Apple I

The Apple Computer 1 released as the Apple Computer known as the Apple I, or Apple-1, is a desktop computer released by the Apple Computer Company in 1976. It was hand-built by Steve Wozniak; the idea of selling the computer came from Wozniak's friend Steve Jobs. The Apple I was Apple's first product, to finance its creation, Jobs sold his only motorized means of transportation, a VW Microbus, for a few hundred dollars, Wozniak sold his HP-65 calculator for $500. Wozniak demonstrated the first prototype in July 1976 at the Homebrew Computer Club in Palo Alto, California. Production was discontinued on September 30, 1977, after the June 10, 1977 introduction of its successor, the Apple II, which Byte magazine referred to as part of the "1977 Trinity" of personal computing. On March 5, 1975, Steve Wozniak attended the first meeting of the Homebrew Computer Club in Gordon French's garage, he was so inspired that he set to work on what would become the Apple I computer. After building it for himself and showing it at the Club, he and Steve Jobs gave out schematics for the computer to interested club members and helped some of them build and test out copies.

Steve Jobs suggested that they design and sell a single etched and silkscreened circuit board—just the bare board, with no electronic parts—that people could use to build the computers. Wozniak calculated that having the board design laid out would cost $1,000 and manufacturing would cost another $20 per board. To fund this small venture—their first company—Jobs sold his van and Wozniak sold his HP-65 calculator. Soon after, Steve Jobs arranged to sell "something like 50" built computers to the Byte Shop at $500 each. To fulfill the $25,000 order, they obtained $20,000 in parts at 30 days net and delivered the finished product in 10 days; the Apple I went on sale in July 1976 at a price of US$666.66, because Wozniak "liked repeating digits" and because of a one-third markup on the $500 wholesale price. The first unit produced was used in a high school math class, donated to Liza Loop's public-access computer center. About 200 units were produced, all but 25 were sold within nine or ten months.

The Apple I's built-in computer terminal circuitry was distinctive. All one needed was a television set. Competing machines such as the Altair 8800 were programmed with front-mounted toggle switches and used indicator lights for output, had to be extended with separate hardware to allow connection to a computer terminal or a teletypewriter machine; this made the Apple I an innovative machine for its day. In April 1977, the price was dropped to $475, it continued to be sold through August 1977, despite the introduction of the Apple II in April 1977, which began shipping in June of that year. In October 1977, the Apple I was discontinued and removed from Apple's price list; as Wozniak was the only person who could answer most customer support questions about the computer, the company offered Apple I owners discounts and trade-ins for Apple IIs to persuade them to return their computers. These recovered boards were destroyed by Apple, contributing to their rarity today; as of 2013, sixty-three Apple I computers have been confirmed to exist.

Only six have been verified to be in working condition. An Apple I sold for US$50,000 at auction in 1999. In 2008, the website Vintage Computing and Gaming reported that Apple I owner Rick Conte was looking to sell his unit and was "expecting a price in excess of $15,000 U. S." The site reported Conte had donated the unit to the Maine Personal Computer Museum in 2009. A unit was sold in September 2009 for $17,480 on eBay. A unit belonging to early Apple Computer engineers Dick and Cliff Huston was sold on March 23, 2010, for $42,766 on eBay. In November 2010, an Apple I sold for £133,250 at Christie's auction house in London; the high price was due to the rare documents and packaging offered in the sale in addition to the computer, including the original packaging, a typed and signed letter from Jobs, the original invoice showing "Steven" as the salesman. The computer was brought to Polytechnic University of Turin where it was fixed and used to run the BASIC programming language. On June 15, 2012, a working Apple I was sold at auction by Sotheby's for a then-record $374,500, more than double the expected price.

This unit is on display at the Nexon Computer Museum in South Korea. In October 2012, a non-working Apple I from the estate of former Apple Computer employee Joe Copson was put up for auction by Christie's, but found no bidder, willing to pay the starting price of US$80,000. Copson's board had been listed on eBay in December 2011, with a starting bid of $170,000 and failed to sell. Following the Christie's auction, the board was restored to working condition by computer historian Corey Cohen. Copson's Apple I was once again listed on eBay, where it sold for US$236,100.03 on April 23, 2015. On November 24, 2012, a working Apple I was sold at auction by Auction Team Breker for €400,000. On May 25, 2013, a functioning 1976 model was sold for a then-record €516,000 in Cologne. Auction Team Breker said "an unnamed Asian client" bought the Apple I; this particular unit has Wozniak's signatur

Norris Goff

Norris Goff was an American comedian in radio and film best known for his portrayal of Abner Peabody on the rural comedy Lum and Abner. Nicknamed "Tuffy," Goff was born in Cove, but soon moved to Mena, Arkansas where he met his longtime friend and partner Chester Lauck and graduating from Mena High School in 1924. Despite their fame as backwoodsmen, both actors graduated from the University of Arkansas, where Goff became a member of the Sigma Chi fraternity. Goff and his partner had experience as blackface entertainers, but had worked up a hillbilly skit based on their own life experiences and friends. Performing on local radio, they soon landed their own network series in 1931. In addition to playing the role of the likable but naive, checker-playing Abner, Goff co-wrote the earliest episodes with Lauck, played many of the other recurring characters, including postmaster Dick Huddleston, con-man Squire Skimp, Mousy Gray, in the sentimental annual Christmas show, Doc Miller. Goff and Lauck guest starred as Lum and Abner on radio series such as Bing Crosby's Kraft Music Hall.

Goff reprised his role as Abner for seven films between 1940 and 1956. Unlike Lauck, who retired outside of playing Lum, Goff continued to make occasional guest appearances on television in the 1960s. Goff appeared in one episode apiece of two situation comedies with rural themes: Gomer Pyle, U. S. M. C. and The Andy Griffith Show. Upon retirement he lived in California, he died of a stroke at the age of 72 in California. Norris Goff on IMDb


Vidoop LLC was a held company based in Portland, Oregon. Its flagship product was Vidoop Secure, a login solution designed to function without traditional passwords, which Vidoop claimed was resistant to brute force, keystroke logging and some man-in-the-middle attacks. On 30 May 2009, Vidoop announced. Vidoop was founded in 2006 in Oklahoma; as of March 2006 it had 4 employees and would reveal only that it was developing a novel login solution that hides an access code in plain sight. After over a year of secretive development and testing, the company launched its product, Vidoop Secure, at the Web 2.0 Expo in San Francisco, California on 2007-04-17. Luke Sontag, a co-founder, gave a presentation at the expo demonstrating the technology and further announced that an unnamed Fortune 500 company would be replacing its login system with Vidoop by July 2007. Vidoop's core technology is the Vidoop Dynamic Image Grid, a login tool that powers Vidoop Secure and thus The company sells advertising space, allowing a company to place its products as images in the grid.

There are two multi-national advertisers: Smart USA and ConocoPhillips. One regional advertiser: Mazzio's, and one local advertiser: Jackie Cooper Imports. Vidoop Secure is a user login technology based on categorized images; when a user enrolls in a system implementing the technology, he chooses from several categories of images. Furthermore, the user's computer is "activated" with a cookie, only provided upon the user's confirmation of a code transmitted either by email or by phone via voice or text message. At the time of login, if the cookie is found, a grid of images is displayed that includes pictures belonging to the user's chosen categories; the user selects these images by typing the randomized letter associated with each of his images, forming his access code. is an OpenID provider powered by Vidoop Secure. As an OpenID provider, is part of the movement that aims to provide a decentralized framework for a web single sign-on. Vidoop has met with criticism regarding the claims of their technology's resistance to hacking.

For example, researchers at CommerceNet have described a possible attack, published a video of a man-in-the-middle attack executed against, both on the CommerceNet weblog. Additionally, questions have been raised about the accessibility of Vidoop Secure to those with visual impairments. Vidoop's authentication scheme consists of a short secret and a "pre-authorization" cookie. A users' shared secret is a set of 3-5 categories out of a possible 12, only 8-10 bits of entropy. Vidoop allows users to enter in their categories in at least two possible orders, reducing the effective secret by a bit. An attacker in possession of the pre-authorization cookie could guess 1-2% of passwords in the three given trials. CAPTCHA Two-factor authentication OpenID Vidoop LLC website Video of a MITM attack against