The Arab Spring was a series of anti-government protests and armed rebellions that spread across much of the Arab world in the early 2010s. It began in response to oppressive regimes and a low standard of living, starting with protests in Tunisia; the protests spread to five other countries: Libya, Yemen and Bahrain, where either the regime was toppled or major uprisings and social violence occurred, including riots, civil wars or insurgencies. Sustained street demonstrations took place in Morocco, Algeria, Iranian Khuzestan, Jordan, Kuwait and Sudan. Minor protests occurred in Djibouti, the Palestinian National Authority, Saudi Arabia, the Moroccan-occupied Western Sahara. A major slogan of the demonstrators in the Arab world is ash-shaʻb yurīd isqāṭ an-niẓām; the importance of external factors versus internal factors to the protests' spread and success is contested. Social media is one way governments. In many countries, governments shut down certain sites or blocked Internet service especially in the times preceding a major rally.
Governments accused content creators of unrelated crimes or shutting down communication on specific sites or groups, such as Facebook. In the news, social media has been heralded as the driving force behind the swift spread of revolution throughout the world, as new protests appear in response to success stories shared from those taking place in other countries; the wave of initial revolutions and protests faded by mid-2012, as many Arab Spring demonstrations met with violent responses from authorities, as well as from pro-government militias, counter-demonstrators and militaries. These attacks were answered with violence from protestors in some cases. Large-scale conflicts resulted: the Syrian Civil War. Regimes that lacked major oil wealth and hereditary succession arrangements were more to undergo regime change. A power struggle continued after the immediate response to the Arab Spring. While leadership changed and regimes were held accountable, power vacuums opened across the Arab world, it resulted in a contentious battle between a consolidation of power by religious elites and the growing support for democracy in many Muslim-majority states.
The early hopes that these popular movements would end corruption, increase political participation, bring about greater economic equity collapsed in the wake of the counter-revolutionary moves by foreign state actors in Yemen, the regional and international military interventions in Bahrain and Yemen, the destructive civil wars in Syria, Iraq and Yemen. Some have referred to still ongoing conflicts as the Arab Winter; as of May 2018, only the uprising in Tunisia has resulted in a transition to constitutional democratic governance. Recent uprisings in Sudan and Algeria show that the conditions that started the Arab Spring are not going away and political movements against authoritarianism and exploitation are still occurring. In 2019 multiple uprisings and protest movements in Algeria, Iraq and Egypt have been seen as a continuation of the Arab Spring; the term "Arab Spring" is an allusion to the Revolutions of 1848, which are sometimes referred to as the "Springtime of Nations", the Prague Spring in 1968.
In the aftermath of the Iraq War, it was used by various commentators and bloggers who anticipated a major Arab movement towards democratization. The first specific use of the term Arab Spring as used to denote these events may have started with the American political journal Foreign Policy. Political scientist Marc Lynch described "Arab Spring" as "a term I may have unintentionally coined in a 6 January 2011 article" for Foreign Policy magazine. Joseph Massad on Al Jazeera said the term was "part of a US strategy of controlling aims and goals" and directing it towards western-style liberal democracy; when Arab Spring protests in some countries were followed by electoral success for Islamist parties, some American pundits coined the terms "Islamist Spring" and "Islamist Winter". Some observers have drawn comparisons between the Arab Spring movements and the Revolutions of 1989 that swept through Eastern Europe and the Second World, in terms of their scale and significance. Others, have pointed out that there are several key differences between the movements, such as the desired outcomes, the effectiveness of civil resistance, the organizational role of Internet-based technologies in the Arab revolutions.
The world watched the events of the Arab Spring unfold, "gripped by the narrative of a young generation peacefully rising up against oppressive authoritarianism to secure a more democratic political system and a brighter economic future". The Arab Spring is believed to have been instigated by dissatisfaction of youth and unions, with the rule of local governments, though some have speculated that wide gaps in income levels and pressures caused by the Great Recession may have had a hand as well; some activists had taken part in programs sponsored by the U. S.-funded National Endowment for Democracy, but the U. S. government claimed. Numerous factors led to the protests, including issues such as monarchy, human rights violations, political corruption, economic decline, extreme poverty, a number of demographic structural factors, such as a large percentage of educ
David Topliss known by the nickname of "Toppo", was an English World Cup winning professional rugby league footballer who played in the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s, coached in the 1980s and 1990s. He played at representative level for Great Britain and Yorkshire, at club level for Wakefield Trinity, Penrith Panthers, Balmain Tigers, Hull F. C. and Oldham, as a stand-off, i.e. number 6, coached at club level for Wakefield Trinity. David Topliss was born in Wakefield, West Riding of Yorkshire, he died aged 58 after suffering a heart attack during a five-a-side football game at Crofton Community Centre, in Crofton, West Yorkshire, England. David Topliss' playing career started at Normanton Juniors ARLFC before spending 13 years with Wakefield Trinity from 1968–81, he played right wing, i.e. number 2, he made his début for Wakefield Trinity against Halifax at Thrum Hall, Halifax on Monday 2 September 1968, won the Lance Todd Trophy as man of the match in the 1979 Challenge Cup Final though he was on the losing side.
He joined Hull F. C. at age 31 for a fee of £15,000. He captained them to six finals in his four years at the club including when they won the Challenge Cup in 1982, he was captain of Hull during the 1981 -- 1982 -- 83, 1983 -- 84 and 1984 -- 85 seasons. Topliss played in the summer in Australia for Balmain Tigers. David Topliss won caps for England while at Wakefield Trinity in 1975 against France and won caps for Great Britain while at Wakefield Trinity in 1973 against Australia, in 1979 against Australia, while at Hull F. C. in 1982 against Australia. David Topliss was selected for Great Britain Squad while at Wakefield Trinity for the 1972 Rugby League World Cup in France. However, David Topliss did not participate in any of the four matches, he went on the 1973 and 1979 Ashes tours of Australia, playing twice on the 1973 tour, once on the 1979 tour, whilst at Hull he captained Great Britain against the Kangaroos in 1982. David Topliss played stand-off, i.e. number 6, in Great Britain's 7–8 defeat by France in the friendly at Stadio Pierluigi Penzo, Venice on Saturday 31 July 1982.
He finished his playing career with Oldham. During his time at the side he became synonymous with local supporters, earning the chant and slogan'Go Topliss!'. At one game against Wrexham Topliss decided to remove his rugby shirt playfully in response to the chant, which resulted in him being banned from the game for 1 year David Topliss won cap for Yorkshire while at Wakefield Trinity. David Topliss played stand-off, was captain, won the Lance Todd Trophy in Wakefield Trinity's 3–12 defeat by Widnes in the 1978–79 Challenge Cup Final during the 1978–79 season at Wembley Stadium, London on Saturday 5 May 1979, in front of a crowd of a crowd of 94,218. Played stand-off in Hull F. C.'s 14-14 draw with Widnes in the 1981–82 Challenge Cup Final during the 1981–82 season at Wembley Stadium, London on Saturday 1 May 1982, in front of a crowd of 92,147, played stand-off, scored 2-tries in the 18-9 victory over Widnes in the 1981–82 Challenge Cup Final replay during the 1981–82 season at Elland Road, Leeds on Wednesday 19 May 1982, in front of a crowd of 41,171.
David Topliss played stand-off in Wakefield Trinity's 2–7 defeat by Leeds in the 1973–74 Yorkshire County Cup Final during the 1973–74 season at Headingley Rugby Stadium, Leeds on Saturday 20 October 1973, played stand-off in the 13–16 defeat by Hull Kingston Rovers in the 1974–75 Yorkshire County Cup Final during the 1974–75 season at Headingley Rugby Stadium, Leeds on Saturday 26 October 1974, played stand-off in Hull F. C.'s 18–7 victory over Bradford Northern in the 1982–83 Yorkshire County Cup Final during the 1982–83 season at Elland Road, Leeds on Saturday 2 October 1982, played stand-off in Hull F. C.'s 13–2 victory over Castleford in the 1983–84 Yorkshire County Cup Final during the 1983–84 season at Elland Road, Leeds on Saturday 15 October 1983, was an interchange/substitute, i.e. number 15, in Hull FC's 29–12 victory over Hull Kingston Rovers in the 1984–85 Yorkshire County Cup Final during the 1984–85 season at Elland Road, Leeds on Saturday 27 October 1984, played stand-off in Oldham's 6–27 defeat by Wigan in the 1986–87 Lancashire County Cup Final during the 1986–87 season at Knowsley Road, St. Helens on Sunday 19 October 1986.
David Topliss played stand-off, scored a try in Wakefield Trinity's 11-22 defeat by Halifax in the 1971–72 Player's No.6 Trophy Final during the 1971–72 season at Odsal Stadium, Bradford on Saturday 22 January 1972, played stand-off, was captain in Hull F. C.'s 0-12 defeat by Hull Kingston Rovers in the 1984–85 John Player Special Trophy Final during the 1984–85 season at Boothferry Park, Kingston upon Hull on Saturday 26 January 1985 in front of a crowd of 25,326. David Topliss appears to have scored twelve drop-goals for Wakefield Trinity, but prior to the 1974–75 season all goals, whether. David Topliss' Testimonial match at Wakefield Trinity took place in 1980. Topliss coached Wakefield Trinity from 1987–94 and had a spell in charge of Great Britain under-21s in 1989. In his first season with Trinity, he guided them to promotion back into the old First Division, retiring as a player after the last match of the season, he remained at Wakefield as coach until 1994. David Topliss was the coach in Wakefield Trinity's 8–11 defeat by Castleford in the 1990–91 Yorkshire County
Matías Tapia is an Argentine professional footballer who plays as a defender for Barracas Central. Tapia is a product of Barracas Central's youth ranks. Salvador Daniele selected Tapia for his professional debut on 22 February 2019, as the defender came off the substitutes bench in a 6–0 victory over Comunicaciones in Primera B Metropolitana. Another appearance came two months in the Copa Argentina against Unión Santa Fe. Tapia's brother, Iván plays football professionally, they are grandsons of Hugo Moyano. Their cousin, Facundo Moyano, is a footballer; as of 3 May 2019. Barracas CentralPrimera B Metropolitana: 2018–19 Matías Tapia at Soccerway