the nation; the ADHS is authorized at 3,090 miles, including 65 miles added in January 2004 by Public Law 108-199.
By the end of FY 2018, 2,796 miles —approximately 90.5 percent of the 3,090 miles authorized—were complete, open to traffic, or under construction. Many of the remaining miles will be among the most expensive to build. Corridor Z across southern Georgia is not part of the official system, but has been assigned by the Georgia Department of Transportation. Corridor A is a highway in the states of North Carolina, it travels from Interstate 285 north of Atlanta northeasterly to I-40 near North Carolina. I-40 continues easterly past Asheville, where it meets I-26 and Corridor B. In Georgia, Corridor A travels along the State Route 400 freeway from I-285 to the SR 141 interchange southwest of Cumming. From here to Nelson, near the north end of I-575, Corridor A has not been constructed, it begins again with a short piece of SR 372, becoming SR 515 when it meets I-575. SR 515 is a four-lane divided highway all the way to Blairsville. From Blairsville to North Carolina, the corridor has not been built, SR 515 is a two-lane road.
The short North Carolina Highway 69 takes Corridor A north to U. S. Route 64 near Hayesville. Corridor A turns east on US 64, after some two-lane sections, it becomes a four-lane highway. Corridor A switches to US 23 near Franklin, meets the east end of Corridor K near Sylva. From Sylva to its end at I-40 near Clyde, Corridor A uses the Great Smoky Mountains Expressway, which carries US 23 most of the way and US 74 for its entire length. Corridor A-1 uses US 19/SR 400 from the point that Corridor A leaves it, at SR 141 near Cumming, northeast to SR 53 near Bright. SR 400 continues northeast as a four-lane highway from SR 53 to SR 60 south of Dahlonega. Corridor B is a highway in the states of North Carolina, Virginia and Ohio, it follows U. S. Route 23 from Interstate 26 and I-40 near Asheville, North Carolina, north to Corridor C north of Portsmouth, Ohio. Corridor B uses I-240 from its south end into downtown Asheville, where it uses US 23 to Kingsport, Tennessee; the US 23 freeway ends at the Tennessee–Virginia state line, but US 23 is a four-lane divided highway through Virginia and into northeastern Kentucky.
At Grays Branch, Corridor B leaves US 23 to turn east on Kentucky Route 10 over the two-lane Jesse Stuart Memorial Bridge into Ohio. The short Ohio State Route 253 connects the bridge to US 52, a freeway that takes Corridor B north to Wheelersburg. US 52 continues west to Portsmouth, the proposed alignment of Corridor B continues north and northwest along Ohio State Route 823 to US 23 near Lucasville; the part of Corridor B north of SR 253 is part of the I-73/74 North–South Corridor. Corridor B-1 travels from KY 10 to the north end of the Portsmouth Bypass. In Kentucky, it follows US 23 Truck. Corridors B and B-1 both end near Lucasville, where Corridor C continues north along US 23 to Columbus. Corridor C is a highway in the U. S. state of Ohio. It is part of U. S. Route 23, traveling from the north end of Corridor B near Lucasville north to Interstate 270 south of Columbus; as of 2005, most of the road is a four-lane divided highway, but there are a few gaps yet to be built. Corridor C is part of the I-73/I-