Etching is traditionally the process of using strong acid or mordant to cut into the unprotected parts of a metal surface to create a design in intaglio in the metal. In modern manufacturing, other chemicals may be used on other types of material, as a method of printmaking, it is, along with engraving, the most important technique for old master prints, and remains in wide use today. In a number of variants such as microfabrication etching and photochemical milling it is a crucial technique in much modern technology. In traditional pure etching, a plate is covered with a waxy ground which is resistant to acid. The artist scratches off the ground with an etching needle where he or she wants a line to appear in the finished piece. The échoppe, a tool with an oval section, is used for swelling lines. The plate is dipped in a bath of acid, technically called the mordant or etchant. The acid bites into the metal where it is exposed, leaving behind lines sunk into the plate, the remaining ground is cleaned off the plate.
The plate is inked all over, and the ink wiped off the surface, the plate is put through a high-pressure printing press together with a sheet of paper. The paper picks up the ink from the lines, making a print. The process can be repeated many times, typically several hundred impressions could be printed before the shows much sign of wear. The work on the plate can be added to by repeating the whole process, Etching has often been combined with other intaglio techniques such as engraving or aquatint. The process as applied to printmaking is believed to have been invented by Daniel Hopfer of Augsburg, Hopfer was a craftsman who decorated armour in this way, and applied the method to printmaking, using iron plates. Apart from his prints, there are two examples of his work on armour, a shield from 1536 now in the Real Armeria of Madrid. The switch to copper plates was made in Italy. On the other hand, the handling of the ground and acid need skill and experience, prior to 1100 AD, the New World Hohokam independently utilized the technique of acid etching in marine shell designs.
Jacques Callot from Nancy in Lorraine made important technical advances in etching technique and he developed the échoppe, a type of etching-needle with a slanting oval section at the end, which enabled etchers to create a swelling line, as engravers were able to do. Callot appears to have responsible for an improved, recipe for the etching ground
John James Audubon
John James Audubon was an American ornithologist and painter. He was notable for his extensive studies documenting all types of American birds and his major work, a color-plate book entitled The Birds of America, is considered one of the finest ornithological works ever completed. Audubon was born in Les Cayes in the French colony of Saint-Domingue on his fathers sugarcane plantation and he was the son of Lieutenant Jean Audubon, a French naval officer from the south of Brittany, and his mistress Jeanne Rabine, a 27-year-old chambermaid from Les Touches, Brittany. They named the boy Jean Rabin and his mother died when the boy was a few months old, as she had suffered from tropical disease since arriving on the island. His father already had an number of mixed-race children, some by his mulatto housekeeper. Following Jeanne Rabins death, Jean Audubon renewed his relationship with Sanitte Bouffard and had a daughter by her, Bouffard took care of the infant boy Jean. The senior Audubon had commanded ships, during the American Revolution, he had been imprisoned by Britain.
After his release, he helped the American cause and he had long worked to save money and secure his familys future with real estate. In 1791 he arranged for his natural children Jean and Muguet, the children were raised in Couëron, near Nantes, France, by Audubon and his French wife Anne Moynet Audubon, whom he had married years before his time in Saint-Domingue. In 1794 they formally adopted both his children to regularize their legal status in France. They renamed the boy Jean-Jacques Fougère Audubon and the girl Rose, when Audubon, at age 18, boarded ship in 1803 to immigrate to the United States, he changed his name to an anglicized form, John James Audubon. From his earliest days, Audubon had an affinity for birds, I felt an intimacy with them. bordering on frenzy must accompany my steps through life. His father encouraged his interest in nature, He would point out the elegant movement of the birds, and he called my attention to their show of pleasure or sense of danger, their perfect forms and splendid attire.
He would speak of their departure and return with the seasons, in France during the chaotic years of the French Revolution and its aftermath, the younger Audubon grew up to be a handsome and gregarious man. He played flute and violin, and learned to ride, fence, a great walker, he loved roaming in the woods, often returning with natural curiosities, including birds eggs and nests, of which he made crude drawings. His father planned to make a seaman of his son, at twelve, Audubon went to military school and became a cabin boy. He quickly found out that he was susceptible to seasickness and not fond of mathematics or navigation, after failing the officers qualification test, Audubon ended his incipient naval career. He was cheerfully back on solid ground and exploring the fields again, in 1803, his father obtained a false passport so that Audubon could go to the United States to avoid conscription in the Napoleonic Wars
Color printing or colour printing is the reproduction of an image or text in color. The additive combination of any two colors in roughly equal proportion gives rise to the perception of a secondary color. For example and green yields yellow and blue yields magenta, yellow and magenta are merely the basic secondary colors, unequal mixtures of the primaries give rise to perception of many other colors all of which may be considered tertiary. While there are techniques for reproducing images in color, specific graphic processes. In this type of industrial or commercial printing, the used to print full-color images. Four inks are used, three colors plus black. These ink colors are cyan, magenta and key, cyan can be thought of as minus-red, magenta as minus-green, and yellow as minus-blue. These inks are semi-transparent or translucent, where two such inks overlap on the paper due to sequential printing impressions, a primary color is perceived. For example, yellow overprinted by magenta yields red, the secondary or subtractive colors cyan and yellow may be considered primary by printers and watercolorists.
Two graphic techniques are required to prepare images for four-color printing, in the pre-press stage, original images are translated into forms that can be used on a printing press, through color separation, and screening or halftoning. These steps make possible the creation of printing plates that can transfer color impressions to paper on printing presses based on the principles of lithography. An emerging method of printing is six-color process printing which adds orange and green to the traditional CMYK inks for a larger and more vibrant gamut. However, such alternate color systems still rely on color separation, color printing can involve as few as one color ink, or multiple color inks which are not the primary colors. Using a limited number of inks, or specific color inks in addition to the primary colors, is referred to as spot color printing. Generally, spot-color inks are specific formulations that are designed to print alone, the range of available spot color inks, much like paint, is nearly unlimited, and much more varied than the colors that can be produced by four-color-process printing.
Spot-color inks range from pastels to intense fluorescents to reflective metallics. Color printing involves a series of steps, or transformations, to generate a quality color reproduction, the following sections focus on the steps used when reproducing a color image in CMYK printing, along with some historical perspective. Woodblock printing on textiles preceded printing on paper in both Asia and Europe, and the use of different blocks to produce patterns in color was common
It is semi-transparent and varies in color from yellow to black. At room temperature rosin is brittle, but it melts at stove-top temperature and it chiefly consists of various resin acids, especially abietic acid. The term colophony comes from colophonia resina, Latin for resin from Colophon, Rosin is an ingredient in printing inks and laser printing paper, adhesives, paper sizing, soldering fluxes, and sealing wax. Rosin can be used as an agent in medicines and chewing gum. It is denoted by E number E915, a related glycerol ester can be used as an emulsifier in soft drinks. In pharmaceuticals, rosin forms an ingredient in several plasters and ointments, in industry, rosin is a flux used in soldering. It is frequently seen as the burnt or clear residue around new soldering, a mixture of pitch and rosin is used to make a surface against which glass is polished when making optical components such as lenses. Rosin is added in quantities to traditional linseed oil/sand gap fillers. When mixed with waxes and oils, rosin is the ingredient of mystic smoke, a gum which.
Extra substances such as beeswax, silver, tin, or meteoric iron are added to the rosin to modify its stiction/friction properties. Powdered rosin can be applied to new hair, for example with a pad or cloth. Rosin is often applied to the bow before playing the instrument, lighter rosin is generally preferred for violins and violas, and in high-humidity climates, while darker rosins are preferred for cellos, and for players in cool, dry areas. There are specific, distinguishing types for basses—for more see Bow, violin rosin can be applied to the bridges in other musical instruments, such as the banjo and banjolele, in order to prevent the bridge from moving during vigorous playing. Ballet and Irish dancers are known to rub the tips and it was at one time used in the same way in fencing and is still used as such by boxers. Gymnasts and team handball players use it to improve grip, rock climbers have used it in some locations, but it fouls the rock, so usage is now highly discouraged. Olympic weightlifters rub the soles of their boots in rosin to improve traction on the platform.
It is applied onto the line of drag racing courses used to improve traction. Bull riders rub rosin on their rope and glove for additional grip, baseball pitchers and ten-pin bowlers may use a small cloth bag of powdered rosin for better ball control
La Tauromaquia is a series of 33 prints created by the Spanish painter and printmaker Francisco Goya, which was published in 1816. The works of the series depict bullfighting scenes, Goya created Tauromaquia between 1815 and 1816, at the age of 69, during a break from his famous series The Disasters of War. Because of their subjects, few people had seen these works during Goyas lifetime. Bullfighting was not politically sensitive, and the series was published at the end of 1816 in an edition of 320—for sale individually or in sets—without incident and it did not meet with critical or commercial success. Indicative of his love for bulls is the fact that he signed one of his letters as Francisco de los Toros, Goya used mainly the techniques of etching and aquatint in this series. The artist focuses on the violent scenes that take place in the bullring, www. museodelprado. es - Goya en el Prado, Tauromaquia National Gallery of Art, Washington
Amsterdam is the capital and most populous municipality of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. Its status as the capital is mandated by the Constitution of the Netherlands, although it is not the seat of the government, which is The Hague. Amsterdam has a population of 851,373 within the city proper,1,351,587 in the urban area, the city is located in the province of North Holland in the west of the country. The metropolitan area comprises much of the part of the Randstad, one of the larger conurbations in Europe. Amsterdams name derives from Amstelredamme, indicative of the citys origin around a dam in the river Amstel, during that time, the city was the leading centre for finance and diamonds. In the 19th and 20th centuries the city expanded, and many new neighborhoods and suburbs were planned, the 17th-century canals of Amsterdam and the 19–20th century Defence Line of Amsterdam are on the UNESCO World Heritage List. As the commercial capital of the Netherlands and one of the top financial centres in Europe, Amsterdam is considered a world city by the Globalization.
The city is the capital of the Netherlands. Many large Dutch institutions have their headquarters there, and seven of the worlds 500 largest companies, including Philips and ING, are based in the city. In 2012, Amsterdam was ranked the second best city to live in by the Economist Intelligence Unit and 12th globally on quality of living for environment, the city was ranked 3rd in innovation by Australian innovation agency 2thinknow in their Innovation Cities Index 2009. The Amsterdam seaport to this day remains the second in the country, famous Amsterdam residents include the diarist Anne Frank, artists Rembrandt van Rijn and Vincent van Gogh, and philosopher Baruch Spinoza. The Amsterdam Stock Exchange, the oldest stock exchange in the world, is located in the city center. After the floods of 1170 and 1173, locals near the river Amstel built a bridge over the river, the earliest recorded use of that name is in a document dated October 27,1275, which exempted inhabitants of the village from paying bridge tolls to Count Floris V.
This allowed the inhabitants of the village of Aemstelredamme to travel freely through the County of Holland, paying no tolls at bridges, the certificate describes the inhabitants as homines manentes apud Amestelledamme. By 1327, the name had developed into Aemsterdam, Amsterdam is much younger than Dutch cities such as Nijmegen and Utrecht. In October 2008, historical geographer Chris de Bont suggested that the land around Amsterdam was being reclaimed as early as the late 10th century. This does not necessarily mean there was already a settlement then, since reclamation of land may not have been for farming—it may have been for peat. Amsterdam was granted city rights in either 1300 or 1306, from the 14th century on, Amsterdam flourished, largely from trade with the Hanseatic League
Jacques Villon was a French Cubist painter and printmaker. Born Emile Méry Frédéric Gaston Duchamp in Damville, Eure, in the Haute-Normandie region of France, he came from a prosperous, while he was a young man, his maternal grandfather Emile Nicolle, successful businessman and artist, taught him and his siblings. There, he studied law at the University of Paris, to distinguish himself from his siblings, Gaston Duchamp adopted the pseudonym of Jacques Villon as a tribute to the French medieval poet François Villon. His work appeared in the satirical weekly Le Courrier français, in 1903 he helped organize the drawing section of the first Salon dAutomne in Paris. In 1904-1905 he studied art at the Académie Julian, during the First World War, Villon worked as a cartographer for the army. At first, he was influenced by Edgar Degas and Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, but he participated in the fauvist, Cubist, by 1906, Montmartre was a bustling community and Jacques Villon moved to Puteaux in the quiet outskirts of Paris.
There, he began to more of his time to working in drypoint. During this time he worked closely to develop his technique with other important printmakers such as Manuel Robbe and his isolation from the vibrant art community in Montmartre, together with his modest nature, ensured that he and his artwork remained obscure for a number of years. Villon was instrumental in having the group exhibit under the name Section dOr after the section of classical mathematics. Their first show, Salon de la Section dOr, held at the Galerie La Boétie in October 1912, in 1913, Villon created seven large drypoints in which forms break into shaded pyramidal planes. That year, he exhibited at the Armory Show in New York City and his works proved popular and all his art sold. From there, his reputation expanded so that by the 1930s he was known in the United States than in Europe. In May 2004, an oil painting by Villon dated 1913 entitled LAcrobate, an exhibition of Jacques Villons work was held in Paris in 1944 at the Galerie Louis Carré, following which he received honors at a number of international exhibitions.
In 1938 he was named Chevalier of the Legion of Honor, in 1947 he was promoted to Officier of the Legion of Honor. In 1950, Villon received the Carnegie Prize, the highest award for painting in the world, the following year he was commissioned to design stained-glass windows for the cathedral at Metz, France. In 1956 he was awarded the Grand Prix at the Venice Biennale exhibition, Villon died in his studio at Puteaux. In 1967, in Rouen, his last surviving artist brother Marcel helped organize an exhibition called Les Duchamp, Jacques Villon, Raymond Duchamp-Villon, Marcel Duchamp, some of this family exhibition was shown at the Musée National dArt Moderne in Paris. C. Art Gallery of New South Wales, Bibliothèque Nationale, leading private collections which include the works of Villon are the Joachim Collection of Chicago, the Vess Collection of Detroit, and the Ginestet Collection of Paris
Philibert-Louis Debucourt, was a French painter and engraver. Debucourt, was born in Paris in 1755, and became a pupil of Vien and he executed a few plates in mezzotint, such as the Heureuse famille, the Benediction de la mariée, and the Cruche cassée, after his own designs. Most of his work was, however, in aquatint and he became the leading maker of multi-plate colour prints, combining washes of aquatint with line-engraving. He used a number of different techniques, but most involved three colour plates, and a key plate, outlining the design in black. Debucourts father-in-law was the sculptor Louis-Philippe Mouchy, in the marriage contract Mouchy generously offered to provide a three-room apartment at the Louvre, where Debucourt lived for twelve and a half years. The address of this apartment is often given on his prints, some of his work was satirical, such as La promenade publique, an aquatint of 1792 showing a crowd in the gardens the Palais-Royal. As well as work from his own designs, he made aquatints after Carle Vernet, including the Horse Frightened by a Lion, the Horse Frightened by Lightning, Debucourt was assisted for some years by his pupil and nephew, Jean-Pierre-Marie Jazet.
He died at Belleville in 1832
Intaglio is the family of printing and printmaking techniques in which the image is incised into a surface and the incised line or sunken area holds the ink. It is the direct opposite of a relief print, copper or zinc plates are used as a surface or matrix, and the incisions are created by etching, drypoint, aquatint or mezzotint. Collagraphs may be printed as intaglio plates, in etching, for example, the plate is covered in a resin ground or an acid-resistant wax material. Using an etching needle, or a tool, the image is engraved into the ground. The plate is dipped into acid. The acid bites into the surface of the plate where it was exposed, biting is a printmaking term to describe the acids etching, or incising, of the image. After the plate is bitten, the plate is removed from the acid bath. To print an intaglio plate, ink is applied to the surface by wiping and/or dabbing the plate to push the ink into the recessed lines, the plate is rubbed with tarlatan cloth to remove most of the excess ink.
The final smooth wipe is often done with newspaper or old public phone book pages, a damp piece of paper is placed on top of the plate, so that when going through the press the damp paper will be able to be squeezed into the plates ink-filled grooves. The paper and plate are covered by a thick blanket to ensure even pressure when going through the rolling press. The rolling press applies very high pressure through the blanket to push the paper into the grooves on the plate, the blanket is lifted, revealing the paper and printed image. Martin Schongauer was one of the earliest known artists to exploit the copper-engraving technique and Netherlandish engraving began slightly after the Germans, but were well developed by 1500. Drypoint and etching were German inventions of the century, probably by the Housebook Master. In the nineteenth century, Viennese printer Karel Klíč introduced a combined intaglio, photogravure retained the smooth continuous tones of photography but was printed using a chemically-etched copper plate.
This permitted a photographic image to be printed on regular paper, at one time intaglio printing was used for all mass-printed materials including banknotes, stock certificates and magazines, fabrics and sheet music. Today intaglio engraving is largely used for paper or plastic currency, passports, photogravure, an intaglio photo-printmaking process Rotogravure Line engraving Viscosity printing History of printing Intaglio and other printmaking definitions
Printmaking is the process of making artworks by printing, normally on paper. Printmaking normally covers only the process of creating prints that have an element of originality, except in the case of monotyping, the process is capable of producing multiples of the same piece, which is called a print. Each print produced is not considered a copy but rather is considered an original, a print may be known as an impression. Printmaking is not chosen only for its ability to multiple impressions. Prints are created by transferring ink from a matrix or through a screen to a sheet of paper or other material. Screens made of silk or synthetic fabrics are used for the screenprinting process, other types of matrix substrates and related processes are discussed below. Multiple impressions printed from the matrix form an edition. Prints may be printed in book form, such as illustrated books or artists books, Printmaking techniques are generally divided into the following basic categories, where ink is applied to the original surface of the matrix.
Relief techniques include woodcut or woodblock as the Asian forms are known, wood engraving. Intaglio, where ink is applied beneath the surface of the matrix. Intaglio techniques include engraving, mezzotint, planographic, where the matrix retains its original surface, but is specially prepared and/or inked to allow for the transfer of the image. Planographic techniques include lithography and digital techniques, where ink or paint is pressed through a prepared screen, including screenprinting and pochoir. Other types of printmaking techniques outside these groups include collagraphy and viscosity printing, collagraphy is a printmaking technique in which textured material is adhered to the printing matrix. This texture is transferred to the paper during the printing process, Contemporary printmaking may include digital printing, photographic mediums, or a combination of digital and traditional processes. Many of these techniques can be combined, especially within the same family, for example, Rembrandts prints are usually referred to as etchings for convenience, but very often include work in engraving and drypoint as well, and sometimes have no etching at all.
Woodcut, a type of print, is the earliest printmaking technique. It was probably first developed as a means of printing patterns on cloth, woodcuts of images on paper developed around 1400 in Japan, and slightly in Europe. These are the two areas where woodcut has been most extensively used purely as a process for making images without text, the artist draws a design on a plank of wood, or on paper which is transferred to the wood
Mezzotint is a printmaking process of the intaglio family, technically a drypoint method. It was the first tonal method to be used, enabling half-tones to be produced without using line- or dot-based techniques like hatching, cross-hatching or stipple. Mezzotint achieves tonality by roughening the plate with thousands of little dots made by a tool with small teeth. In printing, the pits in the plate hold the ink when the face of the plate is wiped clean. A high level of quality and richness in the print can be achieved, the mezzotint printmaking method was invented by the German amateur artist Ludwig von Siegen. His earliest mezzotint print dates to 1642 and is a portrait of Countess Amalie Elisabeth of Hanau-Münzenberg and this was made by working from light to dark. The rocker seems to have been invented by Prince Rupert of the Rhine, a cavalry commander in the English Civil War, who was the next to use the process. Sir Peter Lely saw the potential for using it to publicise his portraits, the process was especially widely used in England from the mid-eighteenth century, to reproduce portraits and other paintings.
Since the mid-nineteenth century it has relatively little used. Robert Kipniss and Peter Ilsted are two notable 20th-century exponents of the technique, M. C, British mezzotint collecting was a great craze from about 1760 to the Great Crash of 1929, spreading to America. The favourite period to collect was roughly from 1750 to 1820, leading collectors included William Eaton, 2nd Baron Cheylesmore and the Irishman John Chaloner Smith. This became the most common method, the whole surface of a metal, usually copper, plate is roughened evenly, manually with a rocker, or mechanically. If the plate were printed at this point it would show as solid black, a burnisher has a smooth, round end, which flattens the minutely protruding points comprising the roughened surface of the metal printing plate. Areas smoothed completely flat will not hold ink at all, such areas will print white, by varying the degree of smoothing, mid-tones between black and white can be created, hence the name mezzo-tinto which is Italian for half-tone or half-painted.
This is called working from dark to light, or the subtractive method, alternatively, it is possible to create the image directly by only roughening a blank plate selectively, where the darker parts of the image are to be. This is called working from light to dark, or the additive method, the first mezzotints by Ludwig von Siegen were made in this way. Especially in this method, the mezzotint can be combined with other techniques, such as engraving, on areas of the plate not roughened. The plate is put through a printing press next to a sheet of paper
The Disasters of War
The Disasters of War is a series of 82 prints created between 1810 and 1820 by the Spanish painter and printmaker Francisco Goya. Although deeply affected by the war, he kept private his thoughts on the art he produced in response to the conflict and he was in poor health and almost deaf when, at 62, he began work on the prints. They were not published until 1863,35 years after his death and it is likely that only was it considered politically safe to distribute a sequence of artworks criticising both the French and restored Bourbons. In total over a thousand sets have been printed, though ones are of lower quality, the name by which the series is known today is not Goyas own. His handwritten title on an album of proofs given to a friend reads, Fatal consequences of Spains bloody war with Bonaparte, aside from the titles or captions given to each print, these are Goyas only known words on the series. With these works, he breaks from a number of painterly traditions and he rejects the bombastic heroics of most previous Spanish war art to show the effect of conflict on individuals.
In addition he abandons colour in favour of a more direct truth he found in shadow, the series was produced using a variety of intaglio printmaking techniques, mainly etching for the line work and aquatint for the tonal areas, but engraving and drypoint. As with many other Goya prints, they are referred to as aquatints. The series is considered in three groups which broadly mirror the order of their creation. The first 47 focus on incidents from the war and show the consequences of the conflict on individual soldiers, the middle series record the effects of the famine that hit Madrid in 1811–12, before the city was liberated from the French. Napoleon I of France declared himself First Consul of the French Republic on 18 February 1799, because Spain controlled access to the Mediterranean, it was politically and strategically important to the French. The reigning Spanish sovereign, Charles IV, was regarded as ineffectual. Seduced by the French offer, Godoy accepted, failing to detect the true motivations of either Napoleon or Ferdinand, under the guise of reinforcing the Spanish armies,23,000 French troops entered Spain unopposed in November 1807.
Even when their intentions became clear the following February, the forces faced little resistance besides isolated actions in disconnected areas. They decided that Napoleons brother, Joseph Bonaparte, should be king, under a pretext of mediation, Napoleon summoned Charles and Ferdinand to Bayonne, where they were coerced into relinquishing their rights to the throne in favour of Joseph. Like other Spanish liberals, Goya was left in a position after the French invasion. He had supported the aims of the French Revolution, and hoped its ideals would help liberate Spain from feudalism to become a secular. The latter divide became more pronounced—and the differences far more entrenched—following the eventual withdrawal of the French, several of Goyas friends, including the poets Juan Meléndez Valdés and Leandro Fernández de Moratín, were overt afrancesados, the supporters of Joseph Bonaparte