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The Appaloosa is an American horse breed best known for its colorful spotted coat pattern. There is a wide range of body types within the breed, stemming from the influence of multiple breeds of horses throughout its history; each horse's color pattern is genetically the result of various spotting patterns overlaid on top of one of several recognized base coat colors. The color pattern of the Appaloosa is of interest to those who study equine coat color genetics, as it and several other physical characteristics are linked to the leopard complex mutation. Appaloosas are prone to congenital stationary night blindness. Artwork depicting prehistoric horses with leopard spotting exists in prehistoric cave paintings in Europe. Images of domesticated horses with leopard spotting patterns appeared in artwork from Ancient Greece and Han dynasty China through the early modern period. In North America, the Nez Perce people of what today is the United States Pacific Northwest developed the original American breed.

Settlers once referred to these spotted horses as the "Palouse horse" after the Palouse River, which ran through the heart of Nez Perce country. The name evolved into "Appaloosa"; the Nez Perce lost most of their horses after the Nez Perce War in 1877, the breed fell into decline for several decades. A small number of dedicated breeders preserved the Appaloosa as a distinct breed until the Appaloosa Horse Club was formed as the breed registry in 1938; the modern breed maintains bloodlines tracing to the foundation bloodstock of the registry. Today, the Appaloosa is one of the most popular breeds in the United States, it is best known as a stock horse used in a number of western riding disciplines, but is a versatile breed with representatives seen in many other types of equestrian activity. Appaloosas have been used in many movies. Appaloosa bloodlines have influenced other horse breeds, including the Pony of the Americas, the Nez Perce Horse, several gaited horse breeds; the Appaloosa is best known for its distinctive, leopard complex-spotted coat, preferred in the breed.

Spotting occurs in several overlay patterns on one of several recognized base coat colors. There are three other distinctive, "core" characteristics: mottled skin, striped hooves, eyes with a white sclera. Skin mottling is seen around the muzzle, eyes and genitalia. Striped hooves are a common trait, quite noticeable on Appaloosas, but not unique to the breed; the sclera is the part of the eye surrounding the iris. Because the occasional individual is born with little or no visible spotting pattern, the ApHC allows "regular" registration of horses with mottled skin plus at least one of the other core characteristics. Horses with two ApHC parents but no "identifiable Appaloosa characteristics" are registered as "non-characteristic," a limited special registration status. There is a wide range of body types in the Appaloosa, in part because the leopard complex characteristics are its primary identifying factors, because several different horse breeds influenced its development; the weight range varies from 950 to 1,250 pounds, heights from 14 to 16 hands.

However, the ApHC does not allow draft breeding. The original "old time" or "old type" Appaloosa was a narrow-bodied, rangy horse; the body style reflected a mix that started with the traditional Spanish horses common on the plains of America before 1700. 18th-century European bloodlines were added those of the "pied" horses popular in that period and shipped en masse to the Americas once the color had become unfashionable in Europe. These horses were similar to a tall, slim Thoroughbred-Andalusian type of horse popular in Bourbon-era Spain; the original Appaloosa tended to have a convex facial profile that resembled that of the warmblood-Jennet crosses first developed in the 16th century during the reign of Charles V. The old-type Appaloosa was modified by the addition of draft horse blood after the 1877 defeat of the Nez Perce, when U. S. Government policy forced the Indians to become farmers and provided them with draft horse mares to breed to existing stallions; the original Appaloosas had a sparse mane and tail, but, not a primary characteristic, as many early Appaloosas did have full manes and tails.

There is a possible genetic link between the leopard complex and sparse mane and tail growth, although the precise relationship is unknown. After the formation of the Appaloosa Horse Club in 1938, a more modern type of horse was developed after the addition of American Quarter Horse and Arabian bloodlines; the addition of Quarter Horse lines produced Appaloosas that performed better in sprint racing and in halter competition. Many cutting and reining horses resulted from old-type Appaloosas crossed on Arabian bloodlines via the Appaloosa foundation stallion Red Eagle. An infusion of Thoroughbred blood was added during the 1970s to produce horses more suited for racing. Many current breeders attempt to breed away from the sparse, "rat tail" trait, therefore modern Appaloosas have fuller manes and tails; the coat color of an Appaloosa is a combination of a base color with an overlaid spotting pattern. The base colors r

Robert Harlow (writer)

Robert Harlow is a Canadian writer and former academic, best known for his 1972 novel Scann. Harlow was born in Prince Rupert, but raised in Prince George, he served in the military during World War II as a bomber pilot, attended the University of British Columbia and the University of Iowa. He worked for the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation from 1951 to 1965, much of that time as the director of radio operations for British Columbia, he joined the faculty of the University of British Columbia in 1965 as head of its creative writing program. He married Margaret Latremouille, was stepfather to broadcaster and actor Fred Latremouille, Margaret's son from her prior marriage, his debut novel Royal Murdoch was the first of what is called his Linden Trilogy, set in the fictional small British Columbia town of Linden. The other two novels in the trilogy were A Gift of Scann, his novels were Making Arrangements, Paul Nolan, Felice: A Travelogue, The Saxophone Winter and Necessary Dark. In 2001, he was presented with a lifetime achievement award by the Vancouver Public Library and BC Bookworld.

In the 2000s, with all of his novels out of print, he republished them all through Xlibris. Official website

Mich d'Avray

Jean-Michel d'Avray is a former professional association footballer who spent the majority of his playing career at Ipswich Town. He is a development coach with South African Premier Soccer League club Bloemfontein Celtic. D'Avray's professional football career began when he made his debut for Ipswich Town against Southampton at Portman Road in November 1979. Over the next 11 seasons he made more than 200 appearances for the club. D'Avray contributed to Ipswich's victorious 1980-81 UEFA Cup campaign, making one appearance during the run; however he wasn't part of the squad for the final itself. He had a brief spell on loan to Leicester City where he made three appearances during the 1986–87 season, he went on to play for Dutch club NEC Nijmegen 28 times between 1990 and 1992. While playing for Ipswich, d'Avray won two caps for England at Under-21 level, he scored once, against Italy to help England into the final of the 1984 UEFA European Under-21 Football Championship. D'Avray started his managerial career in 1991 with the Moroka Swallows in Johannesburg where he remained for just one season before moving to the Cape Town Spurs.

He was awarded the South African Coach of the Year award in 1993 before leading the Spurs to a league and cup double in the 1993–94 season. From 1993 to 1997 he coached the South African Under-23 team, leading them out in 1994 for their inaugural game against Ghana, he coached the squad for a total of 28 games, his final match coming in December 1997 against Uganda. In 1998, he moved to Australia to join A-League team Perth Glory as assistant manager before becoming manager in 2001, he led the team to the league title in 2003 and 2004. and succeeded Lawrie McKinna as National Soccer League Coach of the Year, winning the accolade in the 2003–04 season, the final time the award was made. D'Avray held the position for just one season, he joined Bloemfontein Celtic at the start of the 2008–09 season. In January 2009 he was replaced as Coach by Owen da Gama after a poor run of performances that left Celtic close to relegation. D'Avray remained on the staff as a development coach, he has 2 children. He holds a UEFA Pro Licence.

Ipswich Town profile

The Donkey's Hide

The Donkey's Hide is a 1982 Soviet fantasy film based on Charles Perrault's Donkeyskin. Participant of the KinderFilmFest program at the 1985 Berlin International Film Festival. A bunch of paintings come to life and one of them proceeds to tell the story. A princess ran away from her courtly life, disguising herself in the skin of a donkey that excreted gold coins; when a prince sees her dressed like a princess, he tries to find out. Vladimir Etush: King Gaston IX Svetlana Nemolyaeva: Queen Gorgette Vera Novikova: Princess Theresa Aleksandr Galibin: Prince Jacques Zinoviy Gerdt: Poet Laureate to King Gaston IX Tatyana Pelttser: Wicked Fairy Valentina Panina: Good Fairy Nikolai Karachentsov: Robber Burabo Lyudmila Makarova: Madame Burabo Sergei Parshin: Redhead Boris Arakelov: Gendarme Aleksandr Domashov: Dandy Sergey Filippov: Courtier Sergei Ivanov: Courtier Mariya Barabanova: Blind Old Woman The Donkey's Hide on IMDb


Manikkavacakar or MaanikkaVaasagar was a 9th-century Tamil poet who wrote Tiruvasakam, a book of Shaiva hymns. He was one of the main authors of Saivite Tirumurai, his work forms volume eight of the Tirumurai, the key religious text of Tamil language Shaiva Siddhanta. A minister to the Pandya king Varagunavarman II, he lived in Madurai, his work is a poetic expression of the joy of God-experience, the anguish of being separated from God. Although he is a prominent saint in Southern India, he is not counted among the sixty-three nayanars. Manikkavacakar is said to have born in Vadhavoor, seven miles from Madurai on the banks of river Vaigai, he belonged to the Pandithar saivite temple priest guild. His father was a temple priest; the group wore a top tilted knot "Purva Sikha" to denote servitorship to Lord Siva like sambandar, etc. A mural and statuette of Manikkavacakar with Purva Sikha head knot is seen in Tirupperunturai near Pudukkottai. A poetic and elaborate hagiography of Manikkavacakar and his works was written in the 16th century and is called Tiruvilayadal puranam, meaning "An account of divine deeds".

The same is not available now in its original form. Another called Vadhavoorar puranam and yet another Sanskrit work of the 12th century CE on the same saint is now missing. According to accounts the king of Pandyan dynasty had selected Manikkavacakar as a part of his legion after seeing his military acumen and had once entrusted him with a large amount of money to purchase horses for his cavalry. On his way he met an ascetic devotee of Siva. Manikkavacakar received enlightenment, realised that material things are transitory and built the temple of Shiva in Tirupperunturai with the money. King Varaguna was preached with knowledge of reality and blessed with mukthi after Lord Shiva made him realize his small worldly mistake. Varaguana maharaja gave up his throne and attained mukthi at the feet of Lord Shiva. Manikkavacakar's birth name is unclear. Manikkavacakar means'man with words as precious as Manikam'. According to Ramana Maharshi, it is said that when Manikkavacakar attained mukthi, his body dissolved in a blinding light without leaving a corpse behind.

Thereafter Manikkavacakar moved from one place to other and composing devotional songs. He settled in Chidambaram, his Tiruvasakam is placed near the murti of Shiva there. Several verses of Tiruvasagam including the accho patikam after singing which he attained mukti at Thillai Natarajar's feet are engraved in the walls of the chidambaram temple; the tiruchazhal hymn after singing which the communal Buddhists were exposed is engraved in one of the prakarams. The work tiruchitrambalakkovaiyar was sung in thillai chidambaram. Throughout his work he discusses how important it is to forego attachments and cultivate dispassionate, devoted and simple hearted love to lord Shiva in order to attain his beatitude and that the five letters of na ma si va ya alone give one mukti. Manikkavacakar's work has several parts; the Tiruvembavai, a collection of twenty hymns in which he has imagined himself as a woman following the Paavai Nonbu and praising Shiva. The twenty songs of Tiruvembavai and ten songs of Tiruppalliezhuchi on the Tirupperunturai Lord are sung all over Tamil Nadu in the holy month of Margazhi.

Manikkavacakar is believed to have won intellectual arguments with Buddhists of Ceylon at Chidambaram. His festival is celebrated in the Tamil month of Aani. Manikkavacakar's hagiography is found in the Thiruvilaiyadar Puranam. In 1921, an English translation of Manikkavacakar's hymns was done by Francis Kingsbury and GE Phillips, both of United Theological College and published in a book as Hymns of the Tamil Śaivite Saints, by the Oxford University Press Manikkavacagar visited various temples in Thanjavur, North Arcot, Madras and Madurai districts and revered the deities. Sculptures illustrating his life are found in the Minakshi-Sundaresvara temple at Madurai. Manikkavacakar is said to have built the temple of Siva in Tirupperunturai, he is said to have lived at Chidambaram Tamil Nadu. He is associated with Tiru Uthirakosamangai. Tiruvembavai is sung along with Andal's Tiruppavai across the temples in Tamil Nadu during the Tamil month of Margazhi. B. S. Chandrababu. Bhavani. History of People and Their Environs.

Bharathi Puthakalayam. ISBN 9789380325910. Dallapiccola, Anna. Dictionary of Hindu Lore and Legend. ISBN 0-500-51088-1. Thiruvempavai explanation meaning Thirupalliyezhuchi explanation meaning

2013–14 East Superleague

The 2013–14 East Superleague was the 12th season of the East Superleague, the top tier of league competition for SJFA East Region member clubs. The season began on 10 August 2013 and ended on 14 June 2014. Linlithgow Rose were the reigning champions; the division expanded from twelve to sixteen clubs from this season. Bo'ness United won the title on 28 May 2014; as champions they entered the Preliminary Round of the 2014–15 Scottish Cup where they were drawn to receive a bye to the first round. The following teams changed division after the 2012–13 season. Promoted from East Premier League Newtongrange Star Ballingry Rovers Tayport Armadale Thistle Kelty Hearts defeated Dalkeith Thistle, who finished third in the East Premier League, 5–0 on aggregate in the East Region Super/Premier League play-off to retain their Superleague status