Indra is a Vedic deity in Hinduism, a guardian deity in Buddhism, the king of the highest heaven called Saudharmakalpa in Jainism. His mythologies and powers are similar to other Indo-European deities such as Jupiter, Perkūnas, Taranis and Thor. In the Vedas, Indra is the king of Svarga and the Devas, he is the god of the heavens, thunder, rains, river flows, war. Indra is the most referred to deity in the Rigveda, he is celebrated for his powers, the one who kills the great symbolic evil named Vritra who obstructs human prosperity and happiness. Indra destroys Vritra and his "deceiving forces", thereby brings rains and the sunshine as the friend of mankind, his importance diminishes in the post-Vedic Indian literature where he is depicted as a powerful hero but one, getting in trouble with his drunken and adulterous ways, the god who disturbs Hindu monks as they meditate because he fears self-realized human beings may become more powerful than him. Indra rules over the much sought Devas realm of rebirth within the Samsara doctrine of Buddhist traditions.
However, like the Hindu texts, Indra is a subject of ridicule and reduced to a figurehead status in Buddhist texts, shown as a god that suffers rebirth and redeath. In the Jainism traditions, like Buddhism and Hinduism, Indra is the king of gods and a part of Jain rebirth cosmology, he is the god who appears with his wife Indrani to celebrate the auspicious moments in the life of a Jain Tirthankara, an iconography that suggests the king and queen of gods reverentially marking the spiritual journey of a Jina. Indra's iconography shows him wielding a lightning thunderbolt known as Vajra, riding on a white elephant known as Airavata. In Buddhist iconography the elephant sometimes features three heads, while Jaina icons sometimes show the elephant with five heads. Sometimes a single elephant is shown with four symbolic tusks. Indra's heavenly home is near Mount Meru; the etymological roots of Indra are unclear, it has been a contested topic among scholars since the 19th-century, one with many proposals.
The significant proposals have been: root ind-u, or "rain drop", based on the Vedic mythology that he conquered rain and brought it down to earth. Root ind, or "equipped with great power"; this was proposed by Vopadeva. Root idh or "kindle", ina or "strong". Root indha, or "igniter", for his ability to bring light and power that ignites the vital forces of life; this is based on Shatapatha Brahmana. Root idam-dra, or "It seeing", a reference to the one who first perceived the self-sufficient metaphysical Brahman; this is based on Aitareya Upanishad. Roots in ancient Indo-European, Indo-Aryan deities. For example, states John Colarusso, as a reflex of proto-Indo-European *h₂nḗr-, Greek anēr, Sabine nerō, Avestan nar-, Umbrian nerus, Old Irish nert, Ossetic nart, others which all refer to "most manly" or "hero". Colonial era scholarship proposed that Indra shares etymological roots with Zend Andra derived from Old High German Antra, or Jedru of Old Slavonic, but Max Muller critiqued these proposals as untenable.
Scholarship has linked Vedic Indra to the European Aynar, Abaza and Innara of Hittite mythology. Colarusso suggests a Pontic origin and that both the phonology and the context of Indra in Indian religions is best explained from Indo-Aryan roots and a Circassian etymology, he is known in Burmese as သိကြားမင်း, pronounced. Indra has many epithets in the Indian religions, notably Śakra, Vṛṣan, Vṛtrahan, Meghavāhana, Devarāja, Surendra, Vajrapāṇī and Vāsava. Indra is of unclear origin. Aspects of Indra as a deity are cognate to other Indo-European gods; the similarities between Indra of Hindu mythologies and of Thor of Nordic and Germanic mythologies are significant, states Max Muller. Both Indra and Thor are storm gods, with powers over lightning and thunder, both carry hammer or equivalent, for both the weapon returns to their hand after they hurl it, both are associated with bulls in the earliest layer of respective texts, both use thunder as a battle-cry, both are heroic leaders, both protectors of mankind, both are described with legends about "milking the cloud-cows", both are benevolent giants, gods of strength, of life, of marriage and the healing gods, both are worshipped in respective texts on mountains and in forests.
Michael Janda suggests that Indra has origins in the Indo-European *trigw-welumos "smasher of the enclosure" and diye-snūtyos "impeller of streams". Brave and heroic Innara or Inra, which sounds like Indra, is mentioned among the gods of the Mitanni, a Hurrian-speaking people of Hittite region. Indra as a deity had a presence in northeastern Asia minor, as evidenced by the inscriptions on the Boghaz-köi clay tablet
Varanasi known as Benares, Banaras, or Kashi, is a city on the banks of the river Ganga in Uttar Pradesh, India, 320 kilometres south-east of the state capital, 121 kilometres east of Allahabad. A major religious hub in India, it is the holiest of the seven sacred cities in Hinduism and Jainism, played an important role in the development of Buddhism and Ravidassia. Varanasi lies along National Highway 2, which connects it to Kolkata, Kanpur and Delhi, is served by Varanasi Junction railway station and Lal Bahadur Shastri International Airport. Varanasi is one of 72 districts in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. At the time of the 2011 census, there were 1329 villages in this district; the main native languages of Varanasi are Bhojpuri. Varanasi grew as an important industrial centre, famous for its muslin and silk fabrics, ivory works, sculpture. Buddha is believed to have founded Buddhism here around 528 BCE when he gave his first sermon, "The Setting in Motion of the Wheel of Dharma", at nearby Sarnath.
The city's religious importance continued to grow in the 8th century, when Adi Shankara established the worship of Shiva as an official sect of Varanasi. During the Muslim rule through Middle Ages, the city continued as an important centre of Hindu devotion, pilgrimage and poetry which further contributed to its reputation as a centre of cultural importance and religious education. Tulsidas wrote his epic poem on Rama's life called Ram Charit Manas in Varanasi. Several other major figures of the Bhakti movement were born in Varanasi, including Kabir and Ravidas. Guru Nanak visited Varanasi for Maha Shivaratri in 1507, a trip that played a large role in the founding of Sikhism. In the 16th century, Varanasi experienced a cultural revival under the Mughal emperor Akbar who patronised the city, built two large temples dedicated to Shiva and Vishnu, though much of modern Varanasi was built during the 18th century, by the Maratha and Brahmin kings; the Kingdom of Benares was given official status by the Mughals in 1737, continued as a dynasty-governed area until Indian independence in 1947.
The city is governed by the Varanasi Nagar Nigam and is represented in the Parliament of India by the current Prime Minister of India Narendra Modi, who won the Lok Sabha elections in 2014 by a huge margin. Silk weaving and crafts and tourism employ a significant number of the local population, as do the Diesel Locomotive Works and Bharat Heavy Electricals. Varanasi Hospital was established in 1964. Varanasi has been a cultural centre of North India for several thousand years, is associated with the Ganges. Hindus believe; the city is known worldwide for its many ghats, embankments made in steps of stone slabs along the river bank where pilgrims perform ritual ablutions. Of particular note are the Dashashwamedh Ghat, the Panchganga Ghat, the Manikarnika Ghat and the Harishchandra Ghat, the last two being where Hindus cremate their dead and the Hindu genealogy registers at Varanasi are kept here; the Ramnagar Fort, near the eastern bank of the Ganges, was built in the 18th century in the Mughal style of architecture with carved balconies, open courtyards, scenic pavilions.
Among the estimated 23,000 temples in Varanasi are Kashi Vishwanath Temple of Shiva, the Sankat Mochan Hanuman Temple, the Durga Temple. The Kashi Naresh is the chief cultural patron of Varanasi, an essential part of all religious celebrations. An educational and musical centre, many prominent Indian philosophers, poets and musicians live or have lived in the city, it was the place where the Benares gharana form of Hindustani classical music was developed. One of Asia's largest residential universities is Banaras Hindu University; the Hindi-language nationalist newspaper, Aj, was first published in 1920. Traditional etymology links "Varanasi" to the names of two Ganges tributaries forming the city's borders: Varuna, still flowing in northern Varanasi, Assi, today a small stream in the southern part of the city, near Assi Ghat; the old city is located on the north shores of the Ganges, bounded by Assi. In the Rigveda, an ancient Indian sacred collection of Vedic Sanskrit hymns, the city is referred to as Kāśī from the Sanskrit verbal root kaś- "to shine", making Varanasi known as "City of Light", the "luminous city as an eminent seat of learning".
The name was used by pilgrims dating from Buddha's days. Hindu religious texts use many epithets to refer to Varanasi, such as Kāśikā, Avimukta, Ānandavana, Rudravāsa. According to Hindu mythology, Varanasi was founded by Shiva, one of three principal deities along with Brahma and Vishnu. During a fight between Brahma and Shiva, one of Brahma's five heads was torn off by Shiva; as was the custom, the victor carried the slain adversary's head in his hand and let it hang down from his hand as an act of ignominy, a sign of his own bravery. A bridle was put into the mouth. Shiva thus dishonored Brahma's head, kept it with him at all times; when he came to the city of Varanasi in this state, the hanging head of Brahma dropped from Shiva's hand and disappeared in the ground. Varanasi is therefore considered an holy site; the Pandavas, the protagonists of the Hindu epic Mahabharata, are said to have visited the city in search of Shiva to atone for their sin of fratricide and Brāhmana
Brahmarshi Vishvamitra is one of the most venerated rishis or sages of ancient India. He is credited as the author of most of Mandala 3 of the Rigveda, including Gayatri Mantra; the Puranas mention that only 24 rishis since antiquity have understood the whole meaning of—and thus wielded the whole power of—Gayatri Mantra. Vishvamitra is supposed to be the first, Yajnavalkya the last; the story of Vishvamitra is narrated in the Balakanda of Valmiki Ramayana. Mahabharata adds that Vishvamitra's relationship with Menaka resulted in a daughter, whose story is narrated in Adi Parva of Mahabharata. Vishvamitra was a king in ancient India called Kaushika and belonged to Amavasu Dynasty. Vishwamitra was the Chandravanshi King of Kanyakubja, he was the great-grandson of a great king named Kusha. Valmiki Ramayana, prose 51 of Bala Kanda, starts with the story of Vishvamitra: There was a king named Kusha, a brainchild of Brahma and Kusha's son was the powerful and verily righteous Kushanabha. One, renowned by the name Gaadhi was the son of Kushanabha and Gaadhi's son is this great-saint of great resplendence, Vishvamitra.
Vishvamitra ruled the earth and this great-resplendent king ruled the kingdom for many thousands of years. His story appears in various Puranas. Vishnu Purana and Harivamsha chapter 27 of Mahabharata narrates the birth of Vishvamitra. According to Vishnu Purana, Kushanabha married a damsel of Purukutsa dynasty and had a son by name Gaadhi, who had a daughter named Satyavati. Satyavati was married to an old man known as Ruchika, foremost among the race of Bhrigu. Ruchika desired a son having the qualities of a good peson and so he gave Satyavati a sacrificial offering which he had prepared to achieve this objective, he gave Satyavati's mother another charu to make her conceive a son with the character of a Kshatriya at her request. But Satyavati's mother asked Satyavati to exchange her charu with her; this resulted in Satyavati's mother giving birth to Vishvamitra, Satyavati gave birth to Jamadagni, father of Parashurama, a person with qualities of a warrior In one encounter, Vishwamitra cursed the king Harishchandra to become a crane.
Vashista accompanied him by becoming a bird himself. There were several such instances of violent encounter between the sages and at times, god of creation, had to interfere. Vaśiștha destroys Vishvamitra's entire army by the simple use of his great mystic and spiritual powers, breathing the Om syllable. Vishvamitra undertakes a tapasya for several years to please Shiva, who bestows upon him the knowledge of celestial weaponry, he proudly goes to Vaśiștha's ashram again and uses all kinds of powerful weapons to destroy Vaśiștha and his hermitage. He succeeded in the killings of Vaśiștha's thousand sons but not in the former. An enraged Vaśiștha brings out his brahmadanda, a wooden stick imbued with the power of Brahma, it consumes Vishvamitra's most powerful weapons, including the brahmastra. Vaśiștha attempts to attack Vishvamitra, but his anger is allayed by Devas. Vishvamitra is left humiliated. Menaka was born during the churning of the ocean by the devas and asuras and was one of the most beautiful apsaras in the world with quick intelligence and innate talent but desired a family.
Vishwamitra frightened the gods and tried to create another heaven- Indra, frightened by his powers, sent Menaka from heaven to earth to lure him and break his meditation. Menaka incited Vishwamitra's lust and passion when he saw her beauty, she succeeded in breaking the meditation of Vishwamitra. However, she fell in genuine love with him and a baby was born to them who grew in Sage Kanva's ashram and came to be called Shakuntala. Shakuntala falls in love with King Dushyanta and gives birth to a child called Bharata, but he cursed Menaka to be separated from him forever, for he loved her as well and knew that she had lost all devious intentions towards him long ago. After cursing Menaka, Kaushika goes to the highest mountain of Himalayas to perform an more severe tapasya for over 1000 years, he ceases to eat, reduces his breathing to a bare minimum. He is tested again by Indra, who comes as a poor Brahmin begging for food just as Kaushika is ready to break a fast of many years by eating some rice.
Kaushika gives his food away to Indra and resumes his meditation. Kaushika finally masters his passions, refusing to be provoked by any of Indra's testing and seductive interferences. At the penultimate culmination of a multi-thousand year journey, Kaushika's yogic power is at a peak. At this point, Brahma, as the head of Devas led by Indra, names Kaushika a Brahmarishi and names him Vishvamitra or Friend of All for his unlimited compassion, he goes to meet Vashishta. It was customary that, if a sage was greeted by an equal or superior person, the sage would greet the person. If the sage was greeted by an inferior person, the sage would bless them; when Vishwamitra greeted Vashishta with the pride of being a new Brahmarishi in heart, Vashishta blessed him. All pride and desire left Vishwamitra's heart and he became a clean and clear brahmarishi; when Vishwamitra turned back to leave, Vashishta realised the change of heart and proceeded to greet Vishwamitra. Vishwamitra is embraced by Vashista and their enmity is ended.
Vishvamitra is said to have found Gayatri Mantra. It is a verse f
Pururavas was the first king of the Aila dynasty or the Somavamsha. According to the Vedas, he is a mythological entity associated with Surya and Usha, is believed to reside in the middle region of the cosmos; the Rig Veda was a pious king. However, the Mahabharata states that Ila was both his father. According to the Vishnu Purana, his father was Budha, he was ancestor of the tribe of Pururavas, from whom descended the Kauravas and Pandavas; the earlier version of the narrative of Urvashi and Pururavas is found in the Rigveda and the Śatapaṭha Brāhmaṇa. The versions are found in the Mahābhārata, the Harivaṃsa, the Viṣṇu Purāṇa, the Matsya Purāṇa, the Bhāgavata Purāṇa; the Ṛg-veda, X.129 contains a conversational fragment, written in a wrought poetic style. The hymn suggests that Uṣas is a Apsara. Having been united with a human king, Purūravas, after living together for four autumns left him on his unintentional violation of the stipulated conditions of the union. Purūravas made futile entreaties to her to return to him.
The narrative displays multiple levels of symbolism by playing on the multiplicity of meanings in the Vedic Saṃskṛt terms. While it is a love poem, expressing the conflict of interest between a lover and his beloved, who spurns his love, it expresses the immortal relationship between the Sun and the Dawn. In addition to these two levels of meaning, it offers mantric prescriptions for a ritual activity bent on taking rebirth as a Gandharva or Apsaras; the love story of king Pururavas and celestial nymph Urvashi is found in the Sanskrit drama, Vikramōrvaśīyam, written by the celebrated poet Kalidasa. Pururavas was the son of Ila. Budha was the son of Chandra, the moon god and thus Pururavas was the first Chandravanshi King. Since he was born on Mount Puru, he was called Pururavas. According to the Puranas, Pururavas reigned from Pratisthana, he performed a penance to Lord Brahma and as a reward, he was made the sovereign of the whole earth. Pururavas celebrated a hundred Ashwamedha Yajnas; the Asuras were his followers.
He had six sons. The names of these sons are: Ayu, Vishvayu, Shrutayu and Dridhayu. Nahusha, the son of Ayu, is a well-known name in the Rigveda. A Dictionary of Hindu Mythology & Religion by John Dowson
Flight is the process by which an object moves through an atmosphere without contact with the surface. This can be achieved by generating aerodynamic lift associated with propulsive thrust, aerostatically using buoyancy, or by ballistic movement. Many things can fly, from natural aviators such as birds and insects, to human inventions like aircraft, including airplanes, helicopters and rockets which may carry spacecraft; the engineering aspects of flight are the purview of aerospace engineering, subdivided into aeronautics, the study of vehicles that travel through the air, astronautics, the study of vehicles that travel through space, in ballistics, the study of the flight of projectiles. Humans have managed to construct lighter than air vehicles that raise off the ground and fly, due to their buoyancy in air. An aerostat is a system that remains aloft through the use of buoyancy to give an aircraft the same overall density as air. Aerostats include free balloons and moored balloons. An aerostat's main structural component is its envelope, a lightweight skin that encloses a volume of lifting gas to provide buoyancy, to which other components are attached.
Aerostats are so named because they use "aerostatic" lift, a buoyant force that does not require lateral movement through the surrounding air mass to effect a lifting force. By contrast, aerodynes use aerodynamic lift, which requires the lateral movement of at least some part of the aircraft through the surrounding air mass; some things that fly do not generate propulsive thrust through the air, for example, the flying squirrel. This is termed gliding; some other things can exploit rising air to climb such as man-made sailplane gliders. This is termed soaring; however most other birds and all powered aircraft need a source of propulsion to climb. This is termed powered flight; the only groups of living things that use powered flight are birds and bats, while many groups have evolved gliding. The extinct Pterosaurs, an order of reptiles contemporaneous with the dinosaurs, were very successful flying animals; each of these groups' wings evolved independently. The wings of the flying vertebrate groups are all based on the forelimbs, but differ in structure.
Bats are the only mammals capable of sustaining level flight. However, there are several gliding mammals which are able to glide from tree to tree using fleshy membranes between their limbs. Flying frogs use enlarged webbed feet for a similar purpose, there are flying lizards which fold out their mobile ribs into a pair of flat gliding surfaces. "Flying" snakes use mobile ribs to flatten their body into an aerodynamic shape, with a back and forth motion much the same as they use on the ground. Flying fish can glide using enlarged wing-like fins, have been observed soaring for hundreds of meters, it is thought that this ability was chosen by natural selection because it was an effective means of escape from underwater predators. The longest recorded flight of a flying fish was 45 seconds. Most birds fly, with some exceptions; the largest birds, the ostrich and the emu, are earthbound, as were the now-extinct dodos and the Phorusrhacids, which were the dominant predators of South America in the Cenozoic era.
The non-flying penguins have wings adapted for use under water and use the same wing movements for swimming that most other birds use for flight. Most small flightless birds are native to small islands, lead a lifestyle where flight would offer little advantage. Among living animals that fly, the wandering albatross has up to 3.5 meters. Most species of insects can fly as adults. Insect flight makes use of either of two basic aerodynamic models: creating a leading edge vortex, found in most insects, using clap and fling, found in small insects such as thrips. Mechanical flight is the use of a machine to fly; these machines include aircraft such as airplanes, helicopters, airships, ornithopters as well as spacecraft. Gliders are capable of unpowered flight. Another form of mechanical flight is para-sailing. In an airplane, lift is created by the wings. There are different types of wings: tempered, semi-tempered, sweptback and elliptical. An aircraft wing is sometimes called an airfoil, a device that creates lift when air flows across it.
Supersonic flight is flight faster than the speed of sound. Supersonic flight is associated with the formation of shock waves that form a sonic boom that can be heard from the ground, is startling; this shockwave takes quite a lot of energy to create and this makes supersonic flight less efficient than subsonic flight at about 85% of the speed of sound. Hypersonic flight is high speed flight where the heat generated by the compression of the air due to the motion through the air causes chemical changes to the air. Hypersonic flight is achieved by reentering spacecraft such as Soyuz; some things generate little or no lift and move only or under the action of momentum, air drag and in some cases thrust. This is termed ballistic flight. Examples include balls, bullets, fireworks etc. An extreme form of ballistic flight, spaceflig
The Mahābhārata is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India, the other being the Rāmāyaṇa. It narrates the struggle between two groups of cousins in the Kurukshetra War and the fates of the Kaurava and the Pāṇḍava princes and their succession. Along with the Rāmāyaṇa, it forms the Hindu Itihasa; the Mahābhārata is an epic legendary narrative of the Kurukṣetra War and the fates of the Kaurava and the Pāṇḍava princes. It contains philosophical and devotional material, such as a discussion of the four "goals of life" or puruṣārtha. Among the principal works and stories in the Mahābhārata are the Bhagavad Gita, the story of Damayanti, an abbreviated version of the Rāmāyaṇa, the story of Ṛṣyasringa considered as works in their own right. Traditionally, the authorship of the Mahābhārata is attributed to Vyāsa. There have been many attempts to unravel compositional layers; the oldest preserved parts of the text are thought to be not much older than around 400 BCE, though the origins of the epic fall between the 8th and 9th centuries BCE.
The text reached its final form by the early Gupta period. According to the Mahābhārata itself, the tale is extended from a shorter version of 24,000 verses called Bhārata; the Mahābhārata is the longest epic poem known and has been described as "the longest poem written". Its longest version consists of over 100,000 śloka or over 200,000 individual verse lines, long prose passages. At about 1.8 million words in total, the Mahābhārata is ten times the length of the Iliad and the Odyssey combined, or about four times the length of the Rāmāyaṇa. W. J. Johnson has compared the importance of the Mahābhārata in the context of world civilization to that of the Bible, the works of William Shakespeare, the works of Homer, Greek drama, or the Quran. Within the Indian tradition it is sometimes called the Fifth Veda; the epic is traditionally ascribed to the sage Vyāsa, a major character in the epic. Vyāsa described it as being itihāsa, he describes the Guru-shishya parampara, which traces all great teachers and their students of the Vedic times.
The first section of the Mahābhārata states that it was Gaṇeśa who wrote down the text to Vyasa's dictation. The epic employs the story within a story structure, otherwise known as frametales, popular in many Indian religious and non-religious works, it is first recited at Takshashila by the sage Vaiśampāyana, a disciple of Vyāsa, to the King Janamejaya, the great-grandson of the Pāṇḍava prince Arjuna. The story is recited again by a professional storyteller named Ugraśrava Sauti, many years to an assemblage of sages performing the 12-year sacrifice for the king Saunaka Kulapati in the Naimiśa Forest; the text was described by some early 20th-century western Indologists as chaotic. Hermann Oldenberg supposed that the original poem must once have carried an immense "tragic force" but dismissed the full text as a "horrible chaos." Moritz Winternitz considered that "only unpoetical theologists and clumsy scribes" could have lumped the parts of disparate origin into an unordered whole. Research on the Mahābhārata has put an enormous effort into recognizing and dating layers within the text.
Some elements of the present Mahābhārata can be traced back to Vedic times. The background to the Mahābhārata suggests the origin of the epic occurs "after the early Vedic period" and before "the first Indian'empire' was to rise in the third century B. C." That this is "a date not too far removed from the 8th or 9th century B. C." is likely. Mahābhārata started as an orally-transmitted tale of the charioteer bards, it is agreed that "Unlike the Vedas, which have to be preserved letter-perfect, the epic was a popular work whose reciters would conform to changes in language and style," so the earliest'surviving' components of this dynamic text are believed to be no older than the earliest'external' references we have to the epic, which may include an allusion in Panini's 4th century BCE grammar Aṣṭādhyāyī 4:2:56. It is estimated that the Sanskrit text reached something of a "final form" by the early Gupta period. Vishnu Sukthankar, editor of the first great critical edition of the Mahābhārata, commented: "It is useless to think of reconstructing a fluid text in a original shape, on the basis of an archetype and a stemma codicum.
What is possible? Our objective can only be to reconstruct the oldest form of the text which it is possible to reach on the basis of the manuscript material available." That manuscript evidence is somewhat late, given its material composition and the climate of India, but it is extensive. The Mahābhārata itself distinguishes a core portion of 24,000 verses: the Bhārata proper, as opposed to additional secondary material, while the Aśvalāyana Gṛhyasūtra makes a similar distinction. At least three redactions of the text are recognized: Jaya with 8,800 verses attributed to Vyāsa, Bhārata with 24,000 verses as recited by Vaiśampāyana, the Mahābhārata as recited by Ugraśrava Sauti with over 100,000 verses. However, some scholars, such as John Brockington, argue that Jaya and Bharata refer to the same text, ascribe the theory of Jaya with 8,800 verses to a misreading of a verse in Ādiparvan; the redaction of this large body of text was carried out after formal principles, emphasizing the numbers 18 and 12.
The addition of the latest parts may be dated by the absence of the Anuśāsana-parva and the Virāta parva from the "Spitzer manuscript". The oldest surviving
Arjuna is a central character of the ancient Indian epic Mahabharata, who plays a key role in the Bhagavad Gita alongside Krishna. It is believed. Arjuna was the son of Pandu in the Kuru Kingdom. In a previous birth he was a saint named Nara, the lifelong companion of another saint, Narayana, an incarnation of Lord Vishnu who took rebirth as Lord Krishna, he was the third of the Pandava brothers and was married to Draupadi, Chitrāngadā and Subhadra at different times. His children included Srutakarma, Iravan and Abhimanyu. Arjuna was equal to 12 maharatha class warriors; the name Arjuna means "white", "clear" or "silver" in Sanskrit and is cognate to Latin argentum, meaning "silver." Epithets for Arjuna include: Vijaya: always invincible or undefeated. Dhanañjaya: one who brings prosperity and wealth in the region wherever he goes to. Savyasāchin: ambidextrous, only Arjuna is expert in using both hands in archery. Shvethavāhana: one with milky white horses mounted to his pure white chariot. Only Arjuna had this.
Parantapa: one who concentrates the most. Gāndīvadhanvan: one who possessed the mighty bow named Gandiva, created by Lord Brahma. Gudākesha: one who had control oversleeps. Bībhatsu: one who always fights wars in a fair manner. Kapidhvaja: having the flag of Kapi in his chariot. Lord Hanuman stayed on Arjuna's flag during Kurukshetra war. Kirītin: one who wears the celestial diadem, presented by Lord Indra. Gāndīvadhara: Gandiva-holder. Jishnu: triumphant. Pārtha: son of Pritha known as Kunti. Kaunteya: son of Kunti. Phalguna: born under the star Uttara Phalguni. Madhyapāndava: the middle of the Pandavas, younger than Yudhisthira and Bhima and elder of Nakula and Sahadeva. Arjuna's birth is a most celebrated one and he was born seven months after the birth of Krishna. After the death of Pandu, the Pandavas and their mother lived in Hastinapura, where they were brought up together with their cousins, the Kaurava brothers. Along with his brothers, Arjuna was trained in religion, science and military arts by Bhishma, their granduncle.
One day, when the princes were playing a game, they lost their ball in a well. When the rest of the children gave up the ball as being lost, Arjuna stayed behind trying to get it. A stranger came by and extracted the ball for him by making a chain of "sarkanda"; when an astonished Arjuna related the story to Bhishma, Bhishma realised that the stranger was none other than Drona. Bhishma asked Drona to become the Kuru princes' teacher. Seeking refuge from Panchala, Drona agreed. Many asuras were killed by him. Under Drona's tutelage, the Kauravas and the Pandavas, along with the princes of Hastinapura's allies and vassals, learned weaponry. Arjuna became Drona's most accomplished pupil. In a famous incident, Drona deemed that out of all his students his own son Ashwatthama, none but Arjuna had the steadfast focus to shoot the eye of a bird on a tree. One day, on being questioned by Ashwatthama, his intention was clear that he loved Arjuna but didn't ill-treat anyone. He ordered Ashwatthama to gather all of his students including Ashwatthama to assemble at near by lake that evening.
They did. Drona was taking bath. Nobody except Arjuna were dare to enter into lake. Arjuna jumped into lake & began attacking the mighty crocodile with bare hands. Crocodile disappeared. Drona told everyone that the crocodile was just illusion and created by himself to test all the princes & Ashwatthama. Drona scolded the rest that they were not ready to save their teacher except Arjuna, thus Drona proudly declared that Arjuna was his pet student. Pandavas secretly went from Varnavrat after saving themselves from evil plan of Shakuni. Still in hiding, the Pandavas disguise themselves as brahmins and attend the Swayamvara of Panchala princess Draupadi. Out of all of the great kings and other Kaurava princes, only Arjuna is able to do the established challenge; the test is to lift and fire Pinakin to pierce the eye of a golden fish whilst only looking at its reflection. All kings including Karna and Shalya were defeated in the task. At last Arjuna came forward and lifted bow with just one hand and hit the target hence he won Draupadi.
Karna attacked Arjuna out of jealousy but Arjuna defeated him Karna asked about his real identity, Arjuna smiled and said that he is Brahmin Karna praised him by comparing him with Lord Vishnu. Arjuna threatened to kill Karna; when the brothers returned with Draupadi, Pandavas joked to his mother. Dismissively, without looking because she was preoccupied, Kunti asks him to share it with his brothers. Holding his mother's orders as a divine command, he requested his elder brother to accept Draupadi. Draupadi had to marry all five of the Pandavas, her five sons, one from each of the Pandava brothers, are known as the Upapandavas. Srutakarma is the son of Arjuna. At this point in the Mahabharata, the Pandavas revealed. With both Duryodhan