IPhone is a line of smartphones designed and marketed by Apple Inc. All generations of the iPhone use Apple's iOS mobile operating system software; the first-generation iPhone was released on June 29, 2007, multiple new hardware iterations with new iOS releases have been released since. The user interface is built around the device's multi-touch screen, including a virtual keyboard; the iPhone can connect to cellular networks. An iPhone can shoot video, take photos, play music and receive email, browse the web and receive text messages, follow GPS navigation, record notes, perform mathematical calculations, receive visual voicemail. Other functionality, such as video games, reference works, social networking, can be enabled by downloading mobile apps; as of January 2017, Apple's App Store contained more than 2.2 million applications available for the iPhone. Apple has released twelve generations of iPhone models, each accompanied by one of the twelve major releases of the iOS operating system.
The original first-generation iPhone was a GSM phone and established design precedents, such as a button placement that has persisted throughout all releases and a screen size maintained for the next four iterations. The iPhone 3G added 3G network support, was followed by the 3GS with improved hardware, the 4 with a metal chassis, higher display resolution and front-facing camera, the 4S with improved hardware and the voice assistant Siri; the iPhone 5 featured Apple's newly introduced Lightning connector. In 2013, Apple released the 5S with improved hardware and a fingerprint reader, the lower-cost 5C, a version of the 5 with colored plastic casings instead of metal, they were followed by the larger iPhone 6, with models featuring 4.7-and-5.5-inch displays. The iPhone 6S was introduced the following year, which featured hardware upgrades and support for pressure-sensitive touch inputs, as well as the SE—which featured hardware from the 6S but the smaller form factor of the 5S. In 2016, Apple unveiled the iPhone 7 and 7 Plus, which add water resistance, improved system and graphics performance, a new rear dual-camera setup on the Plus model, new color options, while removing the 3.5 mm headphone jack found on previous models.
The iPhone 8 and 8 Plus were released in 2017, adding a glass back and an improved screen and camera. The iPhone X was released alongside the 8 and 8 Plus, with its highlights being a near bezel-less design, an improved camera and a new facial recognition system, named Face ID, but having no home button, therefore, no Touch ID. In September 2018, Apple again released 3 new iPhones, which are the iPhone XS, an upgraded version of the since discontinued iPhone X, iPhone XS Max, a larger variant with the series' biggest display as of 2018 and iPhone XR, a lower end version of the iPhone X; the original iPhone was described as "revolutionary" and a "game-changer" for the mobile phone industry. Subsequent iterations of the iPhone have garnered praise; the iPhone is one of the most used smartphones in the world, its success has been credited with helping Apple become one of the world's most valuable publicly traded companies. Development of what was to become the iPhone began in 2004, when Apple started to gather a team of 1,000 employees to work on the confidential "Project Purple."
Apple CEO Steve Jobs steered the original focus away from a tablet towards a phone. Apple created the device during a secretive collaboration with Cingular Wireless at the time—at an estimated development cost of US$150 million over thirty months. According to Steve Jobs, the "i" word in "iMac" stands for internet, instruct and inspire. Apple rejected the "design by committee" approach that had yielded the Motorola ROKR E1, a unsuccessful collaboration with Motorola. Among other deficiencies, the ROKR E1's firmware limited storage to only 100 iTunes songs to avoid competing with Apple's iPod nano. Cingular gave Apple the liberty to develop the iPhone's hardware and software in-house and paid Apple a fraction of its monthly service revenue, in exchange for four years of exclusive US sales, until 2011. Jobs unveiled the iPhone to the public on January 9, 2007, at the Macworld 2007 convention at the Moscone Center in San Francisco; the two initial models, a 4 GB model priced at US$499 and an 8 GB model at US$599, went on sale in the United States on June 29, 2007, at 6:00 pm local time, while hundreds of customers lined up outside the stores nationwide.
The passionate reaction to the launch of the iPhone resulted in sections of the media dubbing it the'Jesus phone'. Following this successful release in the US, the first generation iPhone was made available in the UK, Germany in November 2007, Ireland and Austria in the spring of 2008. On July 11, 2008, Apple released the iPhone 3G including the original six. Apple released the iPhone 3G in upwards of eighty territories. Apple announced the iPhone 3GS on June 8, 2009, along with plans to release it in June and August, starting with the US, Canada and major European countries on June 19. Many would-be users objected to the iPhone's cost, 40% of users had household incomes over US$100,000; the back of the original first generation iPhone was made of aluminum with a black plastic accent. The iPhone 3G and 3GS feature a full plastic back to increase the strength of the GSM signal; the iPhone 3G was available in
Face ID is a facial recognition system designed and developed by Apple Inc. for the iPhone and iPad Pro. The successor to Touch ID, the system allows biometric authentication for unlocking a device, making payments, accessing sensitive data, as well as providing detailed facial expression tracking for Animoji and other features. Released in November 2017 with the iPhone X, it has since been updated and introduced to all new iPhone and iPad Pro models; the Face ID hardware consists of a sensor with two modules. This map is compared with the registered face using a secure subsystem, the user is authenticated if the two faces match sufficiently; the system can recognize faces with glasses, clothing and facial hair, adapts to changes in appearance over time. Face ID has sparked a number of debates about privacy. Apple claims it is more advanced than Touch ID and has far fewer false positives in general, though Face ID has shown mixed results when trying to separate identical twins. Multiple security features limit the risk of the system being bypassed using photos or masks, only one proof-of-concept attempt using detailed scans has succeeded.
Debate continues over the lack of legal protections offered by biometric systems as compared to passcode authentication in the United States. Privacy advocates have expressed concern about third-party app developers' access to "rough maps" of user facial data, despite rigid requirements by Apple of how developers handle facial data. Apple announced Face ID during the unveiling of the iPhone X on September 12, 2017; the system was presented as the successor to Touch ID, Apple's previous fingerprint-based authentication technology embedded in the home button of the iPhone 8 and earlier devices. On September 12, 2018, Apple introduced the iPhone XS and XR with faster neural network processing speeds, providing a significant speed increase to Face ID. On October 30, 2018, Apple introduced the third generation iPad Pro, which brings Face ID to the iPad and allows face recognition in any orientation. Face ID is based on a facial recognition sensor that consists of two parts: a dot projector module that projects more than 30,000 infrared dots onto the user's face, an infrared camera module that reads the pattern.
The pattern is encrypted and sent to a local "Secure Enclave" in the device's CPU to confirm a match with the registered face. The stored facial data is a mathematical representation of key details of the face, it is inaccessible to Apple or other parties. To avoid involuntary authentication, the system requires the user to open their eyes and look at the device to attempt a match, although this can be disabled through an accessibility setting. Face ID is temporarily disabled and the user's passcode is required after 5 unsuccessful scans, 48 hours of inactivity, restarting the device, or if two of the device's side buttons are held briefly. Apple claimed the probability of someone else unlocking a phone with Face ID is 1 in 1,000,000 as opposed to Touch ID at 1 in 50,000. During initial setup, the user's face is scanned twice from a number of angles to create a complete reference map; as the system is used, it learns about typical variations in a user's appearance, will adjust its registered face data to match aging, facial hair growth, other changes using the Neural Engine.
The system will recognize a face wearing hats, glasses, many sunglasses, facial hair or makeup. It works in the dark by invisibly illuminating the whole face with a dedicated infrared flash module. Authentication with Face ID is used to enable a number of iOS features, including unlocking the phone automatically on wake, making payments with Apple Pay, viewing saved passwords. Apps by Apple or third party developers can protect sensitive data with a system framework. Additionally, Face ID can be used without authentication to track over 50 aspects of a user's facial expression and positioning, which can be used to create live effects such as Animoji or camera filters. Face ID uses an infrared flood illuminator and dot projector, though Apple insists that the output is low enough that it will cause no harm to the eyes or skin, meets'international safety standards', they do not, recommend the sensor is repaired by third parties, there is an inbuilt feature to deactivate Face ID should faulty components be found.
Inconsistent results have been shown when testing Face ID on identical twins, with some tests showing the system managing to separate the two, while other tests have failed. The system has additionally been fooled by close relatives. Apple states that the probability of a false match is different for twins and siblings, as well as children under 13 years of age, as "their distinct facial features may not have developed". Face ID has raised concerns regarding the possibility of law enforcement accessing an individual's phone by pointing the device at the user's face. United States Senator Al Franken asked Apple to provide more information on the security and privacy of Face ID a day after the announcement, with Apple responding by highlighting the recent publication of a security white paper and knowledge base detailing answers; the Verge noted that courts in the United States have granted different Fifth Amendment rights in the United States Constitution to biometric unlocking systems as opposed to keycodes.
Keycodes are considered "testimonial" evidence based on the contents of users' thoughts, whereas fingerprints are considered physical evidence, with som
Interest is payment from a borrower or deposit-taking financial institution to a lender or depositor of an amount above repayment of the principal sum, at a particular rate. It is distinct from a fee which the borrower may pay some third party, it is distinct from dividend, paid by a company to its shareholders from its profit or reserve, but not at a particular rate decided beforehand, rather on a pro rata basis as a share in the reward gained by risk taking entrepreneurs when the revenue earned exceeds the total costs. For example, a customer would pay interest to borrow from a bank, so they pay the bank an amount, more than the amount they borrowed. In the case of savings, the customer is the lender, the bank plays the role of the borrower. Interest differs from profit, in that interest is received by a lender, whereas profit is received by the owner of an asset, investment or enterprise; the rate of interest is equal to the interest amount paid or received over a particular period divided by the principal sum borrowed or lent.
Compound interest means. Due to compounding, the total amount of debt grows exponentially, its mathematical study led to the discovery of the number e. In practice, interest is most calculated on a daily, monthly, or yearly basis, its impact is influenced by its compounding rate. According to historian Paul Johnson, the lending of "food money" was commonplace in Middle Eastern civilizations as early as 5000 BC; the argument that acquired seeds and animals could reproduce themselves was used to justify interest, but ancient Jewish religious prohibitions against usury represented a "different view". The first written evidence of compound interest dates 2400 BC; the annual interest rate was 20%. Compound interest was important for urbanization. While the traditional Middle Eastern views on interest was the result of the urbanized, economically developed character of the societies that produced them, the new Jewish prohibition on interest showed a pastoral, tribal influence. In the early 2nd millennium BC, since silver used in exchange for livestock or grain could not multiply of its own, the Laws of Eshnunna instituted a legal interest rate on deposits of dowry.
Early Muslims called this riba, translated today as the charging of interest. The First Council of Nicaea, in 325, forbade clergy from engaging in usury, defined as lending on interest above 1 percent per month. Ninth century ecumenical councils applied this regulation to the laity. Catholic Church opposition to interest hardened in the era of scholastics, when defending it was considered a heresy. St. Thomas Aquinas, the leading theologian of the Catholic Church, argued that the charging of interest is wrong because it amounts to "double charging", charging for both the thing and the use of the thing. In the medieval economy, loans were a consequence of necessity and, under those conditions, it was considered morally reproachable to charge interest, it was considered morally dubious, since no goods were produced through the lending of money, thus it should not be compensated, unlike other activities with direct physical output such as blacksmithing or farming. For the same reason, interest has been looked down upon in Islamic civilization, with all scholars agreeing that the Qur'an explicitly forbids charging interest.
Medieval jurists developed several financial instruments to encourage responsible lending and circumvent prohibitions on usury, such as the Contractum trinius. In the Renaissance era, greater mobility of people facilitated an increase in commerce and the appearance of appropriate conditions for entrepreneurs to start new, lucrative businesses. Given that borrowed money was no longer for consumption but for production as well, interest was no longer viewed in the same manner; the first attempt to control interest rates through manipulation of the money supply was made by the Banque de France in 1847. The latter half of the 20th century saw the rise of interest-free Islamic banking and finance, a movement that applies Islamic law to financial institutions and the economy; some countries, including Iran and Pakistan, have taken steps to eradicate interest from their financial systems. Rather than charging interest, the interest-free lender shares the risk by investing as a partner in profit loss sharing scheme, because predetermined loan repayment as interest is prohibited, as well as making money out of money is unacceptable.
All financial transactions must be asset-backed and it does not charge any interest or fee for the service of lending. In economics, the rate of interest is the price of credit, it plays the role of the cost of capital. In a free market economy, interest rates are subject to the law of supply and demand of the money supply, one explanation of the tendency of interest rates to be greater than zero is the scarcity of loanable funds. Over centuries, various schools of thought have developed explanations of interest and interest rates; the School of Salamanca justified paying interest in terms of the benefit to the borrower, interest received by the lender in terms of a premium for the risk of default. In the sixteenth century, Martín de Azpilcueta applied a time preference argument: it is p
Contactless payment systems are credit cards and debit cards, key fobs, smart cards, or other devices, including smartphones and other mobile devices, that use radio-frequency identification or near field communication for making secure payments. The embedded chip and antenna enable consumers to wave their card, fob, or handheld device over a reader at the point of sale terminal. Contactless payments are made in close physical proximity, unlike mobile payments which use broad-area cellular or WiFi networks and do not involve close physical proximity; some suppliers claim that transactions can be twice as fast as a conventional cash, credit, or debit card purchase. Because no signature or PIN verification is required, contactless purchases are limited to small value sales. Lack of authentication provides a window during which fraudulent purchases can be made while the card owner is unaware of the card's loss. In 2012, MasterCard Advisors wrote that consumers are to spend more money using their cards due to the ease of small transactions.
MasterCard Canada says it has seen "about 25 percent" higher spending by users of its Mastercard Contactless-brand RFID credit cards. EMV is a common standard used by major credit card and smartphone companies for use in general commerce. Contactless smart cards that function as stored-value cards are becoming popular for use as transit system farecards, such as the Oyster card or RioCard; these can store non-currency value in additional to fare value purchased with cash or electronic payment. Mobil was one of the most notable early adopters of a similar technology, offered their "Speedpass" contactless payment system for participating Mobil gas stations as early as 1997. Although Mobil has since merged with Exxon, the service is still offered at many of ExxonMobil's stations. Freedompay had early wins in the contactless space with Bank of America and McDonald's. McDonald's, KFC, Burger King, Eat, Heron Foods, Pret a Manger, Stagecoach Group, Subway, AMT Coffee, Tesco and Lidl are among the retailers offering contactless payments to their customers in the UK.
In March 2008, Eat became the first restaurant chain to adopt contactless. Major financial entities now offering contactless payment systems include MasterCard, China UnionPay, Citibank, JPMorgan Chase, American Express, KeyBank, Barclaycard, HSBC, Lloyds Banking Group, FreedomPay, The Co-operative Bank, Nationwide Building Society and The Royal Bank of Scotland Group. Visa payWave, American Express Expresspay, MasterCard Contactless are examples of contactless credit cards which have become widespread in the U. S. and UK. The first contactless cards in the UK were issued by Barclaycard in 2007; as of December 2014, there are 58 million contactless-enabled cards in use, in the UK, over 147,000 terminals in use though this is growing in numbers and percentages of adoption. Telecom operators are starting to get involved in contactless payments via the use of near field communication phones. Belgacom's Pingping, for example, has a stored value account and via a partnership with Alcatel-Lucent's Touchatag provides contactless payment functionalities.
In January 2010, Barclaycard partnered with mobile phone firm Orange, to launch a contactless credit card in the UK. Orange and Barclaycard announced in 2009 that they would be launching a mobile phone with contactless technology. In October 2011, the first mobile phones with MasterCard PayPass and/or Visa payWave certification appeared. A PayPass or payWave account can be assigned to the embedded secure element and/or SIM card within the phones. Google Pay is an application for devices running Google's Android OS, which allows users to make purchases using NFC, which required a physical secure element but this was replaced by host card emulation, introduced in Android 4.4. Softcard and Quick Tap wallets for example, use a secure SIM card to store encrypted personal information. Contactless payments with enabled mobile phones still occur on a small scale, but every month an increasing number of mobile phones are certified. In February 2014, MasterCard announced that it would partner with Weve, a joint venture between EE, Telefónica UK, Vodafone UK, to focus on mobile payments.
The partnership will promote the development of "contactless mobile payment systems" by creating a universal platform in Europe for it. In September 2014, Transport for London's Tube began accepting contactless payment; the number of completed contactless journeys has now exceeded 300m. On Friday 18 December, the busiest single day in 2015, a record 1.24m journeys were completed by over 500k unique contactless cards. In 2016 Erste Group launched an NFC only debit card implemented as a sticker in Austria, it can be used at any NFC supporting terminal for transactions of unlimited amount however for transactions over the floor limit of 25 EUR a PIN is required to confirm the transaction. In 2016, contactless payments start to become broader with wearable technology devices offering this payment feature. In 2018, the Westpac Banking Corporation in Australia revealed contactless payment statistics from 2017 and claimed in the report that contactless payments approached saturation point by being used in over 90% of purchases.
The Australian St. George Bank reported 94.6% usage for the same period. Depending on the economic space, there may be a payment limit on single transactions without the need to input the PIN, some contactless cards can only be used a certain number of times before customers are asked for their PIN. Contactless debit and credi
Near-field communication is a set of communication protocols that enable two electronic devices, one of, a portable device such as a smartphone, to establish communication by bringing them within 4 cm of each other. NFC devices are used in contactless payment systems, similar to those used in credit cards and electronic ticket smartcards and allow mobile payment to replace or supplement these systems; this is sometimes referred to as NFC/CTLS or CTLS NFC. NFC is used for social networking, for sharing contacts, videos or files. NFC-enabled devices can act as electronic identity keycards. NFC offers a low-speed connection with simple setup that can be used to bootstrap more capable wireless connections. Similar ideas in advertising and industrial applications were not successful commercially, outpaced by technologies such as barcodes and UHF RFID tags. NFC protocols established a supported standard; when one of the connected devices has Internet connectivity, the other can exchange data with online services.
NFC-enabled portable devices can be provided with application software, for example, to read electronic tags or make payments when connected to an NFC-compliant apparatus. Earlier close-range communication used technology, proprietary to the manufacturer for applications such as stock ticket, access control and payment readers. Like other "proximity card" technologies, NFC employs electromagnetic induction between two loop antennas when NFC-enabled devices—for example a smartphone and a printer—exchange information, operating within the globally available unlicensed radio frequency ISM band of 13.56 MHz on ISO/IEC 18000-3 air interface at rates ranging from 106 to 424 kbit/s. Each full NFC device can work in three modes: NFC card emulation Enables NFC-enabled devices such as smartphones to act like smart cards, allowing users to perform transactions such as payment or ticketing. NFC reader/writer Enables NFC-enabled devices to read information stored on inexpensive NFC tags embedded in labels or smart posters.
NFC peer-to-peer Enables two NFC-enabled devices to communicate with each other to exchange information in an adhoc fashion. NFC tags are passive data stores which can be read, under some circumstances written to, by an NFC device, they contain data and are read-only in normal use, but may be rewritable. Applications include secure personal data storage. NFC tags can use the industry specifications; the standards were provided by the NFC Forum. The forum was responsible for promoting the technology and setting standards and certifies device compliance. Secure communications are available by applying encryption algorithms as is done for credit cards and if they fit the criteria for being considered a personal area network. NFC standards cover communications protocols and data exchange formats and are based on existing radio-frequency identification standards including ISO/IEC 14443 and FeliCa; the standards include those defined by the NFC Forum. In addition to the NFC Forum, the GSMA group defined a platform for the deployment of GSMA NFC Standards within mobile handsets.
GSMA's efforts include Trusted Services Manager, Single Wire Protocol, testing/certification and secure element. A patent licensing program for NFC is under deployment by France Brevets, a patent fund created in 2011; this program was under development by Via Licensing Corporation, an independent subsidiary of Dolby Laboratories, was terminated in May 2012. A platform-independent free and open source NFC library, libnfc, is available under the GNU Lesser General Public License. Present and anticipated applications include contactless transactions, data exchange and simplified setup of more complex communications such as Wi-Fi. NFC is rooted in radio-frequency identification technology which allows compatible hardware to both supply power to and communicate with an otherwise unpowered and passive electronic tag using radio waves; this is used for identification and tracking. 1983 - The first patent to be associated with the abbreviation "RFID" was granted to Charles Walton. 1997 - Early form patented and first used in Star Wars character toys for Hasbro.
The patent was held by Andrew White and Marc Borrett at Innovision Research and Technology. The device allowed data communication between two units in close proximity. 2002 - Sony and Philips agreed to establish a technology specification and created a technical outline on March 25, 2002. 2003 - NFC was approved as an ISO/IEC standard on December 8, as an ECMA standard. 2004 - Nokia and Sony established the NFC Forum 2004 - Nokia launch NFC shell add-on for Nokia 5140 and Nokia 3220 models, to be shipped in 2005. 2006 - Initial specifications for NFC Tags 2006 - Specification for "SmartPoster" records 2007 - Innovision’s NFC tags used in the first consumer trial in the UK, in the Nokia 6131 handset. 2009 - In January, NFC Forum released Peer-to-Peer standards to transfer contacts, URLs, initiate Bluetooth, etc. 2010 - Innovision released a suite of designs and patents for low cost, mass-market mobile phones and other devices. 2010 - Nokia C7: First Symbian NFC phone announced. NFC feature was enabled by software update in 2011.
2010 - Samsung Nexus S: First Android NFC phone shown 2010 - Nice, France launches the "Nice City of contactless mobile" project, providing inhabitants with NFC mobile phones and bank cards, a "bouquet of services" covering transportation and student's services 2011 - Tapit Media launches in Sydney, Australia as the
IPad is a line of tablet computers designed and marketed by Apple Inc. which run the iOS mobile operating system. The first iPad was released on April 3, 2010; as of May 2017, Apple has sold more than 360 million iPads, though sales peaked in 2013. It is the most popular tablet computer by sales as of the second quarter of 2018; the user interface is built around the device's multi-touch screen, including a virtual keyboard. All iPads can connect via Wi-Fi. IPads can shoot video, take photos, play music, perform Internet functions such as web-browsing and emailing. Other functions – games, reference, GPS navigation, social networking, etc. – can be enabled by downloading and installing apps. As of March 2016, the App Store has more than million apps for the iPad by third parties. There have been eight versions of the iPad; the first generation established design precedents. The 2nd-generation iPad introduced a new thinner design, a dual-core Apple A5 processor, VGA front-facing and 720p rear-facing cameras designed for FaceTime video calling.
The third generation added a Retina Display, the new Apple A5X processor with a quad-core graphics processor, a 5-megapixel camera, HD 1080p video recording, voice dictation, 4G. The fourth generation added the Apple A6X processor and replaced the 30-pin connector with an all-digital Lightning connector; the iPad Air added the Apple A7 processor and the Apple M7 motion coprocessor, reduced the thickness for the first time since the iPad 2. The iPad Air 2 added the Apple A8X processor, the Apple M8 motion coprocessor, an 8-megapixel camera, the Touch ID fingerprint sensor; the iPad introduced in 2017 added the Apple A9 processor, while sacrificing some of the improvements the iPad Air 2 introduced in exchange for a lower launch price. There have been five versions of the iPad Mini; the first generation has similar internal specifications to the iPad 2 but uses the Lightning connector instead. The iPad Mini 2 added the Retina Display, the Apple A7 processor, the Apple M7 motion coprocessor matching the internal specifications of the iPad Air.
The iPad Mini 3 added the Touch ID fingerprint sensor. The iPad Mini 4 features the Apple M8 motion coprocessor; the 5th generation features the Apple A12 SoC. There have been three generations of the iPad Pro; the first generation came with 9.7" and 12.9" screen sizes, while the second came with 10.5" and 12.9" sizes, the third with 11" and 12.9" sizes. The iPad Pros have unique features such as the Smart Connector, which are exclusive to this series of iPads. Apple co-founder Steve Jobs said in a 1983 speech that the company's strategy was simple: "What we want to do is we want to put an great computer in a book that you can carry around with you and learn how to use in 20 minutes... and we want to do it with a radio link in it so you don't have to hook up to anything and you're in communication with all of these larger databases and other computers." Apple's first tablet computer was the Newton MessagePad 100, introduced in 1993, powered by an ARM6 processor core developed by ARM, a 1990 spinout of Acorn Computers in which Apple invested.
Apple developed a prototype PowerBook Duo based tablet, the PenLite, but decided not to sell it in order to avoid hurting MessagePad sales. Apple released several more Newton-based PDAs. Apple re-entered the mobile-computing markets in 2007 with the iPhone. Smaller than the iPad, but featuring a camera and mobile phone, it pioneered the multi-touch finger-sensitive touchscreen interface of Apple's iOS mobile operating system. By late 2009, the iPad's release had been rumored for several years; such speculation talked about "Apple's tablet". The iPad was announced on January 27, 2010, by Steve Jobs at an Apple press conference at the Yerba Buena Center for the Arts in San Francisco. Jobs said that Apple had begun developing the iPad before the iPhone. Jonathan Ive in 1991 had created an industrial design for a stylus-based tablet, the Macintosh Folio, as his first project for Apple. Ive stated that after seeking to produce the tablet first, he came to agree with Jobs that the phone was more important, as the tablet's innovations would work as well in it.
The iPad's internal codename was K48, revealed in the court case surrounding leaking of iPad information before launch. Apple began taking pre-orders for the first-generation iPad on March 12, 2010; the only major change to the device between its announcement and being available to pre-order was the change of the behavior of the side switch to perform either sound muting or screen rotation locking. The Wi-Fi version of the iPad went on sale in the United States on April 3, 2010; the Wi-Fi + 3G version was released on April 30. 3G service in the United States is provided by AT&T and was sold with two prepaid contract-free data plan options: one for unlimited data and the other for 250 MB per month at half the price. On June 2, 2010, AT&T announced that effective June 7 the unlimited plan would be replaced for new
IOS 12 is the twelfth and current major release of the iOS mobile operating system developed by Apple Inc. being the successor to iOS 11. It was announced at the company's Worldwide Developers Conference on June 4, 2018, it is similar in aesthetics to iOS 11 but contains numerous performance and battery life improvements and security updates, in addition to added functionalities within native applications. It was released to the public on September 17, 2018. IOS 12 was introduced by Craig Federighi at the Apple Worldwide Developers Conference keynote address on June 4, 2018; the first developer beta version was released after the keynote presentation, with the first public beta releasing three weeks after on June 25, 2018. IOS 12.0.1 was released on October 8, 2018, as the first update to iOS 12. IOS 12.1 was released on October 30, 2018. The update included new emoji, the Group FaceTime feature, L3/R3 button support for MFi controllers, updates to the Measure app, the ability to use an eSIM on the iPhone XS Max, iPhone XS, iPhone XR. iOS 12.1.1 was released on December 5, 2018.
IOS 12.1.2 was released on December 17, 2018, is an iPhone-only update. IPads and the 6th generation iPod touch continued to use iOS 12.1.1. IOS 12.1.3 was released on January 22, 2019, featured important bug fixes patching all known kernel exploits. IOS 12.1.4 was released on February 7, 2019, featured an important bug fix concerning Group FaceTime. IOS 12.2 was contained an updated News app and 51 security fixes. This update patched the hyphen bug and added support for the 2nd Generation AirPods. Performance optimizations were made in order to speed up common tasks across all supported iOS devices. Tests done by Apple on an iPhone 6 Plus showed apps launching 40 percent faster, the system keyboard activating 50 percent faster, the camera opening 70 percent faster. Screen Time is a new feature in iOS 12; the feature displays the amount of time the user used particular apps, the amount of time the user used particular categories of apps, the number of notifications the user received. Screen Time provides blocking features to limit usage of apps or set other restrictions such as on purchases or explicit content.
It replaces Parental Controls in the iOS Settings app, but can be used by adults to limit their own usage. These features can be used without a passcode. Without setting a passcode, the limits can be bypassed but may serve as a useful reminder of usage goals. A dedicated application in iOS 12 allows users to set up Shortcuts, automated actions that the user can ask Siri to perform, it replaces the Workflow app that Apple acquired in March 2017. ARKit now allows users to share their view with other iOS 12-supported devices. ARKit 2 additionally allows full 2D image tracking and incorporates the ability to detect 3D objects. CarPlay can now run third-party navigation applications; the Voice Memos and Stocks apps are now available for iPads. Control Center is separated from the app switcher on iPad and can be opened with a swipe down on the top right corner. In addition, iPhone X-style gestures are introduced across all iPads running iOS 12. In iOS 12, the trackpad mode is enabled by long-pressing the space bar on devices without 3D Touch.
For devices with gesture navigation and no home button, users can now force quit applications by swiping up from the bottom of the screen. Messages in iOS 12 introduces a new type of customizable Animoji called "Memoji" which allows a user to create a 3D character of themselves. Apple introduced Koala, Ghost and T-Rex Animojis. In addition, Apple added new text and GIF effects similar to those found on other social media applications. FaceTime gains support for Animoji and Memoji, as well as new text and GIF effects similar to those found on other social media applications and in the Messages application.iOS 12.1, released on October 30, 2018, adds the ability to include up to 32 people in a FaceTime conversation. This feature is only supported with video by devices with the Apple Apple A9 chip or later. Group FaceTime was disabled on January 28, 2019 due to a software bug that allowed calls to be answered by the caller rather the recipient, allowing video and audio to transmitted unless the call was declined.
The functionality was restored on February 7, 2019 with the release of iOS 12.1.4. Group FaceTime remains disabled on devices running earlier versions of iOS 12. Measure is a new native AR application, it works as a level, a feature, packaged as part of the Compass app. Apple Photos has been redesigned with four new tabs, including "Photos", "For You", "Albums", "Search"; the new "For You" tab replaces the "Memories" tab found in iOS 11 and makes sharing recommendations, creates short length video collages, photo editing suggestions, as well as featured photos from a specific day. While the "Photos" and "Albums" tabs received only a few cosmetic changes, the "Search" tab includes new Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning features which show the user photos by place and categories. Notifications are now grouped by application and have a "manage" button to turn off notifications for that app or to deliver them right from the notification center without having to go into the Settings application.