In England, a civil parish is a type of administrative parish used for local government, they are a territorial designation, the lowest tier of local government below districts and counties, or their combined form, the unitary authority. Civil parishes can trace their origin to the ancient system of ecclesiastical parishes which played a role in both civil and ecclesiastical administration; the unit rolled out across England in the 1860s. A civil parish can range in size from a large town with a population of about 75,000 to a single village with fewer than a hundred inhabitants. Eight parishes have city status. A civil parish may be known as and confirmed as a town, neighbourhood or community by resolution of its parish council, a right reserved not conferred on other units of English local government. 35% of the English population live in a civil parish. As of 31 December 2015 there were 10,449 parishes in England; the most populous is Weston super Mare and those with cathedral city status are Chichester, Hereford, Ripon, Salisbury and Wells.
On 1 April 2014, Queen's Park became the first civil parish in Greater London. Before 2008 their creation was not permitted within a London borough. Wales was divided into civil parishes until 1974, when they were replaced by communities, which are similar to English parishes in the way they operate. Civil parishes in Scotland were abolished for local government purposes by the Local Government Act 1929, the Scottish equivalent of English civil parishes are community council areas, which were established by the Local Government Act 1973; the Parish system in Europe was established between the 8th and 12th centuries and in England was old by the time of the Conquest. These areas were based on the territory of one or more manors, areas which in some cases derived their bounds from Roman or Iron Age estates. Parish boundaries were conservative, changing little, after 1180'froze' so that boundaries could no longer be changed at all, despite changes to manorial landholdings - though there were some examples of sub-division.
The consistency of these boundaries, up until the 19th century is useful to historians, is of cultural significance in terms of shaping local identities, a factor reinforced by the adoption of parish boundaries unchanged, by successor local government units. There was huge variation in size between parishes, for instance Writtle in Essex was 13,568 acres while neighbouring Shellow Bowells was just 469 acres, Chignall Smealy 476 acres; until the break with Rome, parishes managed ecclesiastical matters, while the manor was the principal unit of local administration and justice. The church replaced the manor court as the rural administrative centre, levied a local tax on produce known as a tithe. In the medieval period, responsibilities such as relief of the poor passed from the Lord of the Manor to the parish's rector, who in practice would delegate tasks among his vestry or the monasteries. After the dissolution of the monasteries, the power to levy a rate to fund relief of the poor was conferred on the parish authorities by the Act for the Relief of the Poor 1601.
Both before and after this optional social change, local charities are well-documented. The parish authorities were consisted of all the ratepayers of the parish; as the number of ratepayers of some parishes grew, it became difficult to convene meetings as an open vestry. In some built up, areas the select vestry took over responsibility from the entire body of ratepayers; this innovation allowed governance by a self-perpetuating elite. The administration of the parish system relied on the monopoly of the established English Church, which for a few years after Henry VIII alternated between the Roman Catholic Church and the Church of England, before settling on the latter on the accession of Elizabeth I in 1558. By the 18th century, religious membership was becoming more fractured in some places, due for instance to the progress of Methodism; the legitimacy of the parish vestry came into question and the perceived inefficiency and corruption inherent in the system became a source for concern in some places.
For this reason, during the early 19th century the parish progressively lost its powers to ad hoc boards and other organisations, for example the loss of responsibility for poor relief through the Poor Law Amendment Act 1834. Sanitary districts covered England in Ireland three years later; the replacement boards were each entitled to levy their own rate in the parish. The church rate ceased to be levied in many parishes and became voluntary from 1868; the ancient parishes diverged into two distinct, nearly overlapping, systems of parishes during the 19th century. The Poor Law Amendment Act 1866 declared all areas that levied a separate rate: C of E ecclesiastical parishes, extra-parochial areas and their analogue, chapelries, to be "civil parishes". To have collected rates this means these beforehand had their own vestries, boards or equivalent bodies; the Church of England parishes, which cover more than 99% of England, became termed "ecclesiastical parishes" and the boundaries of these soon diverged from those of the Ancient Parishes in order to reflect modern circumstances.
After 1921 each ecclesiastical parish has been the responsibility of the parochial church councils. In the late 19th century, most of the ancient irregularities inheri
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
Yorkshire and the Humber
Yorkshire and the Humber is one of nine official regions of England at the first level of NUTS for statistical purposes. It comprises most of Yorkshire, as well as North East Lincolnshire, it does not include Middlesbrough and Cleveland or other areas of Yorkshire, such as Sedbergh not included in the aforementioned administrative areas. The largest settlements are, Sheffield, Bradford and York; the population in 2011 was 5,284,000. The committees for the regions, including the one for Yorkshire and the Humber, ceased to exist upon the dissolution of Parliament on 12 April 2010. Regional ministers were not reappointed by the incoming Coalition Government, the Government Offices were abolished in 2011. Scammonden Dam, is the highest dam in UK at 73 metres, Dean Head cutting is the deepest roadway cutting in Europe at 183 ft, at Scammonden Bridge, on the M62. Sutton-under-Whitestonecliffe claims to be longest place name in England. In the Yorkshire and the Humber region, there is a close relationship between the major topographical areas and the underlying geology.
The Pennine chain of hills in the west is of Carboniferous origin. The central vale is Permo-Triassic; the North York Moors in the north-east of the county are Jurassic in age, while the Yorkshire Wolds and Lincolnshire Wolds to the south east are Cretaceous chalk uplands. The highest point of the region is Whernside, in the Yorkshire Dales, at 737 metres; the region is drained by several rivers. In western and central Yorkshire, the many rivers empty their waters into the River Ouse, which reaches the North Sea via the Humber Estuary; the most northerly of the rivers in the Ouse system is the River Swale, which drains Swaledale before passing through Richmond and meandering across the Vale of Mowbray. Next, draining Wensleydale, is the River Ure; the River Nidd rises on the edge of the Yorkshire Dales National Park and flows along Nidderdale before reaching the Vale of York. The Ouse is the name given to the river after its confluence with the Ure at Ouse Gill Beck; the River Wharfe, which drains Wharfedale, joins the Ouse upstream of Cawood.
The Rivers Aire and Calder are more southerly contributors to the River Ouse. The most southerly Yorkshire tributary is the River Don, which flows northwards to join the main river at Goole; the River Derwent rises on the North York Moors, flows south westwards through the Vale of Pickering turns south again to drain the eastern part of the Vale of York. It empties into the River Ouse at Barmby on the Marsh. In the far north of the county, the River Tees flows eastwards through Teesdale and empties its waters into the North Sea downstream of Middlesbrough; the smaller River Esk flows from west to east at the northern foot of the North York Moors to reach the sea at Whitby. To the east of the Yorkshire Wolds, the River Hull flows southwards to join the Humber Estuary at Kingston upon Hull; the western Pennines are served by the River Ribble, which drains westwards into the Irish Sea close to Lytham St Annes. The lower stretches of the River Trent flow through North Lincolnshire and meet the Ouse at Trent Falls.
The largest freshwater lake in the region is Hornsea Mere in the East Riding of Yorkshire. This region of England has cool summers and mild winters, with the upland areas of the North York Moors and the Pennines experiencing the coolest weather and the Vale of York the warmest. Weather conditions vary from day to day as well as from season to season; the latitude of the area means that it is influenced by predominantly westerly winds with depressions and their associated fronts, bringing with them unsettled and windy weather in winter. Between depressions, there are small mobile anticyclones that bring periods of fair weather. In winter anticyclones bring cold dry weather. In summer the anticyclones tend to bring settled conditions which can lead to drought. For its latitude, this area is mild in winter and cooler in summer due to the influence of the Gulf Stream in the northern Atlantic Ocean. Air temperature varies on a seasonal basis. Cities such as Sheffield and Bradford are cooler due to their inland and upland location, while York and Wakefield are warmer due to their lowland location.
The temperature is lower at night. Snow is not uncommon in the winter, Yorkshire is hilly/mountainous, the Yorkshire Dales and the Pennines can have extreme snowstorms with high snowdrifts. Inland/upland settlements, such as Skipton or Ilkley, have more snow than coastal towns. Hull and Scarborough have less snow. Climate data for settlements in the region: There are seven cities in Yorkshire and the Humber: Bradford, Kingston upon Hull, Ripon, Sheffield and York. Large towns in the area include Barnsley, Grimsby, Harrogate and Scunthorpe. Leeds is the largest settlement and the largest part of an urban area with a population of 1.5 million. Leeds is now one of the largest financial centres in the United Kingdom. Sheffield is a large manufacturing centre. Bradford was a textile manufacturing city; as jobs moved offshore the decline of this industry has resulted in a more diverse economy. Kingston upon Hull is the main port in the region and a notable fishing harbou
Ryedale is a non-metropolitan district of the shire county of North Yorkshire in England. It is in the Vale of a low-lying flat area of land drained by the River Derwent; the Vale's landscape is rural with small market towns. It has been inhabited continuously from the Mesolithic period; the economy is agricultural with light industry and tourism playing an increasing role. Market towns include Helmsley, Malton, Norton-on-Derwent, Pickering. Part of Ryedale lies within the North York Moors National Park. In the 2011 Census, the population of this rural area of 150,659 hectares, the largest district in North Yorkshire, was 51,700; the name refers to the River Rye and was used for the Ryedale wapentake of Yorkshire, which covered the same area. The current district was formed on 1 April 1974, under the Local Government Act 1972, was a merger of urban district of Norton and Norton Rural District, from the historic East Riding of Yorkshire, along with the urban districts of Malton and Pickering with Flaxton Rural District, Helmsley Rural District, Kirkbymoorside Rural District, Malton Rural District and Pickering Rural District, all from the North Riding of Yorkshire.
In the Middle Ages, there were markets in several Ryedale villages, Pickering and Helmsley. A monastery was built at Lastingham in 654. Over the centuries, Celts and Anglo Saxons all inhabited the area around Pickering; the district had many ancient Saxon churches and some can still be visited, including St Peter's in Scrayingham, St Martin's in Wharram Percy, St Martins in Bulmer, St Helens in Amotherby, All Saints in Appleton-le-Street, St Peter and St Paul's Church, All Saints in Hovingham, Holy Trinity in Stonegrave, St Gregory's Minster, Kirkdale built around 1055-1065, All Saints in Sinnington and St Andrews in Ailsby/Middleton. The Kirkdale sundial above St Gregory's door dates to the 11th century,Several abbies and priories were built in the 12th century, including Kirkham Priory, the large Byland Abbey, Ampleforth Abbey, now the site of the Catholic Ampleforth College, the finest ruined abbey in Yorkshire Rievaulx Abbey near Helmsley. All can be seen but all except Ampleforth are ruins.
Ryedale has two impressive castles, both now ruins. The traditional style Pickering Castle was a royal hunting lodge with a moat while Helmsley Castle was a fine medieval structure with double earthworks; the latter was extensively damaged during the Civil War, in 1644. Since the last election in 2015 one Conservative seat was lost to the Liberal Party in a by-election. Seven former Conservative councillors have joined the Independents; the Conservatives are nonetheless the largest party on the council. The district is a stronghold for the Liberal Party who are the second largest political party on the council; the district lost about half its population in 1996, when an expanded City of York became a unitary authority the parishes of Clifton Without, Haxby, Heworth Without, Huntington, New Earswick, Rawcliffe, Stockton-on-the-Forest, Strensall and Wigginton. According to the 2001 census, these parishes combined had a population of 50,163, compared to the population of the rump Ryedale district of 50,872.
The market towns of Helmsley, Kirkbymoorside and Malton are the largest centres of population in the Ryedale District with about half of the population living there. The eastern part of the area is dominated by the influence of Scarborough; each of the market towns within the Ryedale District has areas set aside for industrial use and small firms engaged in light industry and the service industries occupy these. The largest employer in the district is the pork processor Karro Food Group, now employing around 1,100 people in this location; the village of Sherburn in eastern Ryedale is home to factories of both Severfield and the Kingspan Group who purchased the local award Brothers steelworks business. The Kingspan factory hosts a 5MW solar array, one of the largest commercial rooftop solar projects in the UK. Georgia Horsley, Miss England 2007 One Night Only, Indie-pop band Richard Buck, UK athlete James Norton, Actor Ryan Swain Television & Radio Presenter For all districts in the Yorkshire and the Humber region, Ryedale has the lowest rate of teenage pregnancy.
Ryedale – Home of Kirkbymoorside Town Brass Band Ryedale.co.uk Promoting Ryedale Ryedale District Council YouTube channel Visit Ryedale – Official Tourist Information for Ryedale, North Yorkshire
Fire services in the United Kingdom
The fire services in the United Kingdom operate under separate legislative and administrative arrangements in England and Wales, Northern Ireland, Scotland. Emergency cover is provided by over fifty agencies; these are known as a fire and rescue service, the term used in modern legislation and by government departments. The older terms of fire brigade and fire service survive in informal usage and in the names of a few organisations. England and Wales have local fire services which are each overseen by a fire authority, made up of representatives of local governments. Fire authorities have the power to raise a Council Tax levy for funding, with the remainder coming from the government. Scotland and Northern Ireland have centralised fire services, so their authorities are committees of the devolved parliaments; the total budget for fire services in 2014-15 was £2.9 billion. Central government maintains national standards and a body of independent advisers through the Chief Fire and Rescue Adviser, created in 2007, while Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Constabulary and Fire & Rescue Services provides direct oversight.
The devolved government in Scotland has HMFSI Scotland. Firefighters in the United Kingdom are allowed to join unions, the main one being the Fire Brigades Union, while chief fire officers are members of the National Fire Chiefs Council, which has some role in national co-ordination; the fire services have undergone significant changes since the beginning of the 21st century, a process, propelled by a devolution of central government powers, new legislation and a change to operational procedures in the light of terrorism attacks and threats. See separate article History of fire safety legislation in the United Kingdom Comprehensive list of recent UK fire and rescue service legislation: Fire services are established and granted their powers under new legislation which has replaced a number of Acts of Parliament dating back more than 60 years, but is still undergoing change. 1938: Fire Brigades Act 1938. This Act provided for centralised co-ordination of fire brigades in Great Britain and made it mandatory for local authorities to arrange an effective fire service.
1947: Fire Services Act 1947 This Act transferred the functions of the National Fire Service to local authorities. Now repealed in England and Wales by Schedule 2 of the Fire and Rescue Services Act 2004. 1959: Fire Services Act 1959 This Act amended the 1947 Act. It was repealed in Wales along with the 1947 Act. 1999: Greater London Authority Act 1999 This act was necessary to allow for the formation of the Greater London Authority and in turn the London Fire and Emergency Planning Authority. In 2002, there was a series of national fire strikes, with much of the discontent caused by the aforementioned report into the fire service conducted by Prof Sir George Bain. In December 2002, the Independent Review of the Fire Service was published with the industrial action still ongoing. Bain's report led to a change in the laws relating to firefighting. 2002: Independent Review of the Fire Service published 2004: Fire and Rescue Services Act 2004 only applying to England and Wales. 2006: The Regulatory Reform Order 2005 This piece of secondary legislation or statutory instrument replaces several other acts that dealt with fire precautions and fire safety in premises, including the now defunct process of issuing fire certificates.
It came into force on 1 October 2006. The DfCLG has published a set of guides for non-domestic premises: 2006: The Government of Wales Act 2006 gave the National Assembly for Wales powers to pass laws on "Fire and rescue services. Promotion of fire safety otherwise than by prohibition or regulation." But does not prevent future legislation being passed by the UK government which applies to two or more constituent countries. There are further plans to modernise the fire service according to the Local Government Association, its website outlines future changes, specific projects: "The aim of the Fire Modernisation Programme is to adopt modern work practices within the Fire & Rescue Service to become more efficient and effective, while strengthening the contingency and resilience of the Service to react to incidents. " The fire service in England and Wales is scrutinised by a House of Commons select committee. In June 2006, the fire and rescue service select committee, under the auspices of the Communities and Local Government Committee, published its latest report.
Committee report The committee's brief is described on its website: The Communities and Local Government Committee is appointed by the House of Commons to examine the expenditure and policy of the Department for Communities and Local Government and its associated bodies. Government response This document, the subsequent government response in September 2006, are important as they outlined progress on the FiReControl, efforts to address diversity and the planned closure of HMFSI in 2007 among many issues. Both documents are interesting as they refer back to Professor Bain's report and the many recommendations it made and continue to put forward the notion that there is an ongoing need to modernise FRSs. For example, where FRSs were inspected by HMFSI, much of this work is now carried out by the National Audit Office. Fire Control On 8 February 2010 the House of Commons Communities and Local Governm
Appleton-le-Street is a small village and in the Ryedale district of North Yorkshire, England. It is 3 miles west of Malton and in the parish of Appleton-le-Street with Easthorpe; the village is mentioned in the Domesday Book as "Appletun", part of the Maneshou Hundred. At the time of the Norman Conquest it belonged to Cnut, son of Karli, but subsequently handed over to William I; the Thirsk & Malton Railway used to pass through the village. The village lies within the Malton parliamentary constituency, it lies within the Amotherby ward of Ryedale District Council and the Malton electoral district of North Yorkshire County Council. The civil parish includes the village and the small hamlet of Easthorpe, which lies just over 1 mile to the south, it is on the B1257 Malton to Stokesley road between Barton-le-Street. It is 1.7 miles south of the River Rye. The soil is a mixture of Oxford clay on corallian beds. Limestone and Sandstone were quarried in the village. According to the 2001 UK Census, the population for the civil parish was 117 in 53 households.
Of those households, 29 were detached 34 were owner occupied. Of the total population, 93 were over the age of 16; the 2011 census recorded the population as 122. The church in the village dates from Saxon times and is a Grade I listed building dedicated as All Saints. All Saints Episcopal Church in Appleton, Wisconsin, is an evocation of and homage to All Saints Anglican Church in Appleton-le-Street built in 1905 by Shepley and Coolidge. Media related to Appleton-le-Street, North Yorkshire at Wikimedia Commons Appleton in the Domesday Book Template:Https://www.british-history.ac.uk/vch/yorks/north/vol1/pp464-471 Appleton-le-Street parish
North Yorkshire is a non-metropolitan county and largest ceremonial county in England. It is located in the region of Yorkshire and the Humber but in the region of North East England; the estimated population of North Yorkshire was 602,300 in mid 2016. Created by the Local Government Act 1972, it covers an area of 8,654 square kilometres, making it the largest county in England; the majority of the Yorkshire Dales and the North York Moors lie within North Yorkshire's boundaries, around 40% of the county is covered by National Parks. The largest towns are Middlesbrough, York and Scarborough; the area under the control of the county council, or shire county, is divided into a number of local government districts: Craven, Harrogate, Ryedale and Selby. The Department for Communities and Local Government considered reorganising North Yorkshire County Council's administrative structure by abolishing the seven district councils and the county council to create a North Yorkshire unitary authority; the changes were planned to be implemented no than 1 April 2009.
This was rejected on 25 July 2007 so District Council structure will remain. The largest settlement in the administrative county is the second largest is Scarborough. Within the ceremonial county, the largest is the Middlesbrough built-up area. York is the most populous district in the ceremonial county. York and Redcar and Cleveland are unitary authority boroughs which form part of the ceremonial county for various functions such as the Lord Lieutenant of North Yorkshire, but do not come under county council control. Uniquely for a district in England, Stockton-on-Tees is split between North Yorkshire and County Durham for this purpose. Middlesbrough, Stockton-on-Tees, Redcar and Cleveland boroughs form part of the North East England region; the ceremonial county area, including the unitary authorities, borders East Riding of Yorkshire to the east/south east, South Yorkshire to the south, West Yorkshire to the west/south west, Lancashire to the west, Cumbria to the north west and County Durham to the north, with the North Sea to the east.
The geology of North Yorkshire is reflected in its landscape. Within the county are the North York Moors and most of the Yorkshire Dales. Between the North York Moors in the east and the Pennine Hills in the west lie the Vales of Mowbray and York; the Tees Lowlands lie to the north of the North York Moors and the Vale of Pickering lies to the south. Its eastern border is the North sea coast; the highest point is Whernside, on the Cumbrian border, at 736 metres. The two major rivers in the county are the River Ure; the Swale and the Ure form the River Ouse which flows into the Humber Estuary. The River Tees forms part of the border between North Yorkshire and County Durham and flows from upper Teesdale through Middlesbrough and Stockton and to the coast. North Yorkshire contains a small section of green belt in the south of the county, just north of Ilkley and Otley along the North and West Yorkshire borders, it extends to the east to cover small communities such as Huby, Kirkby Overblow, Follifoot before covering the gap between the towns of Harrogate and Knaresborough, helping to keep those towns separate.
The belt meets with the Yorkshire Dales National Park at its southernmost extent, forms a border with the Nidderdale AONB. It extends into the western area of Selby district, reaching as far as Balne; the belt was first drawn up from the 1950s. The city of York has an independent surrounding belt area affording protections to several outlying settlements such as Haxby and Dunnington, it too extends into the surrounding districts. North Yorkshire was formed on 1 April 1974 as a result of the Local Government Act 1972, covers most of the lands of the historic North Riding, as well as the northern half of the West Riding, the northern and eastern fringes of the East Riding of Yorkshire and the former county borough of York. York became a unitary authority independent of North Yorkshire on 1 April 1996, at the same time Middlesbrough and Cleveland and areas of Stockton-on-Tees south of the river became part of North Yorkshire for ceremonial purposes, having been part of Cleveland from 1974 to 1996.
The non-metropolitan county of North Yorkshire is administered by North Yorkshire County Council, a cabinet-style council. The full council of 72 elects a council leader, who in turn appoints up to 9 more councillors to form the executive cabinet; the cabinet is responsible for making decisions in the non-metropolitan county. The county council have their offices in the County Hall in Northallerton. Certain areas within the ceremonial county are administered independently of the county council and have their own unitary authority councils: the City of York Council and Cleveland Borough Council, Middlesbrough Borough Council, Stockton-on-Tees Borough Council; the county has above average house prices. Unemployment is below average for the UK and claimants of Job Seekers Allowance is very low compared to the rest of the UK at 2.7%. Agriculture is an important industry, as are power generation; the county has prosperous high technology and tourism sectors. Tourism is a significant contribut