The Apple II series is a family of home computers, one of the first successful mass-produced microcomputer products, designed by Steve Wozniak, manufactured by Apple Computer, launched in 1977 with the original Apple II. In terms of ease of use and expandability, the Apple II was a major advancement over its predecessor, the Apple I, a limited-production bare circuit board computer for electronics hobbyists. Through 1988, a number of models were introduced, with the most popular, the Apple IIe, remaining changed little into the 1990s. A 16-bit model with much more advanced graphics and sound, the Apple IIGS, was added in 1986. While compatible with earlier Apple II systems, the IIGS was in closer competition with the Atari ST and Amiga; the Apple II was first sold on June 10, 1977. By the end of production in 1993, somewhere between five and six million Apple II series computers had been produced; the Apple II was one of the longest running mass-produced home computer series, with models in production for just under 17 years.
The Apple II became one of several recognizable and successful computers during the 1980s and early 1990s, although this was limited to the USA. It was aggressively marketed through volume discounts and manufacturing arrangements to educational institutions, which made it the first computer in widespread use in American secondary schools, displacing the early leader Commodore PET; the effort to develop educational and business software for the Apple II, including the 1979 release of the popular VisiCalc spreadsheet, made the computer popular with business users and families. The original Apple II operating system was in ROM along with Integer BASIC. Programs were entered saved and loaded on cassette tape; when the Disk II was implemented in 1978 by Steve Wozniak, a Disk Operating System or DOS was commissioned from the company Shepardson Microsystems where its development was done by Paul Laughton. The final and most popular version of this software was Apple DOS 3.3. Some commercial Apple II software did not use standard DOS formats.
This discouraged the modifying of the software on the disks and improved loading speed. Apple DOS was superseded by ProDOS, which supported a hierarchical filesystem and larger storage devices. With an optional third-party Z80-based expansion card, the Apple II could boot into the CP/M operating system and run WordStar, dBase II, other CP/M software. With the release of MousePaint in 1984 and the Apple IIGS in 1986, the platform took on the look of the Macintosh user interface, including a mouse. Despite the introduction of the Motorola 68000-based Macintosh in 1984, the Apple II series still accounted for 85% of the company's hardware sales in the first quarter of fiscal 1985. Apple continued to sell Apple II systems alongside the Macintosh until terminating the IIGS in December 1992 and the IIe in November 1993; the last II-series Apple in production, the IIe card for Macintoshes, was discontinued on October 15, 1993. The total Apple II sales of all of its models during its 16-year production run were about 6 million units, with the peak occurring in 1983 when 1 million were sold.
The Apple II was designed to look more like a home appliance than a piece of electronic equipment. The lid popped off the beige plastic case without the use of tools, allowing access to the computer's internals, including the motherboard with eight expansion slots, an array of random access memory sockets that could hold up to 48 kilobytes worth of memory chips; the Apple II had color and high-resolution graphics modes, sound capabilities and one of two built-in BASIC programming languages. The Apple II was targeted for the masses rather than just engineers. Unlike preceding home microcomputers, it was sold as a finished consumer appliance rather than as a kit. VanLOVEs Apple Handbook and The Apple Educators Guide by Gerald VanDiver and Rolland Love reviewed more than 1,500 software programs that the Apple II series could use; the Apple dealer network used this book to emphasize the growing software developer base in education and personal use. The Apple II series had a keyboard built into the motherboard shell, with the exception of the Apple IIGS which featured an external keyboard.
The Apple II case was durable enough, according to a 1981 Apple ad, to protect an Apple II from a fire started when a cat belonging to one early user knocked over a lamp. Early II-series models were designated "Apple ]["; the first Apple II computers went on sale on June 10, 1977 with a MOS Technology 6502 microprocessor running at 1.023 MHz, 4 KB of RAM, an audio cassette interface for loading programs and storing data, the Integer BASIC programming language built into the ROMs. The video controller displayed 40 columns by 24 lines of monochrome, upper-case-only text on the screen, with NTSC composite video output suitable for display on a TV monitor, or on a regular TV set by way of a separate RF modulator; the original retail price of the computer was US$1298 and US$2638. To reflect the computer's color graphics capability, the Apple logo on the casing was represented using rainbow stripes, which remained a part of Apple's corporate logo until early 1998; the earliest Apple IIs were assembled in Silicon Valley, in Texas.
India At Home is a family-owned supermarket chain based in Melbourne with retail stores across different suburbs around Melbourne, Victoria selling a wide range of Indian groceries. The company, founded by Rajesh Bhatia in the year 2005, has over 6 retail stores across Melbourne, Victoria and as well as an online grocery store; the company opened its first retail store in Dandenong in August of 2006. As of November 2019, India At Home has more than 6 retail stores being operated either under their own management in Boxhill, Narrewarren and other suburbs of Victoria. India At Home operates many stores under franchise model. In 2014, the company started providing franchise for its retail stores to local entrepreneurs. Participation in IndusFood 2020 India At Home, along with many other retail brands, is expected to participate in the — the flagship global trade show organised by Trade Promotion Council of India — an apex trade and investment promotion organization notified in the Foreign Trade Policy, supported by the Department of Commerce, Government of India
Mona Lisa is an EP by South Korean boy band MBLAQ. The album was released online on July 12 and physically on July 15; the online pre-orders started in July 8, 2011. The album consists of six new tracks, the title track called Mona Lisa is a Spanish electronic dance track; the concept features the members parodying famous historical figures. O chose James Dean, Joon chose Zorro, Thunder chose Boy George, Mir chose The Beatles; the group started promoting the title track "Mona Lisa" starting July 14 on TV music shows such as Mnet's M! Countdown; the song "I Think You Know" was used for the comeback. They finished promoting the song on August 28 and followed with the song "I Don't Know" on September 1; the promotions of the song and the EP ended on September 11. All the songs were written by Rado, Ji-in, Won-taek & DoK2, composed by Rado, Ji-in & Won-taek and arranged by Rado. MBLAQ's Official Site
William Harmatz was an American Thoroughbred horse racing jockey who won the 1959 Preakness Stakes aboard Royal Orbit. The recipient of the George Woolf Memorial Jockey Award in 1960, given to a jockey who demonstrates high standards of personal and professional conduct, on and off the racetrack, Harmatz was Jewish, was inducted in the International Jewish Sports Hall of Fame in 1999. Born in Wilkes-Barre, Harmatz was reported in the media as "Willie", "Bill" and by people who knew him, as "Billy", he was still a child when his family relocated to Boyle Heights in East Los Angeles, California where he was a star gymnast at Theodore Roosevelt High School. As a teenager, he began exercising Thoroughbred racehorses which would lead to a professional riding career beginning in 1953 at the Agua Caliente Racetrack in Tijuana, Mexico; the following year, on April 1954, he had six consecutive wins at Bay Meadows Racetrack. In 1957, he was part of a rare triple dead heat at Hollywood Park Racetrack with fellow jockeys George Taniguchi and Bill Shoemaker.
Harmatz appeared as the character Nick Pressy in a 1971 episode of the television series Mission: Impossible titled Run for the Money. In 1974 he made another television appearance as the character Tim Diamond in an episode of Banacek titled Horse of a Slightly Different Color. After retiring from racing in 1971, Harmatz became a successful and community-minded businessman who operated Vista Entertainment Center in Vista, California. Married to wife Connie for fifty-nine years, they were parents of one son. William Harmatz died at age seventy-nine in 2011 at his home in Vista, California
Hercules Pieterszoon Seghers or Segers was a Dutch painter and printmaker of the Dutch Golden Age. He has been called "the most inspired and original landscapist" of his period and an more innovative printmaker. Hercules was born in Haarlem, as the son of a Mennonite cloth merchant from Flanders, who moved to Amsterdam in 1596. There Hercules was apprenticed to the leading Flemish landscapist of the day Gillis van Coninxloo, but his apprenticeship was cut short by Coninxloo's death in 1606. Seghers and his father bought a number of his works at the auction of the studio contents, as Pieter Lastman did. Seghers' father died in 1612, after which he returned to Haarlem, joining the Haarlem Guild of St. Luke, he returned to Amsterdam in 1614 to obtain custody of an illegitimate daughter, the following year married Anneke van der Brugghen from Antwerp, sixteen years older than he was. In 1620 he bought a large house in the Jordaan on the Lindengracht for about 4,000 guilders, but by the late 1620s he was in debt, in 1631 had to sell it.
From his studio at the top of the house, pulled down in 1912, he had a view on the finished Noorderkerk, on one of his etchings. In the same year he started to sell art. In 1633 he moved to the Hague, he appears to have died by 1638, when a Cornelia de Witte is mentioned as widow of a "Hercules Pieterz.". Like much of the detailed documentation of Segher's life, this link depends on the assumed rarity of his first name; some sources said that Segers took to drink towards the end of his life and died after falling down the stairs. His posthumous reputation was boosted by the Inleyding tot de hooge schoole der schilderkonst of Samuel van Hoogstraten which presented him rather as a Romantic genius avant la lettre, lonely and misunderstood, based on his etchings, he is known for his innovative etchings of landscapes, which were printed on coloured paper or cloth, with coloured ink, hand-coloured and hand-cropped to different sizes. He made use of drypoint and a form of aquatint as well as other effects, such as running coarse cloth through the press with the print, for a mottled effect.
Altogether only 183 known impressions survive from all his fifty-four plates and most are now in museums. Rembrandt collected both paintings and prints by Seghers, acquired one of his original plates and the Angel, which he reworked into his own Flight into Egypt, keeping much of the landscape. Rembrandt reworked the Seghers painting Mountain Landscape, now in the Uffizi, his landscape style shows some influence from Seghers. Although the dating of his prints remains unclear, his Town with four towers is believed both to be one of the prints and, by comparison with paintings, to date from around 1631. Given the small number of surviving impressions, it is unlikely that prints were a major source of income for him, his Pile of books is an unusual still-life subject for a 17th-century print. He seems to have invented the "sugar-bite" aquatint technique, rediscovered in England over a century by Alexander Cozens. Hercules Seghers was best known to his contemporaries for his paintings of landscapes and still-life subjects such as The River Valley.
The Stadholder, Frederick Henry, Prince of Orange bought landscapes in 1632. Many of his painted landscapes are fantastic mountainous compositions, whereas in his prints it is the technical approach rather than the subject, extreme. Seghers painted landscapes tend to show a wide horizontal view, with emphasis on earth rather than sky. Apart from Coninxloo, Seghers drew from the Flemish landscape tradition especially Joos de Momper and Roelandt Savery, but the "fantastic and visionary aspects of Mannerist" landscape painting; the 1680 inventory of the collection of the marine painter Jan van de Cappelle, who owned five paintings by Seghers, describes one as a view of Brussels, which if correct would mean Seghers traveled there when young, when his style shows most Flemish influence. George S. Keyes in: K. L. Spangenberg, Six Centuries of Master Prints, Cincinnati Art Museum, 1993, no.s 75 & 76, ISBN 0-931537-15-0 Under the spell of Hercules Segers. Amsterdam: WBOOKS. 2016. ISBN 978-94-625-8173-9.
Images of many prints of Seghers in the Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam Hercules Seghers. Pictures and BiographyEtchings: Town with four towers from Cincinnati NGA Washington, Ruins of the Abbey of Rijnsburg: Small Version Cleveland Enclosed Valley Paintings: Seghers- "Bergachtig Landschap".jpg The Bredius Museum Mountainous Landscape This is the Seghers painting, destroyed by the fire in the Armando Museum in Amersfoort on October 22, 2007. Extensive landscape with armed men Museo Thyssen-Bornemisza, Madrid
Agostino Brunias was a London-based Italian painter from Rome. Associated with West Indian art, he left England at the height of his career to chronicle Dominica and the neighboring islands of the West Indies. Painted in the tradition of vérité ethnographique, his art was as escapist. Brunias was born in Rome c. 1730. His first name has been spelled in various ways including Abraham, August, or Austin, while his surname has been recorded as Brunais and Brunyas. Brunias was a student at the Accademia di San Luca, where he won Third Prize in the Second Class for painting in 1754. An early oil painting of his was exhibited in Rome two years earlier. After Brunais met the Scottish architect Robert Adam, on a Grand Tour of Europe, he studied the "magnificent ruins of Italy" between 1756 and 1758, he became employed as a draughtsman by Adam, joining him in England in 1758, painted many of Adam's architecturally elegant buildings in England. Adam, praising his works, called Brunias a "bred painter", his paintings of murals and paintings covered the interior walls of many English stately homes.
By 1762, Brunias resided in Carnaby Market, London. In 1763 and 1764, he exhibited at the Free Society of Artists in London. In 1770, he left London at the height of his career, he traveled with Sir William Young, 1st Baronet, the first British Governor of Dominica one of Britain's newest colonies in the Lesser Antilles, settled in Roseau. Brunias submitted two of his drawings in that year to the Society of Artists' exhibition from the West Indies. Young had hired him as his personal painter and Brunias accompanied him on his travels in the Lesser Antilles, he was hired by wealthy British estate owners to paint people the mulatto, the mixture of European and Creole races. His paintings of Dominica, St. Vincent, St. Kitts, Barbados provide a valuable insight into life on these islands during the colonial period. One of his works, Free Women of Color with their Children and Servants in a Landscape, an oil painting on canvas, depicts colonial women of color as privileged and prosperous, is now in the Brooklyn Museum.
It depicts the influence of a diverse European and African cultures prevalent in the 18th century Caribbean. Toussaint Louverture liberator of Haiti and one of Brunias' supporters, wore eighteen buttons on his waistcoat decorated with reproductions of Brunias' paintings, but in the British colonial society on St. Vincent and the other ceded islands, Brunias was an outsider. In addition, his status as a draughtsman placed him on a low social level in terms of occupation. After returning to England in 1773, Brunias visited the European continent. In the late 1770s, three paintings were shown at the Royal Academy, he followed this accomplishment by publishing a series of six of his West Indian paintings. At Stowe House he created wall paintings of "Caribbean aborigines" in its Ante Library. After these paintings were published in 1779 and 1780, Brunias oversaw engraved editions. Eighteen paintings of Brunias depicting Caribbean natives, known collectively as "West Indian Scenes," were worn on the sash of Toussaint Louverture during the Haitian Revolution.
Although Brunias was commissioned to depict upper-class plantation life, his works assumed what was considered to be a subversive political role in the Caribbean, endorsing a free, anti-slavery society, exposing the artificiality of racial hierarchies in the West Indies. He was adept at painting Negro festivals, dances and other related cultural traditions and producing paintings showing interaction between the natives and the wealthy colonial settlers. Considered to be in the tradition of verité ethnographique, his art was as escapist as it was romantic. A prolific artist, Brunias' collected works show him to be predominantly a figure painter who concentrated on the new culture of the mulatto in the West Indies by creating romanticized images depicting communities of color that obscured the realities of colonial domination and plantation slavery. Brunias resided in Dominica, he was known to have lived in St. Vincent, he spent time on Barbados, Grenada, St. Kitts, Tobago. Mention is made that he sired a family while in Dominica, where he died on April 2, 1796, was buried in the Catholic cemetery on the site of Roseau Cathedral.