A web browser is a software application for accessing information on the World Wide Web. Each individual web page and video is identified by a distinct Uniform Resource Locator, enabling browsers to retrieve these resources from a web server and display them on the user's device. A web browser is not the same thing as a search engine, though the two are confused. For a user, a search engine is just a website, such as google.com, that stores searchable data about other websites. But to connect to a website's server and display its web pages, a user needs to have a web browser installed on their device; the most popular browsers are Chrome, Safari, Internet Explorer, Edge. The first web browser, called WorldWideWeb, was invented in 1990 by Sir Tim Berners-Lee, he recruited Nicola Pellow to write the Line Mode Browser, which displayed web pages on dumb terminals. 1993 was a landmark year with the release of Mosaic, credited as "the world's first popular browser". Its innovative graphical interface made the World Wide Web system easy to use and thus more accessible to the average person.
This, in turn, sparked the Internet boom of the 1990s when the Web grew at a rapid rate. Marc Andreessen, the leader of the Mosaic team, soon started his own company, which released the Mosaic-influenced Netscape Navigator in 1994. Navigator became the most popular browser. Microsoft debuted Internet Explorer in 1995. Microsoft was able to gain a dominant position for two reasons: it bundled Internet Explorer with its popular Microsoft Windows operating system and did so as freeware with no restrictions on usage; the market share of Internet Explorer peaked at over 95% in 2002. In 1998, desperate to remain competitive, Netscape launched what would become the Mozilla Foundation to create a new browser using the open source software model; this work evolved into Firefox, first released by Mozilla in 2004. Firefox reached a 28% market share in 2011. Apple released its Safari browser in 2003, it remains the dominant browser on Apple platforms. The last major entrant to the browser market was Google, its Chrome browser, which debuted in 2008, has been a huge success.
Once a web page has been retrieved, the browser's rendering engine displays it on the user's device. This includes video formats supported by the browser. Web pages contain hyperlinks to other pages and resources; each link contains a URL, when it is clicked, the browser navigates to the new resource. Thus the process of bringing content to the user begins again. To implement all of this, modern browsers are a combination of numerous software components. Web browsers can be configured with a built-in menu. Depending on the browser, the menu may be named Options, or Preferences; the menu has different types of settings. For example, users can change their home default search engine, they can change default web page colors and fonts. Various network connectivity and privacy settings are usually available. During the course of browsing, cookies received from various websites are stored by the browser; some of them contain login credentials or site preferences. However, others are used for tracking user behavior over long periods of time, so browsers provide settings for removing cookies when exiting the browser.
Finer-grained management of cookies requires a browser extension. The most popular browsers have a number of features in common, they allow users to browse in a private mode. They can be customized with extensions, some of them provide a sync service. Most browsers have these user interface features: Allow the user to open multiple pages at the same time, either in different browser windows or in different tabs of the same window. Back and forward buttons to go back to the previous page forward to the next one. A refresh or reload button to reload the current page. A stop button to cancel loading the page. A home button to return to the user's home page. An address bar to display it. A search bar to input terms into a search engine. There are niche browsers with distinct features. One example is text-only browsers that can benefit people with slow Internet connections or those with visual impairments. Mobile browser List of web browsers Comparison of web browsers Media related to Web browsers at Wikimedia Commons
Loyalty programs are structured marketing strategies designed by merchants to encourage customers to continue to shop at or use the services of businesses associated with each program. These programs exist covering most types of commerce, each one having varying features and rewards-schemes. In marketing and in banking, hospitality and travel more a loyalty card, rewards card, points card, advantage card, club card is a plastic or paper card, visually similar to a credit card, debit card, or digital card that identifies the card holder as a participant in a loyalty program. Loyalty cards relate to the loyalty business-model. Cards have a barcode or magstripe that can be scanned, although some are chip cards or proximity cards. By presenting such a card, purchasers receive either a discount on the current purchase, or to an allotment of points that they can use for future purchases. Hence, the card is the visible means of implementing a type of what economists call a two-part tariff. Application forms for cards entail agreements by the store concerning customer privacy non-disclosure of non-aggregate data about customers.
The store uses aggregate data internally as part of its marketing research. Over time the data can reveal, for example, a given customer's favorite brand of beer, or whether he or she is a vegetarian. Where a customer has provided sufficient identifying information, the loyalty card may be used to access such information to expedite verification during receipt of cheques or dispensing medical prescription preparations, or for other membership privileges such as access to an airport lounge using a frequent-flyer card. All major casino chains have loyalty cards, which offer members tier credits, reward credits and other perqs based on card members' "theo" from gambling, various demographic data, spend patterns on various purchases at the casino, within the casino network, with the casino's partners. Examples of such programs include MGM Resorts International's Mlife. Loyalty programs have been described as a form of centralized virtual currency, one with unidirectioal cash flow, since reward points can be exchanged into a good or service but not into cash.
For information on historical loyalty programs, see Loyalty marketing history. The Social Credit System is a loyalty program operated by the state and private businesses. Individuals with high social credit scores can get faster internet, use high speed trains, take mainland flights. Hong Kong offers many loyalty programs, they include Octopus Rewards, operated by Octopus Cards Limited, which allows Octopus card users to earn points in certain shops, including McDonald's fast food outlets and Wellcome supermarkets. The MTR Corporation operates MTR Club for regular customers of its transport network. In terms of shopping or purchasing groceries, different chain stores under common ownership share the same loyalty program, such as A. S. Watson Group's Money Back, which can be used at Parknshop and Fortress stores, as well as the corporation's retail partners. PAYBACK India is India's largest coalition loyalty program, with over 50 million members, over 50 partners and 3000 network partner outlets.
German loyalty program operator Loyalty Partner took a controlling interest in i-mint in June 2010 and renamed the program PAYBACK India in July 2011. BPCL's PetroBonus fuel card program has 2 million members. Indian Oil's fleet card program XTRAPOWER and retail program XTRAREWARDS claim a combined customer base of 3 million; the first Iranian loyalty program launched in 1996 by Iran Credit Card Group Zarrin Card. East Credit Card Group Kish launched its loyalty program in 2005. Genting Highlands Resort has a loyalty card, WorldCard, used to gain points in Genting Highlands' Resorts and Attractions. However, it can be used for Starbucks, Coffee Bean and Häagen-Dazs and it is valid in three countries: Malaysia and Hong Kong. Loyalty program can build in term of app version, which use in Starbucks app, TK Bakery App, Loudspeaker App, AppPay. In the Philippines, several brands of establishments and stores offer membership cards that the card owner can use to earn points and redeem rewards; the gigantic shopping mall chain, SM Supermalls offers the SM Advantage Card or SMAC that can be used as a loyalty card that earns points as you shop and its partner bank, BDO Unibank offers BDO Rewards Card that functions the same as the SM Advantage Card.
Retailers accepting the card include: The SM Store, SM Supermarket, SM Hypermarket, ACE Hardware and Watsons Pharmacy. Another mall chain, Robinsons Malls has a program named Robinsons Rewards, it can be used when shopping in Robinsons Department Stores, Robinsons Supermarkets, Toys "R" Us branches in the Philippines. Jollibee, the fast food giant and its subsidiaries (Chowking, Greenwich Pizza, Red Ribbon launched the HappyPlus card, in which the cardholder can use the card to earn happy points and use the points to get a free food, it is planned to be used in Mang Inasal, the most recent member of the Jollibee Foods Corporation. The country's largest drug store, Mercury Drug introduced the Suki Card in which the membership is free but the applicant will need to purchase at least PhP 1000 worth of single or cumulative purchases. In Singapore, the three largest loyalty programs are Plus!, WorldCard and SAFRA Card. The Plus! LinkPoints Programme has over 600 participating merchant outlets. Loyalty programs are popular in Finland.
80% of people are in at least one loyalty program and over 50% are member of at least two
Engadget is a multilingual technology blog network with daily coverage of gadgets and consumer electronics. Engadget operates a total of ten blogs—four written in English and six international versions with independent editorial staff. Engadget has in the past ranked among the top five in the "Technorati top 100" and was noted in Time for being one of the best blogs of 2010, it has been operated by AOL since October 2005. Engadget was founded by co-founder, Peter Rojas. Engadget was the largest blog in Weblogs, Inc. a blog network with over 75 weblogs including Autoblog and Joystiq which included Hack-A-Day. Weblogs Inc. was purchased by AOL in 2005. Engadget's editor-in-chief, Ryan Block, announced on July 22, 2008, that he would be stepping down as editor-in-chief in late August, leaving the role to Joshua Topolsky. On March 12, 2011, Topolsky announced. Editorial Director Joshua Fruhlinger appointed Tim Stevens — profiled by Fortune on May 31, 2012—as the editor-in-chief. On February 13, 2013, AOL acquired gdgt, a device review website, created by Rojas and Block.
Overnight on July 15, 2013, Tim Stevens stepped down as the editor-in-chief, placing gdgt's Marc Perton as the interim executive editor. In November 2013, a major redesign was launched that merged gdgt's features into Engadget, such as database of devices and aggregated reviews; the changes aimed to turn Engadget into a more extensive consumer electronics resource to CNET and Consumer Reports, aimed towards "the early adopter in all of us". As of April 2014, Michael Gorman was tapped as the Editor-In-Chief alongside Christopher Trout as Executive Editor, with Perton leaving AOL to pursue other opportunities. On December 2, 2015, Engadget introduced another redesign, as well as a new editorial direction with a focus on broader topics influenced by technology. In September 2018, Dana Wollman was promoted to Editor-in-Chief of Engadget. Engadget operates a number of blogs spanning seven different languages including English, Japanese, Polish and German; the English edition of Engadget operates four blogs which, like the international editions, have been assimilated into a single site with a sub-domain prefix.
These include Engadget Mobile, Engadget HD and Engadget Alt. As of late 2013, these editions have been wrapped into Engadget Classic. In March 2014, a UK edition of Engadget launched to target the developing European tech market. Launched in March 2004, Engadget is updated multiple times a day with articles on gadgets and consumer electronics, it posts rumors about the technological world offers opinion within its stories, produces the weekly Engadget Podcast that covers tech and gadget news stories that happened during the week. Since its founding, dozens of writers have written for or contributed to Engadget, Engadget Alt, Engadget Mobile and Engadget HD, including high-profile bloggers, industry analysts, professional journalists; these writers include Jason Calacanis, Paul Boutin, Phillip Torrone, Joshua Fruhlinger and Susan Mernit. Darren Murph, has worked on the site as Managing Editor-at-Large, he has written over 17,212 posts as of October 5, 2010. Industry analyst Ross Rubin has contributed a weekly column called Switched On since October 2004.
Engadget uses proprietary AOL CMS to publish its content. The Engadget podcast was launched in October 2004 and was hosted by Phillip Torrone and Len Pryor. Torrone was the host for the first 22 episodes of the podcast. Eric Rice is known for his own podcast, called The Eric Rice Show and has produced podcasts for Weblogs, Inc.. Eric hosted and produced 4 episodes of the podcast for Engadget until the show was taken over by Peter Rojas and Ryan Block; the podcast was hosted by Editor-in-chief Joshua Topolsky along with editors Paul Miller and Nilay Patel with occasional special guests until their 2011 departure. The podcast was produced by Trent Wolbe under Topolsky's editorship and continued to be under Tim Stevens until December 2012; the topic of discussion for the podcast is technology-related and linked to events that have happened during the week in the world of technology. The show lasts an hour or more; the show is weekly, the frequency can change during special events. When events such as the Consumer Electronics Show and the Electronic Entertainment Expo occur, the podcast has been known to be broadcast daily.
The Engadget podcast is available as a subscription as an RSS feed. Alternatively, it can be downloaded directly from the site in Ogg, AAC or m4b format; the m4b version features images related to the current topic of discussion and can be displayed in iTunes or on a compatible player. Engadget started doing live podcasts broadcasting Thursday or Friday afternoons hosted by Ben Gilbert and Terrence O'Brien; the recorded podcast is available the day after. Engadget hosts weekly Mobile and HD-focused podcasts, with the former featuring Brad Molen, the latter is hosted by Ben Drawbaugh and Richard Lawler; as of June 27, 2014, all Engadget podcasts are on hiatus ac
QR code is the trademark for a type of matrix barcode first designed in 1994 for the automotive industry in Japan. A barcode is a machine-readable optical label that contains information about the item to which it is attached. In practice, QR codes contain data for a locator, identifier, or tracker that points to a website or application. A QR code uses four standardized encoding modes to store data efficiently; the Quick Response system became popular outside the automotive industry due to its fast readability and greater storage capacity compared to standard UPC barcodes. Applications include product tracking, item identification, time tracking, document management, general marketing. A QR code consists of black squares arranged in a square grid on a white background, which can be read by an imaging device such as a camera, processed using Reed–Solomon error correction until the image can be appropriately interpreted; the required data is extracted from patterns that are present in both horizontal and vertical components of the image.
The QR code system was invented in 1994 by the Japanese company Denso Wave. Its purpose was to track vehicles during manufacturing. QR codes are now used in a much broader context, including both commercial tracking applications and convenience-oriented applications aimed at mobile-phone users. QR codes may be used to display text to the user, to add a vCard contact to the user's device, to open a Uniform Resource Identifier, to connect to a wireless network, or to compose an email or text message. There are a great many QR code generators available as online tools; the QR code has become one of the most-used types of two-dimensional code. There are several standards that cover the encoding of data as QR codes: October 1997 – AIM International January 1999 – JIS X 0510 June 2000 – ISO/IEC 18004:2000 Information technology – Automatic identification and data capture techniques – Bar code symbology – QR code Defines QR code models 1 and 2 symbols. 1 September 2006 – ISO/IEC 18004:2006 Information technology – Automatic identification and data capture techniques – QR code 2005 bar code symbology specification Defines QR code 2005 symbols, an extension of QR code model 2.
Does not specify how to read QR code model 1 symbols, or require this for compliance. 1 February 2015 – ISO/IEC 18004:2015 Information – Automatic identification and data capture techniques – QR Code barcode symbology specification Renames the QR Code 2005 symbol to QR Code and adds clarification to some procedures and minor corrections. At the application layer, there is some variation between most of the implementations. Japan's NTT DoCoMo has established de facto standards for the encoding of URLs, contact information, several other data types; the open-source "ZXing" project maintains a list of QR code data types. QR codes have become common in consumer advertising. A smartphone is used as a QR code scanner, displaying the code and converting it to some useful form. QR code has become a focus of advertising strategy, since it provides a way to access a brand's website more than by manually entering a URL. Beyond mere convenience to the consumer, the importance of this capability is that it increases the conversion rate: the chance that contact with the advertisement will convert to a sale.
It coaxes interested prospects further down the conversion funnel with little delay or effort, bringing the viewer to the advertiser's website where a longer and more targeted sales pitch may lose the viewer's interest. Although used to track parts in vehicle manufacturing, QR codes are used over a much wider range of applications; these include commercial tracking and transport ticketing and loyalty marketing and in-store product labeling. Examples of marketing include where a company's discounted and percent discount can be captured using a QR code decoder, a mobile app, or storing a company's information such as address and related information alongside its alpha-numeric text data as can be seen in Yellow Pages directory, they can be used in storing personal information for use by organizations. An example of this is Philippines National Bureau of Investigation where NBI clearances now come with a QR code. Many of these applications target mobile-phone users. Users may receive text, add a vCard contact to their device, open a URI, or compose an e-mail or text message after scanning QR codes.
They can generate and print their own QR codes for others to scan and use by visiting one of several pay or free QR code-generating sites or apps. Google had an API, now deprecated, to generate QR codes, apps for scanning QR codes can be found on nearly all smartphone devices. QR codes storing addresses and URLs may appear in magazines, on signs, on buses, on business cards, or on any object about which users might want information. Users with a camera phone equipped with the correct reader application can scan the image of the QR code to display text, contact information, connect to a wireless network, or open a web page in the telephone's browser; this act of linking from physical world objects is termed object hyperlinking. QR codes may be linked to a location to track where a code has been scanned. Either the application that scans the QR code retrieves the geo information by using GPS and cell tower triangulation
An operating system is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs. Time-sharing operating systems schedule tasks for efficient use of the system and may include accounting software for cost allocation of processor time, mass storage and other resources. For hardware functions such as input and output and memory allocation, the operating system acts as an intermediary between programs and the computer hardware, although the application code is executed directly by the hardware and makes system calls to an OS function or is interrupted by it. Operating systems are found on many devices that contain a computer – from cellular phones and video game consoles to web servers and supercomputers; the dominant desktop operating system is Microsoft Windows with a market share of around 82.74%. MacOS by Apple Inc. is in second place, the varieties of Linux are collectively in third place. In the mobile sector, use in 2017 is up to 70% of Google's Android and according to third quarter 2016 data, Android on smartphones is dominant with 87.5 percent and a growth rate 10.3 percent per year, followed by Apple's iOS with 12.1 percent and a per year decrease in market share of 5.2 percent, while other operating systems amount to just 0.3 percent.
Linux distributions are dominant in supercomputing sectors. Other specialized classes of operating systems, such as embedded and real-time systems, exist for many applications. A single-tasking system can only run one program at a time, while a multi-tasking operating system allows more than one program to be running in concurrency; this is achieved by time-sharing, where the available processor time is divided between multiple processes. These processes are each interrupted in time slices by a task-scheduling subsystem of the operating system. Multi-tasking may be characterized in co-operative types. In preemptive multitasking, the operating system slices the CPU time and dedicates a slot to each of the programs. Unix-like operating systems, such as Solaris and Linux—as well as non-Unix-like, such as AmigaOS—support preemptive multitasking. Cooperative multitasking is achieved by relying on each process to provide time to the other processes in a defined manner. 16-bit versions of Microsoft Windows used cooperative multi-tasking.
32-bit versions of both Windows NT and Win9x, used preemptive multi-tasking. Single-user operating systems have no facilities to distinguish users, but may allow multiple programs to run in tandem. A multi-user operating system extends the basic concept of multi-tasking with facilities that identify processes and resources, such as disk space, belonging to multiple users, the system permits multiple users to interact with the system at the same time. Time-sharing operating systems schedule tasks for efficient use of the system and may include accounting software for cost allocation of processor time, mass storage and other resources to multiple users. A distributed operating system manages a group of distinct computers and makes them appear to be a single computer; the development of networked computers that could be linked and communicate with each other gave rise to distributed computing. Distributed computations are carried out on more than one machine; when computers in a group work in cooperation, they form a distributed system.
In an OS, distributed and cloud computing context, templating refers to creating a single virtual machine image as a guest operating system saving it as a tool for multiple running virtual machines. The technique is used both in virtualization and cloud computing management, is common in large server warehouses. Embedded operating systems are designed to be used in embedded computer systems, they are designed to operate on small machines like PDAs with less autonomy. They are able to operate with a limited number of resources, they are compact and efficient by design. Windows CE and Minix 3 are some examples of embedded operating systems. A real-time operating system is an operating system that guarantees to process events or data by a specific moment in time. A real-time operating system may be single- or multi-tasking, but when multitasking, it uses specialized scheduling algorithms so that a deterministic nature of behavior is achieved. An event-driven system switches between tasks based on their priorities or external events while time-sharing operating systems switch tasks based on clock interrupts.
A library operating system is one in which the services that a typical operating system provides, such as networking, are provided in the form of libraries and composed with the application and configuration code to construct a unikernel: a specialized, single address space, machine image that can be deployed to cloud or embedded environments. Early computers were built to perform a series of single tasks, like a calculator. Basic operating system features were developed in the 1950s, such as resident monitor functions that could automatically run different programs in succession to speed up processing. Operating systems did not exist in their more complex forms until the early 1960s. Hardware features were added, that enabled use of runtime libraries and parallel processing; when personal computers became popular in the 1980s, operating systems were made for them similar in concept to those used on larger computers. In the 1940s, the earliest electronic digital systems had no operating systems.
Electronic systems of this time were programmed on rows of mechanical switches or by jumper wires on plug boards. These were special-purpose systems that, for example, generated ballistics tables for the military or controlled the pri
Air China Limited is the flag carrier and one of the major airlines of the People's Republic of China, with its headquarters in Shunyi District, Beijing. Air China's flight operations are based at Beijing Capital International Airport. In 2017, the airline carried 102 million domestic and international passengers with an average load factor of 81%. Air China was established and commenced operations on 1 July 1988 as a result of the Chinese government's decision in late 1987 to split the operating divisions of Civil Aviation Administration of China into six separate airlines: Air China, China Eastern, China Southern, China Northern, China Southwest, China Northwest. Air China was given chief responsibility for intercontinental flights and took over the CAAC's long haul aircraft and routes. In January 2001, the former CAAC's ten airlines agreed on a merger plan, according to which Air China was to acquire China Southwest Airlines. Before this acquisition, Air China was the country's fourth largest domestic airline.
The merger created a group with assets of 56 billion Yuan, a fleet of 118 aircraft. In October 2002, Air China consolidated with the China National Aviation Holding and China Southwest Airlines. On 15 December 2004, Air China was listed on the Hong Kong and London Stock Exchanges. In 2006, Air China signed an agreement to join the Star Alliance, it became a member of the alliance on 12 December 2007 alongside Shanghai Airlines. In July 2009, Air China acquired $19.3 million of shares from its troubled subsidiary Air Macau, lifting its stake in the carrier from 51% to 80.9%. One month Air China spent HK$6.3 billion to raise its stake in Cathay Pacific from 17.5% to 30%, expanding its presence in Hong Kong. In April 2010, Air China completed the increase of shareholdings in Shenzhen Airlines and became the controlling shareholder of Shenzhen Airlines, allowing Air China to further enhance its position in Beijing and Shanghai as well as achieve a more balanced domestic network. On 2 December 2010, Air China received Spain's highest tourism industry award, the "Plaque for Tourist Merit."
Air China was the first foreign airline to receive the award, given to organisations and individuals contributing to the Spanish tourism industry. On 23 December 2010, Air China became the first Chinese airline to offer combined tickets that include domestic flights and shuttle bus services to nearby cities; the first combined flight-shuttle bus ticket connected Tianjin via shuttle bus with domestic flights passing through Beijing. Air China began offering free Wi-Fi internet service on board its aircraft on 15 November 2011, making it the first Chinese carrier to offer this service; however reported by users, the service is not allowed on only tablets and laptops. In 2012, after pressure from PETA, Air China stated that it would no longer transport monkeys to laboratories. PETA welcomed the airline's announcement. On July 3, 2013 in time for the company's 25th anniversary, Air China tested Wireless LAN in flight, it was the first global satellite Internet flight in Mainland China. In early 2015 it was announced that the airline had selected the Boeing 737 Next Generation and 737 MAX for its fleet renewal programme of 60 aircraft.
The deal, with a value of over $6 billion at current list prices, has yet to be finalised. The entity Air China Limited was registered in 2003, its shares began trading in Hong Kong and London on December 15, 2004; the airline corporate entity was Air China International, founded 2002 Air China International incorporated China Southwest Airlines and the air transportation services of the China National Aviation Corporation, becoming a new entity. The Air China HQ Building, the corporate headquarters, is located in Zone A of the Tianzhu Airport Industrial Zone in Shunyi District, Beijing; the company registered office is on the ninth floor of the Blue Sky Mansion in Zone A of the Tianzhu Airport Industrial Zone. The enterprise logo of Air China consists of an artistic phoenix pattern, the name of the airline written in calligraphy by former national leader Deng Xiaoping, "AIR CHINA" in English; the phoenix logo is the artistic transfiguration of the word "VIP". Air China is a member of Star Alliance.
Air China is based in its hub of Beijing Capital International Airport, where it operates numerous long range aircraft on routes to North America, South America and Australia. Its fleet is made up of an assortment of Boeing and Airbus aircraft, including: Boeing 737s, 777s, 747s, 787s along with Airbus A319s, A320s, A321s and A330s. Air China operates a second hub in Chengdu International Airport, where it flies domestic routes. Air China's route network extends throughout Asia to the Middle East, Western Europe, North America from its hubs at Beijing Capital International Airport and Chengdu Shuangliu International Airport, it currently reaches a significant number of Asian and European destinations from Shanghai. Some international routes operate from Chengdu, Dalian, Hangzhou and Xiamen, it is one of the few world airlines. On 10 December 2006, Air China began serving its first South American destination, São Paulo-Guarulhos; this was the airline's longest direct flight. The service was initiated with a Boeing 767-300ER, but due to increased demand, the service has been upgraded