West Yorkshire is a metropolitan county in England. It is an inland and in relative terms upland county having eastward-draining valleys while taking in moors of the Pennines and has a population of 2.2 million. West Yorkshire came into existence as a metropolitan county in 1974 after the passage of the Local Government Act 1972. West Yorkshire consists of five metropolitan boroughs and is bordered by the counties of Derbyshire to the south, Greater Manchester to the south-west, Lancashire to the north-west, North Yorkshire to the north and east, South Yorkshire to the south and south-east. Remnants of strong coal and iron ore industries remain in the county, having attracted people over the centuries, this can be seen in the buildings and architecture. Leeds may become a terminus for a north-east limb of High Speed 2. Major railways and two major motorways traverse the county, which contains Leeds Bradford International Airport. West Yorkshire County Council was abolished in 1986 so its five districts became unitary authorities.
However, the metropolitan county, which covers an area of 2,029 square kilometres, continues to exist in law, as a geographic frame of reference. Since 1 April 2014 West Yorkshire has been a combined authority area, with the local authorities pooling together some functions over transport and regeneration as the West Yorkshire Combined Authority. West Yorkshire includes the West Yorkshire Urban Area, the biggest and most built-up urban area within the historic county boundaries of Yorkshire. West Yorkshire was formed as a metropolitan county in 1974, by the Local Government Act 1972, corresponds to the core of the historic West Riding of Yorkshire and the county boroughs of Bradford, Halifax, Huddersfield and Wakefield. West Yorkshire Metropolitan County Council inherited the use of West Riding County Hall at Wakefield, opened in 1898, from the West Riding County Council in 1974. Since 1987 it has been the headquarters of Wakefield City Council; the county had a two-tier structure of local government with a strategic-level county council and five districts providing most services.
In 1986, throughout England the metropolitan county councils were abolished. The functions of the county council were devolved to the boroughs. Organisations such as the West Yorkshire Metro continue to operate on this basis. Although the county council was abolished, West Yorkshire continues to form a metropolitan and ceremonial county with a Lord Lieutenant of West Yorkshire and a High Sheriff. Wakefield's Parish Church was raised to cathedral status in 1888 and after the elevation of Wakefield to diocese, Wakefield Council sought city status and this was granted in July 1888; however the industrial revolution, which changed West and South Yorkshire led to the growth of Leeds and Bradford, which became the area's two largest cities. Leeds was granted city status in 1893 and Bradford in 1897; the name of Leeds Town Hall reflects the fact that at its opening in 1858 Leeds was not yet a city, while Bradford renamed its Town Hall as City Hall in 1965. The county borders, going anticlockwise from the west: Lancashire, Greater Manchester, South Yorkshire and North Yorkshire.
It lies entirely on rocks of carboniferous age which form the southern Pennine fringes in the west and the Yorkshire coalfield further eastwards. In the extreme east of the metropolitan county there are younger deposits of magnesian limestone; the Bradford and Calderdale areas are dominated by the scenery of the eastern slopes of the Pennines, dropping from upland in the west down to the east, dissected by many steep-sided valleys. Large-scale industry, housing and commercial buildings of differing heights, transport routes and open countryside conjoin; the dense network of roads and railways and urban development, confined by valleys creates dramatic interplay of views between settlements and the surrounding hillsides, as shaped the first urban-rural juxtapositions of David Hockney. Where most rural the land crops up in the such rhymes and folklore as On Ilkley Moor Bah'Tat, date unknown, the early 19th century novels and poems of the Brontë family in and around Haworth and long-running light comedy-drama Last of the Summer Wine in the 20th century.
The carboniferous rocks of the Yorkshire coalfield further east have produced a rolling landscape with hills and broad valleys. In this landscape there is widespread evidence of former industrial activity. There are numerous derelict or converted mine buildings and landscaped former spoil heaps; the scenery is a mixture of built up areas, industrial land with some dereliction, farmed open country. Ribbon developments along transport routes including canal and rail are prominent features of the area although some remnants of the pre industrial landscape and semi-natural vegetation still survive. However, many areas are affected by urban fringe pressures creating fragmented and downgraded landscapes and present are urban influences from major cities, smaller industrial towns and former mining villages. In the magnesian limestone belt to the east of the Leeds and Wakefield areas is an elevated ridge with smoothly rolling scenery, dissected by dry valleys. Here, there is a large number of country houses and estates with parkland, estate woodlands and game coverts.
The rivers Aire and Calder drain the area, flowing from west to east. The table below outlines many of the co
Leeds and Liverpool Canal
The Leeds and Liverpool Canal is a canal in Northern England, linking the cities of Leeds and Liverpool. Over a distance of 127 miles, it crosses the Pennines, includes 91 locks on the main line, it has several small branches, in the early 21st century a new link was constructed into the Liverpool docks system. In the mid-18th century the growing towns of Yorkshire, including Leeds and Bradford, were trading increasingly. While the Aire and Calder Navigation improved links to the east for Leeds, links to the west were limited. Bradford merchants wanted to increase the supply of limestone to make lime for mortar and agriculture using coal from Bradford's collieries and to transport textiles to the Port of Liverpool. On the west coast, traders in the busy port of Liverpool wanted a cheap supply of coal for their shipping and manufacturing businesses and to tap the output from the industrial regions of Lancashire. Inspired by the effectiveness of the wholly artificial navigation, the Bridgewater Canal opened in 1759–60.
A canal across the Pennines linking Liverpool and Hull would have obvious trade benefits. A public meeting took place at the Sun Inn in Bradford on 2 July 1766 to promote the building of such a canal. John Longbotham was engaged to survey a route. Two groups were set up to promote one in Liverpool and one in Bradford; the Liverpool committee was unhappy with the route proposed, following the Ribble valley through Preston, considering that it ran too far to the north, missing key towns and the Wigan coalfield. A counter-proposal was produced by John Eyes and Richard Melling, improved by P. P. Burdett, rejected by the Bradford committee as too expensive because of the valley crossing at Burnley. James Brindley was called in to arbitrate, ruled in favour of Longbotham's more northerly route, though with a branch towards Wigan, a decision which caused some of the Lancashire backers to withdraw their support, and, subsequently amended over the course of development. In 1768 Brindley gave a detailed estimate of a distance just less than 109 miles built at a cost of £259,777.
An Act was passed in May 1770 authorising construction, Brindley was appointed chief engineer and John Longbotham clerk of works. A commencement ceremony was held at Halsall, north of Liverpool on 5 November 1770, with the first sod being dug by the Hon. Charles Mordaunt of Halsall Hall; the first section of the canal opened from Bingley to Skipton in 1773. By 1774 the canal had been completed from Skipton to Shipley, including significant engineering features such as the Bingley Five Rise Locks, Bingley Three Rise Locks and the seven-arch aqueduct over the River Aire, at Dowley Gap. Completed was the branch to Bradford. On the western side, the section from Liverpool to Newburgh was dug. By the following year the Yorkshire end had been extended to Gargrave, by 1777 the canal had joined the Aire and Calder Navigation in Leeds. From Liverpool it had reached Wigan by 1781, replacing the earlier and unsatisfactory Douglas Navigation. By now, the subscribed funds and further borrowing had all been spent, work stopped in 1781 with the completion of the Rufford Branch from Burscough to the River Douglas at Tarleton.
The war in the American colonies and its aftermath made it impossible to continue for more than a decade. In 1789 Robert Whitworth developed fresh proposals to vary the line of the remaining part of the canal, including a tunnel at Foulridge, lowering the proposed summit level by 40 feet, using a more southerly route in Lancashire; these proposals were authorised by a fresh Act in 1790, together with further fund-raising, in 1791, construction of the canal recommenced south-westward from Gargrave, heading toward Barrowford in Lancashire. By this time planning for the competing Rochdale Canal was under way and it was to offer a more direct journey to Liverpool via Manchester and the Bridgewater Canal; the same year John Rennie surveyed a branch of the Rochdale between Burnley. In 1794 an agreement was reached with the Manchester and Bury Canal company to create a link near Red Moss near Horwich; the company's experiences running the two sections of the canal had shown that coal not limestone would be its main cargo, that there was plenty of income available from local trade between the settlements along the route.
With this in mind in the same year, the route was changed again with a further Act, moving closer to that proposed by Burdett. The Manchester and Bury Canal company proposed another link from Bury to Accrington; this new link would have been known as the Haslingden Canal. The Peel family asked the canal company not to construct the crossing over the River Hyndburn above their textile printworks. Accrington was bypassed and the Haslingden Canal was never built, yet more fund-raising took place, as the Foulridge Tunnel was proving difficult and expensive to dig. The new route took the canal south via the expanding coal mines at Burnley and Blackburn, but would require some sizable earthworks to pass the former; the completion in 1796 of the 1,640 yards long Foulridge Tunnel and the flight of seven locks at Barrowford enabled the canal to open to eastern Burnley. At a cost of £40,000 the tunnel became the most expensive single item in the whole project. At Burnley, rather than using two sets of locks to cross the shallow Calder valley, Whitworth designed a 1,350 yards long and up to 60
Greengates is a small suburban area in the north-east of the city of Bradford, West Yorkshire, in England. The area is bordered by Idle and Thackley to the north-west, the large council estate known as Thorpe Edge to the west. To the south of Greengates is Ravenscliffe housing estate with the village of Eccleshill beyond that; the village of Apperley Bridge lies to the north. To the east in the Leeds Metropolitan District is the village of Calverley. To the west of Greengates is Albion Mills a historic textile mill, destroyed by fire on 10 March 1911 but rebuilt. In 1931 the Bradford trolleybus routes were extended from Idle to Greengates with the service running along Albion Road and Leeds Road. In 1928 a purpose built 595 seat cinema'Greengates Cinema' was constructed on New Line for the Greengates Cinema Company; this is now an Asda supermarket. Greengates is situated in the Idle and Thackley ward and in the Eccleshill ward, it is represented as part of the parliamentary constituency of Bradford East.
Greengates' proximity to the Leeds and Liverpool Canal, that runs through Apperley Bridge to the north of the village, has meant that Greengates has several mills. At the western end is Robin Mills and Albion Mills. Robin Mills is now split into industrial units. A large part of Robin Mills is occupied by Storey Evans, leaflet, label etc. printers for the pharmaceutical industry. Albion Mills is split into office business units. There is the racing car themed Speedmaster Conference Centre, until notable for its classic and racing car showroom and exhibition; the centre was opened in April 2008 by Sir Stirling Moss. On New Line is the New Line Retail Park with a Subway. Eastwards between Harrogate Road and New Line in Greengates Retail Park is a Sainsbury's, Argos, Costa, KFC. and Core Gym. Existing historic public houses in the area include The Hogs Head; the Seven Stars is now an Italian restaurant, The Roebuck public house was demolished to make way for a new Farmfoods store. There is the Kebabeesh and Bhajis & Beer restaurants, the China Garden and Empires Chinese takeaways, two fish and chip shops.
The area is centred on the crossroads of Leeds Road/New Line, Harrogate Road. Around this crossroads are most of the area's pubs and shops, a Sainsbury's supermarket, Argos and a Matalan. Another feature is the large war memorial situated at the crossroads, that commemorates those who died in World War I and World War II from Greengates and the surrounding villages. On Harrogate Road to the north of the main crossroads there is a large Anglican church dedicated to St. John the Evangelist. Along this stretch of the Harrogate Road is Optegra Yorkshire Eye Hospital and Bettersight Advanced Eye and Vision Consultancy; the post office is on New Line. There are a number of listed buildings in Greengates; these are to be found at Beck Bottom, Carr Bottom Road, Haigh Hall, Harrogate Road, New Line and Stockhill Fold. Greengates has its own primary school, Greengates Primary School, that moved northwards out of an older building on Leeds Road, to a new building across the road; the old school building has now been transformed into fashion business premises.
Parkland Primary school behind Albion Mills serves Greengates and the neighbouring Thorpe Edge estate. The following bus services run to Greengates. Greengates does not have its own railway station: the nearest station is Apperley Bridge railway station just under a mile to the north; the nearest airport to Greengates is Leeds Bradford Airport and can be accessed by bus service 747
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
City of Bradford
The City of Bradford is a local government district of West Yorkshire, with the status of a city and metropolitan borough. It is named after its largest settlement, but covers a far larger area which includes the towns of Keighley, Bingley, Haworth and Denholme. Bradford has a population of 528,155, making it the fourth-most populous metropolitan district and the sixth-most populous local authority district in England, it forms part of the West Yorkshire Urban Area conurbation which in 2011 had a population of 1,777,934, the city is part of the Leeds-Bradford Larger Urban Zone, with a population of 2,393,300, is the fourth largest in the United Kingdom after London and Manchester. The city is situated on the edge of the Pennines, is bounded to the east by the City of Leeds, the south east by the Metropolitan Borough of Kirklees and the south west by the Metropolitan Borough of Calderdale; the Pendle borough of Lancashire lies to the west, whilst the Craven and Harrogate boroughs of North Yorkshire lie to the north west and north east of the city.
Bradford is the 4th largest metropolitan district in the country, the contiguous urban area to the north which includes the towns of Shipley and Bingley is populated. The spa town of Ilkley lies further north. Two thirds of the district is rural, with an environment varying from moorlands in the north and west, to valleys and floodplains formed by the river systems that flow throughout the district. More than half of Bradford's land is green open space, stretching over part of the Airedale and Wharfedale Valleys, across the hills and the Pennine moorland between; the Yorkshire Dales and the Peak District are both in close proximity. The City of Bradford has architecture designated as being of special or historic importance, most of which were constructed with local stone, with 5,800 listed buildings and 59 conservation areas; the model village of Saltaire has been listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Central Bradford rose to prominence during the 19th century as an international centre of textile manufacture wool.
The area's access to a supply of coal, iron ore and soft water facilitated the growth of Bradford's manufacturing base, which, as textile manufacture grew, led to an explosion in population and was a stimulus to civic investment. However, Bradford has faced similar challenges to the rest of the post-industrial area of northern England, including deindustrialisation, housing problems, economic deprivation. Wool and textiles still play an important part in the city's economy, but today's fastest-growing sectors include information technology, financial services, digital industries, environmental technologies, cultural industries and retail headquarters and distribution. Bradford's reputation as a base for high technology and computer-based industries is growing, building on a long tradition of innovation, high skill levels and quality products. Bradford has experienced significant levels of immigration throughout the 20th centuries. In the 1840s Bradford's population was increased by migrants from Ireland rural Mayo and Sligo, by 1851 around 18,000 people of Irish origin resided in the town, representing around 10% of the population, the largest proportion in Yorkshire.
Around the same time there was an influx of German Jewish migrants to the town, by 1910 around 1,500 people of German origin resided in the city. In the 1950s there was large scale immigration to a lesser extent from Poland. Bradford has the second highest proportion in England and Wales outside London, in terms of population and in percentage. An estimated 140,149 people of South Asian origin reside in the city, representing around 26.83% of the city's population. An estimated 352,317 of all White ethnic groups reside in the city which includes people of Polish and Irish origin, representing around 67.44% of the city's population. Bradford was granted the status of a city in 1897. Bradford was incorporated as a municipal borough in 1847, covering the parishes of Bradford and Manningham, it became a county borough with the passing of the Local Government Act 1888. The county borough was granted city status by Letters Patent in 1897. Bradford was expanded in 1882 to include Allerton, Bowling, Heaton and Tyersall.
In 1899 it was further expanded by adding North Bierley, Idle, Thornton and Wyke. Clayton was added in 1930; the Brontë sisters, Emily and Charlotte were born along with their brother Branwell at 74 Market Street in Thornton in Bradford before moving to the parsonage at Haworth in the heart of West Yorkshire's Brontë Country where they wrote a range of classics of English literature including "Wuthering Heights" and "Jane Eyre". The city played an important part in the early history of the Labour Party. A mural on the back of the Priestley Centre For The Arts in Little Germany commemorates the centenary of the founding of the Independent Labour Party in Bradford in 1893; the Bradford Pals were three First World War Pals battalions of Kitchener's Army raised in the city. When the three battalions were taken over by the British Army they were named the 16th, 18th and 20th Battalions, The Prince of Wales's Own West Yorkshire Regiment. On the morning of 1 July 1916, an estimated 1,394 young men from Bradford and District The Bradford Pals, the 16th and 18th Battalions of the Prince of Wales Own West Yorkshire Regiment left their trenches in Northern France to advance across No Man's Land.
It was the first hour of the first day of the Battle of the Somme. Of the es
Immanuel College, Bradford
Immanuel College is a mixed Church of England secondary school and sixth form located in the City of Bradford, West Yorkshire, England. It was opened in October 2001; the school began when construction began in 2000 and was opened in 2001 by the Bishop of Bradford, David Smithmany parts of the school were still unfinished and it wasn't until 2003 that the school could be considered built. The school now has modern facilities such as modern computer suites in most departments, dining facilities and a large sports hall. A voluntary aided school administered by Bradford City Council, in February 2016 Immanuel College was converted to academy status; however the school continues to be under the guidance of the Diocese of Leeds, coordinates with Bradford City Council for admissions. 1. Jack Stanley 2. Emma Cowley Background Information Total number of pupils 1133 Number of day pupils of compulsory school age 1090 % of half days missed due to authorised absence 3.8% % of half days missed due to unauthorised absence 37.2%School Data from Immanuel College