Aquatic ape hypothesis

The aquatic ape hypothesis referred to as aquatic ape theory proposes an alternative view of hominin evolution: that ancestors of modern humans were more aquatic than those of other great apes. The hypothesis was proposed by the marine biologist Alister Hardy in 1960, who argued that a branch of apes was forced by competition over terrestrial habitats to hunt for food such as shellfish on the sea shore and sea bed leading to adaptations that explained distinctive characteristics of modern humans such as functional hairlessness and bipedalism. Elaine Morgan's 1990 book on the hypothesis, Scars of Evolution, received some favorable reviews but was subject to criticism from the anthropologist John Langdon in 1997, who characterized it as an "umbrella hypothesis" with inconsistencies that were unresolved and a claim to parsimony, false; the hypothesis has been deprecated as pseudoscience, but when explicitly asked in an online survey, only a small proportion of scientists agreed with this characterization.

In the survey, paleoanthropologists were much more critical of AAH than experts on human biology were. The hypothesis remains controversial and is thought to be more popular with the lay public than with scientists; the German pathologist Max Westenhöfer discussed in 1942 various human characteristics that could have derived from an aquatic past, quoting several other authors who had made similar speculations. As he did not believe human beings were apes, he believed this might have been during the Cretaceous, contrary to what is possible given the geologic and evolutionary biology evidence available at the time, he stated: "The postulation of an aquatic mode of life during an early stage of human evolution is a tenable hypothesis, for which further inquiry may produce additional supporting evidence." He abandoned the concept. Independently of Westenhöfer's writings, the marine biologist Alister Hardy had since 1930 hypothesized that humans may have had ancestors more aquatic than imagined, although his work, unlike Westenhöfer's, was rooted in the Darwinian consensus.

On the advice of his colleagues, Hardy delayed presenting the hypothesis for thirty years. After he had become a respected academic and knighted for contributions to marine biology, Hardy voiced his thoughts in a speech to the British Sub-Aqua Club in Brighton on 5 March 1960. Several national newspapers reported sensational presentations of Hardy's ideas, which he countered by explaining them more in an article in New Scientist on 17 March 1960: "My thesis is that a branch of this primitive ape-stock was forced by competition from life in the trees to feed on the sea-shores and to hunt for food, sea-urchins etc. in the shallow waters off the coast."The idea was ignored by the scientific community after the article was published. Some interest was received, notably from the geographer Carl Sauer whose views on the role of the seashore in human evolution "stimulated tremendous progress in the study of coastal and aquatic adaptations" inside marine archaeology. In 1967, the hypothesis was mentioned in The Naked Ape, a popular book by the zoologist Desmond Morris, who reduced Hardy's phrase "more aquatic ape-like ancestors" to the bare "aquatic ape", commenting that "despite its most appealing indirect evidence, the aquatic theory lacks solid support".

While traditional descriptions of'savage' existence identified three common sources of sustenance: gathering of fruit and nuts and hunting, in the 1950s, the anthropologist Raymond Dart focused on hunting and gathering as the organizing concept of human society in prehistory, hunting was the focus of the screenwriter Robert Ardrey's 1961 best-seller African Genesis. Another screenwriter, Elaine Morgan, responded to this focus in her 1972 Descent of Woman, which parodied the conventional picture of "the Tarzanlike figure of the prehominid who came down from the trees, saw a grassland teeming with game, picked up a weapon and became a Mighty Hunter," and pictured a more peaceful scene of humans by the seashore, she took her lead from a section in Morris's 1967 book which referred to the possibility of an Aquatic Ape period in evolution, his name for the speculation by the biologist Alister Hardy in 1960. When it aroused no reaction in the academic community, she dropped the feminist criticism and wrote a series of books–The Aquatic Ape, The Scars of Evolution, The Descent of the Child, The Aquatic Ape Hypothesis and The Naked Darwinist –which explored the issues in more detail.

Books published on the topic since have avoided the contentious term aquatic and used waterside instead. Hardy's hypothesis as outlined in the New Scientist was: My thesis is that a branch of this primitive ape-stock was forced by competition from life in the trees to feed on the sea-shores and to hunt for food, shell fish, sea-urchins etc. in the shallow waters off the coast. I suppose that they were forced into the water just as we have seen happen in so many other groups of terrestrial animals. I am imagining this happening in the warmer parts of the world, in the tropical seas where Man could stand being in the water for long periods, that is, several hours at a stretch. Hardy argued, he pointed to humans' lack of body hair as being analogous to the same lack seen in whales and hippopotamuses, noted the layer of subcutaneous fat humans have that Hardy believed other apes lacked, although it has been shown that captive apes with ample acce

Cuisine of Ohio

The Cuisine of Ohio is part of the broader regional cuisine of the Midwestern United States. This region was rich in natural resources including wild turkeys, deer and pigeons in large numbers, along with large buffalo herds; the buffalo population dwindled as settlement increased, but were still being hunted in southeastern Ohio as late as 1792. In 1785, Richard Butler gave details of a supper that included "fine roast buffalo beef, soup of buffalo beef and turkeys, fried turkeys, fried cat fish, fresh caught, roast ducks, good punch, claret and toddy"; the "fine venison, bear meat and catfish" eaten by Butler's party was supplied by hunting and fishing, or in Butler's words "procured by themselves at pleasure". Venison and turkey were the most popular game, fish like pike, sturgeon, pickerel and perch were plentiful. In lean times raccoons, squirrels and other less desirable game could be consumed. One writer in the Revolutionary era wrote. Wheat didn't take to the rich soils around Ohio so wheat bread remained a rare luxury, many crops were hard to come by in the early years.

When The Ohio Company settled Marietta in the spring of 1788 they planted potatoes, pumpkins, squash, melons and cucumbers. Unexpectedly harsh weather in 1789 destroyed the crops that year leading to severe food shortages in what came to be called "the starving year". Pork was preserved by various methods, the most common being brining in a pork barrel, but hogs were few in number and salt had to be carried across the Allegheny Mountains to reach the Ohio Company settlement. By winter's end many families had run out of cornmeal, the wealthiest families were left with little more than a few potatoes. At the first signs of spring pioneers gathered nettles and purslane, but it wasn't until July that new corn and squash were harvested early and made into soup. In 1792 Jack Heckewelder described corn, potatoes, oats and wheat growing in Cincinnati, though settlement in the area was still sparse a garrison of around 200 at Fort Washington had planted "very fine" vegetable gardens. Buckwheat cakes were common, the travel journal of Francis Bailey from 1797 notes that settlers extracted the syrup of sugar maples and depended on game meats like wild turkey and venison during the winter months.

Buckeye candy is a local specialty, popular in the state of Ohio. The confection is a variation of standard peanut butter cups known as a'Buckeye'. Coated in chocolate, with a exposed center of peanut butter fudge, the candy resembles the appearance of the nut that grows on the state tree known as the buckeye. Cincinnati-style chili is a Greek-inspired meat sauce, used as a topping for hot dogs. Additionally, red beans, chopped onions, shredded cheese are offered as extra toppings referred to as "ways." A popular snack food in Ohio are Sauerkraut Balls, a meatball-sized fritter containing sauerkraut and some combination of ham and pork. The recipe was invented in the late 1950s by two brothers and Roman Gruber for their five star restaurant, Gruber's, located in Shaker Heights, Ohio; these were a derivative of the various ethnic cultures of Northeast Ohio, which includes Akron and Greater Cleveland. An annual Sauerkraut Festival is held in Ohio. At which sauerkraut balls, along with other sauerkraut specialities, are served.

Clam bakes are popular in Northeast Ohio. The region, part of the Connecticut Western Reserve, was settled by people from Connecticut and other New England states. A typical Northeast Ohio clam bake includes clams, sweet potatoes and other side dishes. Unlike in New England, seaweed is not used and the clams and sweet potatoes are all steamed together in a large pot. Barberton, part of the greater Akron area, is a small industrial city and home of Barberton Chicken, a dish of chicken deep fried in lard, created by Serbian immigrants, it is accompanied by a hot rice dish, vinegar coleslaw and french fries


Lichtgestalt is a 2005 album by German gothic rock duo Lacrimosa. The album was released on 2 May 2005 by Hall of Sermon. Recorded in 2005, it consists of 9 tracks, including the two different versions of "The Party Is Over"; the album has strong elements of symphonic metal. The album continues in the musical vein of Lacrimosa's previous albums, in contrast to Tilo Wolff's other musical project, Snakeskin; the style changes between calm songs with string instruments and aggressive electric guitar tracks. Lyrics cover Lacrimosa's by-now standard themes of love and loneliness. A notable exception is the last individual track, "Hohelied der Liebe", a song written for orchestra and choir with rock elements, with lyrics taken from St Paul's First Epistle to the Corinthians. All songs written, arranged, orchestrated & produced by Tilo Wolff except the lyrics of "Hohelied der Liebe" taken from the Holy Bible. Arranged By, Composed By, Orchestrated By, Written-By – Tilo Wolff BassYenz Leonhardt Bass – Susanne Vogel Bassoon – Philip Kreinert Cello – Boris Matchin Choir – Arno Schubert, Christian Hammerschick, Kanemaki Chor, Rosenberg Ensemble, Thomas Günther Clarinet – Thomas Gramatzki ConductorChristopher Clayton Conductor – Andrey Zubrich Double Bass – Katharina C.

Bunners Drums – AC, Manne Uhlig, Thomas Nack Flute – Thomas Gramatzki Guitar – Sascha Gerbig Guitar, Bass – Jay P. Oboe – Thomas Rohde Orchestra – Spielmann-Schnyder Philharmonie*, Victor Smolski Symphonic Orchestra Viola – Thomas Oepen Viola, Cello – Birte Schultz Violin – Stefan Pintev Violin – Rodrigo Reichel Vocals, Keyboards – Anne Nurmi Vocals, Programmed By, Trumpet – Tilo Wolff