Hawaii is the 50th and most recent state to have joined the United States, having received statehood on August 21, 1959. Hawaii is the only U. S. state located in Oceania, the only U. S. state located outside North America, the only one composed of islands. It is the northernmost island group in Polynesia, occupying most of an archipelago in the central Pacific Ocean; the state encompasses nearly the entire volcanic Hawaiian archipelago, which comprises hundreds of islands spread over 1,500 miles. At the southeastern end of the archipelago, the eight main islands are—in order from northwest to southeast: Niʻihau, Kauaʻi, Oʻahu, Molokaʻi, Lānaʻi, Kahoʻolawe and the Island of Hawaiʻi; the last is the largest island in the group. The archipelago is ethnologically part of the Polynesian subregion of Oceania. Hawaii's diverse natural scenery, warm tropical climate, abundance of public beaches, oceanic surroundings, active volcanoes make it a popular destination for tourists, surfers and volcanologists.
Because of its central location in the Pacific and 19th-century labor migration, Hawaii's culture is influenced by North American and East Asian cultures, in addition to its indigenous Hawaiian culture. Hawaii has over a million permanent residents, along with many visitors and U. S. military personnel. Its capital is Honolulu on the island of Oʻahu. Hawaii is the 8th-smallest and the 11th-least populous, but the 13th-most densely populated of the 50 U. S. states. It is the only state with an Asian plurality; the state's oceanic coastline is about 750 miles long, the fourth longest in the U. S. after the coastlines of Alaska and California. The state of Hawaii derives its name from the name of Hawaiʻi. A common Hawaiian explanation of the name of Hawaiʻi is that it was named for Hawaiʻiloa, a legendary figure from Hawaiian myth, he is said to have discovered the islands. The Hawaiian language word Hawaiʻi is similar to Proto-Polynesian *Sawaiki, with the reconstructed meaning "homeland". Cognates of Hawaiʻi are found in other Polynesian languages, including Māori and Samoan.
According to linguists Pukui and Elbert, "lsewhere in Polynesia, Hawaiʻi or a cognate is the name of the underworld or of the ancestral home, but in Hawaii, the name has no meaning". A somewhat divisive political issue arose in 1978 when the Constitution of the State of Hawaii added Hawaiian as a second official state language; the title of the state constitution is The Constitution of the State of Hawaii. Article XV, Section 1 of the Constitution uses The State of Hawaii. Diacritics were not used because the document, drafted in 1949, predates the use of the ʻokina and the kahakō in modern Hawaiian orthography; the exact spelling of the state's name in the Hawaiian language is Hawaiʻi. In the Hawaii Admission Act that granted Hawaiian statehood, the federal government recognized Hawaii as the official state name. Official government publications and office titles, the Seal of Hawaii use the traditional spelling with no symbols for glottal stops or vowel length. In contrast, the National and State Parks Services, the University of Hawaiʻi and some private enterprises implement these symbols.
No precedent for changes to U. S. state names exists since the adoption of the United States Constitution in 1789. However, the Constitution of Massachusetts formally changed the Province of Massachusetts Bay to the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in 1780, in 1819, the Territory of Arkansaw was created but was admitted to statehood as the State of Arkansas. There are eight main Hawaiian islands; the island of Niʻihau is managed by brothers Bruce and Keith Robinson. Access to uninhabited Kahoʻolawe island is restricted; the Hawaiian archipelago is located 2,000 mi southwest of the contiguous United States. Hawaii is the southernmost U. S. the second westernmost after Alaska. Hawaii, like Alaska, does not border any other U. S. state. It is the only U. S. state, not geographically located in North America, the only state surrounded by water and, an archipelago, the only state in which coffee is commercially cultivable. In addition to the eight main islands, the state has many smaller islets. Kaʻula is a small island near Niʻihau.
The Northwest Hawaiian Islands is a group of nine small, older islands to the northwest of Kauaʻi that extend from Nihoa to Kure Atoll. Across the archipelago are around 130 small rocks and islets, such as Molokini, which are either volcanic, marine sedimentary or erosional in origin. Hawaii's tallest mountain Mauna Kea is 13,796 ft above mean sea level; the Hawaiian islands were formed by volcanic activity initiated at an undersea magma source called the Hawaii hotspot. The process is continuing to build islands; because of the hotspot's location, all active land volcanoes are located on the southern half of Hawaii Island. The newest volcano, Lōʻihi Seamount, is located south of the coast of Hawaii Island; the last volcanic eruption outside Hawaii Island occurred
First Republic of Korea
The First Republic of Korea was South Korea's first independent government, ruling the country from 1948 to 1960. It succeeded USAMGIK, the United States military government, which ruled the area from 1945 to 1948; the Philippines recognized South Korea on 15 August 1948. The First Republic was established on August 1948, with Syngman Rhee as the first president. Like subsequent governments, it claimed sovereignty over the entire Korean Peninsula, although it only had power over the area south of the 38th parallel; the investiture of the Rhee government followed the general election of May 10, 1948. The country's first constitution had been promulgated by the first National Assembly on July 17, it established a system with a strong president, elected indirectly by the National Assembly. The April Revolution in 1960 led to the resignation of Syngman Rhee and the transition to the Second Republic of South Korea. Rhee was supported in the elections by the Korea Democratic Party, but didn't include any of its members in his cabinet.
In retaliation, the members of the party formed a united opposition Democratic Nationalist Party, began to advocate a cabinet system which would remove power from the president. This led to a regrouping of the Rhee faction into the Nationalist Party, which became the Liberal Party, remained Rhee's base throughout his administration; the country's second parliamentary elections were held on May 30, 1950, gave the majority of seats to independents. The South Korean government continued many of the practices of the U. S. military government. This included the brutal repression of leftist activity; the Rhee government continued the harsh military action against the Jeju Uprising. It crushed military uprisings in Suncheon and Yeosu, which were provoked by orders to sail to Jeju and participate in the crackdown; this government oversaw several massacres, the most notable being the Bodo League massacre where between 100,000 and 1,140,000 were executed on suspicion of supporting communism. On June 25, 1950, North Korean forces invaded South Korea.
Led by the United States, a 16-member coalition undertook the first collective action under the umbrella of the U. N. Command. Oscillating battle lines inflicted a high number of civilian casualties and wrought immense destruction. With the People's Republic of China's entry on behalf of North Korea in 1951, the fighting came to a stalemate close to the original line of demarcation. Armistice negotiations, initiated in July 1951 concluded on July 27, 1953 at Panmunjom, now in the Demilitarized Zone; the resulting Armistice Agreement was signed by the North Korean army, Chinese People's Volunteers and the U. S.-led and South Korean-supported United Nations Command. A peace treaty has not been signed up to now. Following the armistice, the South Korean government returned to Seoul on the symbolic date of August 15, 1953. After the armistice, South Korea experienced political turmoil under years of autocratic leadership of Syngman Rhee, ended by student revolt in 1960. Throughout his rule, Rhee sought to take additional steps to cement his control of government.
These began in 1952. In May of that year, Rhee pushed through constitutional amendments which made the presidency a directly-elected position. In order to do this, he declared martial law and jailed the members of parliament whom he expected to vote against it. Rhee was subsequently elected by a wide margin, he regained control of parliament in the 1954 elections, thereupon pushed through an amendment to exempt himself from the eight-year term limit. Rhee's prospects for reelection during the presidential campaign of 1956 seemed dim. Public disillusionment regarding his attempt to seek a third term was growing, the main opposition candidate Shin Ik-hee drew immense crowds during his campaign. Shin's sudden death while on the campaign trail, allowed Rhee to win the presidency with ease; the runner-up of that election, Cho Bong-am of the Progressive Party, was charged with espionage and executed in 1959. The events of 1960, known as the April Revolution, were touched off by the violent repression of a student demonstration in Masan on the day of the presidential election, March 15.
These protests were quelled by local police, but they broke out again after the body of a student was found floating in the harbor. Subsequently, nonviolent protests spread to Seoul and throughout the country, Rhee resigned on April 26; this period saw explosive growth in education at all levels during the turmoil of the Korean War. The First Republic saw the full implementation of an educational system, sketched out by the Council for Korean Education under USAMGIK; this education was shaped by the ideal of Hongik Ingan, the person, a benefit to all, sought to prepare students for participation in a democratic society. Some contend that this democratic education contributed to the student protests which brought down the authoritarian Rhee government in 1960; the first Education Law came into force on December 31, 1949. The most important aspect of this was the introduction of universal compulsory education at the primary level; this requirement led to widespread school construction. In addition, the dual ladder system used by the Japanese occupation government was replaced by a single-ladder system, with 6 years of primary education, 3 of middle-school education, 3 of high-school education, 4 of college education.
This period saw the adoption of South Korea's fi
1948 South Korean presidential election
Presidential and vice-presidential elections were held in South Korea on 20 July 1948, following the Constitutional Assembly elections in May. The president was to be elected by the members of the National Assembly, as instructed by the 1948 Constitution. Of the 198 members of the National Assembly, 196 were present for the vote. A candidate required. Syngman Rhee was elected with 180 votes, took over the government to oversee the transfer of power from the United States Army Military Government in Korea. An important role was played in the run-up to the election by the dispute between Rhee and Kim Koo over the issue of establishing a separate government in the southern part of Korea, instead of including the communist-controlled north. Kim rejected the idea of separate elections, had boycotted the Constitutional Assembly elections in May, instead campaigning for a united Korea, he split from the National Alliance for the Rapid Realization of Korean Independence to form the Korea Independence Party.
Despite Kim's refusal to take any part in a South-only government and therefore in this election, 13 members cast their votes for Kim. In the event, Kim's split allowed Rhee to consolidate power over NARRKI and, in 1951, form the Liberal Party, enabling his rule over South Korea until the April Revolution in 1960. In order to be elected, a candidate had to receive at least two-thirds of the votes cast, including blank and invalid ballots. While there were 198 members in the National Assembly, 196 members participated in the voting. Therefore, the number of votes needed to win the presidency was 131. Though Kim Koo did not send his approvals for the new South Korean government and insisted that the lawmakers not cast votes for him, 13 of the 196 lawmakers who voted voted for Kim Koo; the election, ended as a landslide victory of the only candidate that sought the presidency, Rhee Syng-man, who received 180 of the 196 votes cast. One vote was invalidated, as it was cast for independence activist Seo Jae-pil, who at the time was a US citizen.
Endorsed by Rhee Syngman and the Korea Democratic Party, former Finance Minister of Provisional Government Yi Si-yeong was elected vice president, but only in the second round. The Constitution stated that for the first two rounds of voting, candidates need to win 2/3 of the votes to win. Had Yi failed to win the required 132 votes in the second round of voting, a runoff election would have been conducted of him and runner-up Kim Koo, whoever won the plurality of the votes would have become the vice president
Chang Myon was a South Korean statesman, diplomat and social activist as well as a Roman Catholic youth activist. He was the Prime Minister of the Second Republic, his styled name was Unseok. His English name was John Chang Myon. Under the Japanese rule, Chang worked as a teacher. From 1919–21, he taught at Yongsan Youth Catholic Theology School and from 1931–36 at Dongsung Commerce High School. From 1937–44, he was principal of Hyehwa Kindergarten of the Hyehwa-dong Catholic Church. From 1936–45, he was principal of Dongsung Commerce High School. In 1948, he led the delegation of the Republic of Korea to the UN General Assembly. In 1949, he became the first ambassador of the Republic of Korea to the United States. In 1950, he appealed to the United States and the UN to send troops to assist in the Korean War. On November 23, 1950, he was appointed the second prime minister of the First Republic of Korea. From 1956 to 1960, he served as the fourth vice president of the First Republic of Korea; when Syngman Rhee's government was ousted by the student-led pro-democracy uprising of April 19 Movement, he was elected the Prime Minister of the Second Republic in 1960.
After the country adopted a parliamentary system in response to Rhee's abuse of presidential power, Chang became the head of government. Chang Myon's government ended when Park Chung-hee led a successful military coup on May 16, 1961, which marked the end of the Second Republic and the nation's brief experimentation with the cabinet form of government. Chang Myon was born in 1899 in Hansung, he was the first son of Lucia Hwang. His father was a revenue officer of the seaport of Incheon and became superintendent of customs of the seaport of Busan, his given name was Myon. He was a member of the Indong Chang Family, descended from Jukjong Chang Cham, a well-known Neo-Confucianism philosopher. Chang's ninth-generation grandfather lived in South Pyongan Province Province but his father moved to Incheon; the first Roman Catholic believer in his family was Lady Park. In 1906, he began studying at Incheon Parkmun Primary School, graduated in 1912, he went to Incheon Public Simsang Elementary School, graduating in 1914.
He attended Suwon Agriculture High School, he graduated on May 25, 1917. In March 1916, he married Kim Ok-yun, they had three daughters. In September 1918, he was registered at the YMCA Village School, from 1919–21 he taught at Yongsan Youth Catholic Theology School. On March 1, 1919, he participated in the eponymous protests against Japanese occupation of Korea but escaped arrest. In January 1921, Chang Myon went to the United States with his younger brother Chang Bal to study, they were sponsored by the Maryknoll Catholic Foreign Mission Society of America. In September 1921, he entered Manhattan College and in 1924 took a one-year leave of absence from the college due to acute appendicitis. In August 1921, he entered the Secular Franciscan Order. After graduating from Manhattan College in July 1925, he left for Italy on July 30 to attend the beatification of 79 Korean Joseon Catholic martyrs, he was received by Pope Pius XII. That August he returned to Korea. On December 2, 1925, he was appointed Maryknoll Center School's professor of the Korean language and translation.
At the same time, he served as the leader of the laity for the Pyongyang archdiocese. On February 11, 1927, he formally entered the service of the Pyongyang Catholic church, he translated religious terms for Catholic teaching into the Korean language and published The Summary of Religious Terms in November 1929. In 1930, he published Way of the seeker of truth and on September 15 he published An Outline of Joseon Catholic History. On March 18, 1931, he moved to Seoul. Appointed as a teacher at Dongsung Commerce High School on April 1, 1931, he took on the responsibility of teaching English and rhetorical subjects. On July 10th, along with Jeong Ji-yong, he published the first issue of Catholic Young Men's News. In 1935, he became Manager of Affairs for Dongsung Commerce High School. On April 1, 1937, he became the lay leader of Hyehwa-dong Catholic Church and principal of Hyehwa Kindergarten. On November 19, 1936, he became principal of Dongsung Commerce High School. At the same time he took on the additional role of principal of Gyesong Elementary School in Jongro, Seoul, in April 1939.
That September, he was appointed chairman of the Seoul Catholic Young Men's National Union. He translated James Gibbons' The Faith of Our Fathers: A Plain Exposition and Vindication of the Church Founded by Our Lord Jesus Christ into the Korean language and published the hangul edition on July 4, 1944. On February 11, 1946, he was appointed a member of the Democratic Conference and a Representative of Emergency Peoples Conference; that August, Chang was elected to the South Korean Provisional National Assembly. By this time, he emerged as a major political figure in the Syngman Rhee administration of the First Republic of Korea. On May 10, 1948, he ran for a National Assembly seat from Jongro District of Seoul, he was duly elected on May 30. On October 11 of the same year, he led the delegation of the Republic of Korea to the UN Gene
The Cold War was a period of geopolitical tension between the Soviet Union with its satellite states, the United States with its allies after World War II. A common historiography of the conflict begins between 1946, the year U. S. diplomat George F. Kennan's "Long Telegram" from Moscow cemented a U. S. foreign policy of containment of Soviet expansionism threatening strategically vital regions, the Truman Doctrine of 1947, ending between the Revolutions of 1989, which ended communism in Eastern Europe, the 1991 collapse of the USSR, when nations of the Soviet Union abolished communism and restored their independence. The term "cold" is used because there was no large-scale fighting directly between the two sides, but they each supported major regional conflicts known as proxy wars; the conflict split the temporary wartime alliance against Nazi Germany and its allies, leaving the USSR and the US as two superpowers with profound economic and political differences. The capitalist West was led by the United States, a federal republic with a two-party presidential system, as well as the other First World nations of the Western Bloc that were liberal democratic with a free press and independent organizations, but were economically and politically entwined with a network of banana republics and other authoritarian regimes, most of which were the Western Bloc's former colonies.
Some major Cold War frontlines such as Indochina and the Congo were still Western colonies in 1947. The Soviet Union, on the other hand, was a self-proclaimed Marxist–Leninist state led by its Communist Party, which in turn was dominated by a totalitarian leader with different titles over time, a small committee called the Politburo; the Party controlled the state, the press, the military, the economy, many organizations throughout the Second World, including the Warsaw Pact and other satellites, funded communist parties around the world, sometimes in competition with communist China following the Sino-Soviet split of the 1960s. The two worlds were fighting for dominance in low-developed regions known as the Third World. In time, a neutral bloc arose in these regions with the Non-Aligned Movement, which sought good relations with both sides. Notwithstanding isolated incidents of air-to-air dogfights and shoot-downs, the two superpowers never engaged directly in full-scale armed combat. However, both were armed in preparation for a possible all-out nuclear world war.
Each side had a nuclear strategy that discouraged an attack by the other side, on the basis that such an attack would lead to the total destruction of the attacker—the doctrine of mutually assured destruction. Aside from the development of the two sides' nuclear arsenals, their deployment of conventional military forces, the struggle for dominance was expressed via proxy wars around the globe, psychological warfare, massive propaganda campaigns and espionage, far-reaching embargoes, rivalry at sports events, technological competitions such as the Space Race; the first phase of the Cold War began in the first two years after the end of the Second World War in 1945. The USSR consolidated its control over the states of the Eastern Bloc, while the United States began a strategy of global containment to challenge Soviet power, extending military and financial aid to the countries of Western Europe and creating the NATO alliance; the Berlin Blockade was the first major crisis of the Cold War. With the victory of the Communist side in the Chinese Civil War and the outbreak of the Korean War, the conflict expanded.
The USSR and the US competed for influence in Latin America and the decolonizing states of Africa and Asia. The Soviets suppressed the Hungarian Revolution of 1956; the expansion and escalation sparked more crises, such as the Suez Crisis, the Berlin Crisis of 1961, the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962, the closest the two sides came to nuclear war. Meanwhile, an international peace movement took root and grew among citizens around the world, first in Japan from 1954, when people became concerned about nuclear weapons testing, but soon in Europe and the US; the peace movement, in particular the anti-nuclear movement, gained pace and popularity from the late 1950s and early 1960s, continued to grow through the'70s and'80s with large protest marches and various non-parliamentary activism opposing war and calling for global nuclear disarmament. Following the Cuban Missile Crisis, a new phase began that saw the Sino-Soviet split complicate relations within the Communist sphere, while US allies France, demonstrated greater independence of action.
The USSR crushed the 1968 Prague Spring liberalization program in Czechoslovakia, while the US experienced internal turmoil from the civil rights movement and opposition to the Vietnam War, which ended with the defeat of the US-backed Republic of Vietnam, prompting further adjustments. By the 1970s, both sides had become interested in making allowances in order to create a more stable and predictable international system, ushering in a period of détente that saw Strategic Arms Limitation Talks and the US opening relations with the People's Republic of China as a strategic counterweight to the Soviet Union. Détente collapsed at the end of the decade with the beginning of the Soviet–Afghan War in 1979; the early 1980s were another period of elevated tension, with the Soviet downing of KAL Flight 007 and the "Able Archer" NATO military exercises, both in 1983. The United States increased diplomatic and economic pressures on the Soviet Union, at a time when the communist state was suffering from economic stag
Tear gas, formally known as a lachrymator agent or lachrymator, sometimes colloquially known as mace, is a chemical weapon that causes severe eye and respiratory pain, skin irritation and blindness. In the eye, it stimulates the nerves of the lacrimal gland to produce tears. Common lachrymators include pepper spray, PAVA spray, CS gas, CR gas, CN gas, xylyl bromide, syn-propanethial-S-oxide, Mace, household vinegar. Lachrymatory agents are used for riot control, their use in warfare is prohibited by various international treaties. During World War I toxic and deadly lachrymatory agents were used. Tear "gas" evaporated liquid compounds, not gas. Tear gas works by irritating mucous membranes in the eyes, nose and lungs, causes crying, coughing, difficulty breathing, pain in the eyes, temporary blindness. With CS gas, symptoms of irritation appear after 20–60 seconds of exposure and resolve within 30 minutes of leaving the area. With pepper spray, the onset of symptoms, including loss of motor control, is immediate.
There can be considerable variation in tolerance and response, according to the National Research Council Committee on Toxicology. The California Poison Control System analyzed 3,671 reports of pepper spray injuries between 2002 and 2011. Severe symptoms requiring medical evaluation were found in 6.8% of people, with the most severe injuries to the eyes, respiratory system and skin. The most severe injuries occurred in law enforcement training, intentionally incapacitating people, law enforcement. Lachrymators are thought to act by attacking sulfhydryl functional groups in enzymes. One of the most probable protein targets is the TRPA1 ion channel, expressed in sensory nerves of the eyes, nose and lungs; as with all non-lethal, or less-lethal weapons, there is some risk of serious permanent injury or death when tear gas is used. This includes risks from being hit by tear gas cartridges, which include severe bruising, loss of eyesight, skull fracture, death. A case of serious vascular injury from tear gas shells has been reported from Iran, with high rates of associated nerve injury and amputation, as well as instances of head injuries in young people.
While the medical consequences of the gases themselves are limited to minor skin inflammation, delayed complications are possible: people with pre-existing respiratory conditions such as asthma, who are at risk, are to need medical attention and may sometimes require hospitalization or ventilation support. Skin exposure to CS may induce allergic contact dermatitis; when people are hit at close range or are exposed, eye injuries involving scarring of the cornea can lead to a permanent loss in visual acuity. Frequent or high levels of exposure carry increased risks of respiratory illness. Reports of expired tear gas canisters picked up by protesters in Egypt led to theories that it could be more toxic, but Steve Wright of Leeds Metropolitan University said if enough time has elapsed that the chemicals have broken down inside the can it makes the canister less effective. However, a study carried out by Mónica Kräuter, a Venezuelan professor of Simón Bolívar University, collected thousands of tear gas canisters fired by Venezuelan authorities in 2014, showed that 72% of the tear gas used was expired and noted that expired tear gas "breaks down into cyanide oxide and nitrogens that are dangerous".
Use of tear gas in warfare is prohibited by various international treaties that most states have signed. Police and private self-defense use is not banned in the same manner. Armed forces can use tear gas for drills and for riot control. First used in 1914, xylyl bromide was a popular tearing agent since it was prepared; the US Chemical Warfare Service developed tear gas grenades for use in riot control in 1919. Certain lachrymatory agents are used by police to force compliance, most notably tear gas. In some countries, another common substance is mace; the self-defense weapon form of mace is based on pepper spray, comes in small spray cans, versions including CS are manufactured for police use. Xylyl bromide, CN and CS are the oldest of these agents, CS is the most used. CN has the most recorded toxicity. Tear gas exposure is a standard in Australia for military and prison officer training programs. Typical manufacturer warnings on tear gas cartridges state "Danger: Do not fire directly at person.
Severe injury or death may result." Such warnings are not respected, in some countries, disrespecting these warnings is routine. In the 2013 protests in Turkey, there were hundreds of injuries among protesters targeted with tear gas projectiles. Israeli soldiers have been documented by B'Tselem firing tear gas canisters at activists, some of which resulted in fatalities, though the Israel Defense Forces insist that they maintain a strict policy of only indirect firing. Amnesty International criticized the usage of tear gas by Venezuelan authorities noting canisters being fired directly at individuals, causing the death of at least one demonstrator, while being shot into residential buildings. However, tear gas guns do not have a manual setting to adjust the range of fire; the o
Syngman Rhee was a South Korean politician, the first and the last Head of State of the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea, the first President of South Korea from 1948 to 1960. His three-term presidency of South Korea was affected by Cold War tensions on the Korean Peninsula, he led South Korea through the Korean War. His presidency ended in resignation following popular protests against a disputed election. Rhee was regarded as an anti-Communist authoritarian dictator and is thought to have ordered tens of thousands of extrajudicial killings of suspected communists during the early stages of the Korean War, he died in exile in Hawaii. Syngman Rhee was born on April 18, 1875. Rhee was born in Hwanghae Province into a rural family of modest means as the third son out of three brothers and two sisters, his two older brothers both died in infancy. Rhee's family traced its lineage back to King Taejong of Joseon, he is a 16th-generation descendant of Grand Prince Yangnyeong. In 1877, at the age of two and his family moved to Seoul.
In Seoul, he had traditional Confucian education in various seodang in Dodong. He was portrayed as a potential candidate for the Korean civil service examination; when Rhee was nine years old, he was rendered blind through smallpox and was cured by Horace Newton Allen, an American medical missionary. In 1894, when reforms abolished the gwageo system, Rhee enrolled in the Pai Chai School, an American Methodist school, in April, he studied sinhakmun. Near the end of 1895, he joined a Hyeopseong Club created by Seo Jae-pil, who returned from the United States, he worked as the head and the main writer of the newspapers Hyeopseong-hoe Hoebo and Maeil Shinmun, the latter being the first daily newspaper in Korea. During this period, he earned money by teaching Americans Korean, he converted to Christianity in school. In 1895, he graduated from Pai Chai School. Rhee was implicated in a plot to take revenge for the assassination of Empress Myeongseong. At this point, he converted to Christianity. Rhee acted as one of the forerunners of Korea's grassroots movement through organizations such as the Hyeopseong Club and the Independence Club.
He organized several protests against corruption and the influences of the Empire of Japan and the Russian Empire. As a result, in November 1898, he attained the rank of Uigwan in the Imperial Legislature, the Jungchuwon. After entering civil service, he was implicated in a plot to remove King Gojong from power through the recruitment of Park Yeong-hyo; as a result, he was imprisoned in the Gyeongmucheong Prison in January 1899. Other sources place the year arrested as 1897 and 1898. Rhee attempted to escape on the 20th day of imprisonment but was caught and was sentenced to life imprisonment through the Pyeongniwon, he was imprisoned in the Hanseong Prison. In prison, Rhee translated and compiled The Sino–Japanese War Record, wrote The Spirit of Independence, compiled the New English–Korean Dictionary and wrote in the Imperial Newspaper, he was tortured. In 1904, Rhee was released from prison at the outbreak of the Russo-Japanese War with the help of Min Young-hwan. In November 1904, with the help of Min Yeong-hwan and Han Gyu-seol, Rhee moved to the United States.
In August 1905, Rhee and Yun Byeong-gu met with the Secretary of State John Hay and U. S. President Theodore Roosevelt at peace talks in Portsmouth, New Hampshire and attempted unsuccessfully to convince the US to help preserve independence for Korea. Rhee continued to stay in the United States, he obtained a Bachelor of Arts from George Washington University in 1907, a Master of Arts from Harvard University in 1908. In 1910, he obtained a Ph. D. from Princeton University with the thesis "Neutrality as influenced by the United States". In August 1910, he returned to Japanese occupied Korea, he served as a YMCA coordinator and missionary. In 1912, he was implicated in the 105-Man Incident, was shortly arrested. However, he fled to the United States in 1912 with M. C. Harris's rationale that Rhee was going to participate in the general meeting of Methodists in Minneapolis as the Korean representative. In the United States, Rhee attempted to convince Woodrow Wilson to help the people involved in the 105-Man Incident, but failed to bring any change.
Soon afterwards, he met Park Yong-man, in Nebraska at the time. In February 1913, as a consequence of the meeting, he moved to Honolulu and took over the Han-in Jung-ang Academy. In Hawaii, he began to publish the Pacific Ocean Magazine. In 1918, he established the Han-in Christian Church. During this period, he opposed Park Yong-man's stance on foreign relations of Korea and brought about a split in the community. In December 1918, he was chosen as one of the Korean representatives to the Paris Peace Conference in 1919 by the Korean National Association, but failed to obtain permission to travel to Paris. After giving up traveling to Paris, Rhee held the First Korean Congress in Philadelphia with Seo Jae-pil to make plans for the declaration and action of independence of Korea. Following the March 1st Movement in 1919, Rhee discovered that he was appointed to