Calligraphy is a visual art related to writing. It is the design and execution of lettering with a broad tip instrument, brush, or other writing instruments. A contemporary calligraphic practice can be defined as "the art of giving form to signs in an expressive and skillful manner". Modern calligraphy ranges from functional inscriptions and designs to fine-art pieces where the letters may or may not be readable. Classical calligraphy differs from typography and non-classical hand-lettering, though a calligrapher may practice both. Calligraphy continues to flourish in the forms of wedding invitations and event invitations, font design and typography, original hand-lettered logo design, religious art, graphic design and commissioned calligraphic art, cut stone inscriptions, memorial documents, it is used for props and moving images for film and television, for testimonials and death certificates and other written works. The principal tools for a calligrapher are the brush. Calligraphy pens round, or pointed.
For some decorative purposes, multi-nibbed pens—steel brushes—can be used. However, works have been created with felt-tip and ballpoint pens, although these works do not employ angled lines. There are some styles such as Gothic script, that require a stub nib pen. Writing ink is water-based and is much less viscous than the oil-based inks used in printing. High quality paper, which has good consistency of absorption, enables cleaner lines, although parchment or vellum is used, as a knife can be used to erase imperfections and a light-box is not needed to allow lines to pass through it. Light boxes and templates are used to achieve straight lines without pencil markings detracting from the work. Ruled paper, either for a light box or direct use, is most ruled every quarter or half inch, although inch spaces are used; this is the case with litterea unciales, college-ruled paper acts as a guideline well. Common calligraphy pens and brushes are: Quill Dip pen Ink brush Qalam Fountain pen Western calligraphy is recognizable by the use of the Latin script.
The Latin alphabet appeared about 600 BC, in Rome, by the first century developed into Roman imperial capitals carved on stones, Rustic capitals painted on walls, Roman cursive for daily use. In the second and third centuries the uncial lettering style developed; as writing withdrew to monasteries, uncial script was found more suitable for copying the Bible and other religious texts. It was the monasteries which preserved calligraphic traditions during the fourth and fifth centuries, when the Roman Empire fell and Europe entered the Dark Ages. At the height of the Empire, its power reached as far as Great Britain; the Semi-uncial generated the small Anglo-Saxon. Each region developed its own standards following the main monastery of the region, which are cursive and hardly readable. Christian churches promoted the development of writing through the prolific copying of the Bible, the Breviary, other sacred texts. Two distinct styles of writing known as uncial and half-uncial developed from a variety of Roman bookhands.
The 7th–9th centuries in northern Europe were the heyday of Celtic illuminated manuscripts, such as the Book of Durrow, Lindisfarne Gospels and the Book of Kells. Charlemagne's devotion to improved scholarship resulted in the recruiting of "a crowd of scribes", according to Alcuin, the Abbot of York. Alcuin developed the style known as the Carolingian minuscule; the first manuscript in this hand was the Godescalc Evangelistary —a Gospel book written by the scribe Godescalc. Carolingian remains the one progenitor hand. In the eleventh century, the Caroline evolved into the Gothic script, more compact and made it possible to fit more text on a page; the Gothic calligraphy styles became dominant throughout Europe. In the 15th century, the rediscovery of old Carolingian texts encouraged the creation of the humanist minuscule or littera antiqua; the 17th century saw the Batarde script from France, the 18th century saw the English script spread across Europe and world through their books. In the mid-1600s French officials, flooded with documents written in various hands and varied levels of skill, complained that many such documents were beyond their ability to decipher.
The Office of the Financier thereupon restricted all legal documents to three hands, namely the Coulee, the Rhonde, a Speed Hand sometimes called the Bastarda. While there were many great French masters at the time, the most influential in proposing these hands was Louis Barbedor, who published Les Ecritures Financière Et Italienne Bastarde Dans Leur Naturel circa 1650. With the destruction of the Camera Apostolica during the sack of Rome, the capitol for writing masters moved to Southern France. By 1600, the Italic Cursiva began to be replaced by a technological refinement, the Italic Chancery Circumflessa, which in turn fathered the Rhonde and English Roundhand. In England and Banson popularized the Round Hand while Snell is noted for his reaction to them, warnings of restraint and proportionality. Still Edward Crocker began publishing his copybooks 40 years before the aforementioned. Sacred Western calligraphy has some special features
Diwani is a calligraphic variety of Arabic script, a cursive style developed during the reign of the early Ottoman Turks. It was invented by Housam Roumi and reached its height of popularity under Süleyman I the Magnificent, it was labeled the Diwani script because it was used in the Ottoman diwan and was one of the secrets of the sultan's palace. The rules of this script were not known to everyone, but confined to its masters and a few bright students, it was used in the writing of all royal decrees and resolutions. A Diwani text adorned with a tugrah, a complex calligraphic seal, represented the authority of the Sultan and the Ottoman state; the Diwani script is divided into two types: The Riq`a Diwani style, devoid of any decorations and whose lines are straight, except for the lower parts of the letters. The Jeli Diwani or clear style; this kind of handwriting is distinguished by the intertwining of its letters and its straight lines from top to bottom. It is decorated to appear as one piece.
The Diwani handwriting is known for the intertwining of its letters, which makes it difficult to read or write, difficult to forge. Diwani is marked by beauty and harmony, accurate small samples are considered more beautiful than larger ones, it is still used in the correspondence of kings, presidents, in ceremonies and greeting cards. And has a high artistic value. Islamic calligraphy Kufic
The Ottoman Empire known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire or Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries. It was founded at the end of the 13th century in northwestern Anatolia in the town of Söğüt by the Oghuz Turkish tribal leader Osman I. After 1354, the Ottomans crossed into Europe, with the conquest of the Balkans, the Ottoman beylik was transformed into a transcontinental empire; the Ottomans ended the Byzantine Empire with the 1453 conquest of Constantinople by Mehmed the Conqueror. During the 16th and 17th centuries, at the height of its power under the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent, the Ottoman Empire was a multinational, multilingual empire controlling most of Southeast Europe, parts of Central Europe, Western Asia, parts of Eastern Europe and the Caucasus, North Africa and the Horn of Africa. At the beginning of the 17th century, the empire contained numerous vassal states; some of these were absorbed into the Ottoman Empire, while others were granted various types of autonomy during the course of centuries.
With Constantinople as its capital and control of lands around the Mediterranean basin, the Ottoman Empire was at the centre of interactions between the Eastern and Western worlds for six centuries. While the empire was once thought to have entered a period of decline following the death of Suleiman the Magnificent, this view is no longer supported by the majority of academic historians; the empire continued to maintain a flexible and strong economy and military throughout the 17th and much of the 18th century. However, during a long period of peace from 1740 to 1768, the Ottoman military system fell behind that of their European rivals, the Habsburg and Russian empires; the Ottomans suffered severe military defeats in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, which prompted them to initiate a comprehensive process of reform and modernisation known as the Tanzimat. Thus, over the course of the 19th century, the Ottoman state became vastly more powerful and organised, despite suffering further territorial losses in the Balkans, where a number of new states emerged.
The empire allied with Germany in the early 20th century, hoping to escape from the diplomatic isolation which had contributed to its recent territorial losses, thus joined World War I on the side of the Central Powers. While the Empire was able to hold its own during the conflict, it was struggling with internal dissent with the Arab Revolt in its Arabian holdings. During this time, atrocities were committed by the Young Turk government against the Armenians and Pontic Greeks; the Empire's defeat and the occupation of part of its territory by the Allied Powers in the aftermath of World War I resulted in its partitioning and the loss of its Middle Eastern territories, which were divided between the United Kingdom and France. The successful Turkish War of Independence against the occupying Allies led to the emergence of the Republic of Turkey in the Anatolian heartland and the abolition of the Ottoman monarchy; the word Ottoman is a historical anglicisation of the name of Osman I, the founder of the Empire and of the ruling House of Osman.
Osman's name in turn was the Turkish form of the Arabic name ʿUthmān. In Ottoman Turkish, the empire was referred to as Devlet-i ʿAlīye-yi ʿOsmānīye, or alternatively ʿOsmānlı Devleti. In Modern Turkish, it is known as Osmanlı Devleti; the Turkish word for "Ottoman" referred to the tribal followers of Osman in the fourteenth century, subsequently came to be used to refer to the empire's military-administrative elite. In contrast, the term "Turk" was used to refer to the Anatolian peasant and tribal population, was seen as a disparaging term when applied to urban, educated individuals. In the early modern period, an educated urban-dwelling Turkish-speaker, not a member of the military-administrative class would refer to himself neither as an Osmanlı nor as a Türk, but rather as a Rūmī, or "Roman", meaning an inhabitant of the territory of the former Byzantine Empire in the Balkans and Anatolia; the term Rūmī was used to refer to Turkish-speakers by the other Muslim peoples of the empire and beyond.
In Western Europe, the two names "Ottoman Empire" and "Turkey" were used interchangeably, with "Turkey" being favoured both in formal and informal situations. This dichotomy was ended in 1920–23, when the newly established Ankara-based Turkish government chose Turkey as the sole official name. Most scholarly historians avoid the terms "Turkey", "Turks", "Turkish" when referring to the Ottomans, due to the empire's multinational character; as the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum declined in the 13th century, Anatolia was divided into a patchwork of independent Turkish principalities known as the Anatolian Beyliks. One of these beyliks, in the region of Bithynia on the frontier of the Byzantine Empire, was led by the Turkish tribal leader Osman I, a figure of obscure origins from whom the name Ottoman is derived. Osman's early followers consisted both of Turkish tribal groups and Byzantine renegades, many but not all converts to Islam. Osman extended the control of his principality by conquering Byzantine towns along the Sakarya River.
It is not well understood how the early Ottomans came to dominate their
Persian calligraphy or Iranian calligraphy is the calligraphy of the Persian language. It is one of the most revered arts throughout history of Iran. After the introduction of Islam in the 7th century, Persians adapted the Arabic alphabet to Persian and developed the contemporary Persian alphabet; the Arabic alphabet has 28 characters. An additional four letters were added by Iranians, which resulted in the 32 letters present in the Persian alphabet. Around one thousand years ago, Ibn Muqlah and his brother created six genres of Iranian calligraphy, namely "Mohaqiq", "Reyhan", "Sols", "Naskh", "Toqi" and "Reqa"; these genres were common for four centuries in Persia. In the 7th century, Hassan Farsi Kateb combined the "Naskh" and "Reqah" styles and invented a new genre of Persian calligraphy named "Ta'liq". In the 14th century, Mir Ali Tabrizi combined two major scripts of his time, i.e. Naskh and Taliq, created a new Persian calligraphic style called "Nas’taliq". In the past 500 years Nastaʿlīq has been the predominant style for writing the Perso-Arabic script.
In the 17th century Morteza Gholi Khan Shamlou and Mohammad Shafi Heravi created a new genre called cursive Nastaʿlīq Shekasteh Nastaʿlīq. A century Abdol-Majid Taleqani, a prominent artist at the time, brought this genre to its highest level; this calligraphic style is based on the same rules as Nas’taliq. However, cursive Nas’taliq has a few significant differences: it provides more flexible movements, it is more stretched and curved. Yadollah Kaboli is one of the most prominent contemporary calligraphers within this style. In 1950, the Iran's Association of Calligraphers was founded by Hossein Mirkhani, Ali Akbar Kaveh, Ebrahim Bouzari, Hassan Mirkhani and Mehdi Baiani. For an overview of Persian calligraphy's development within Afghanistan, see "Calligraphy during last two centuries in Afghanistan", by Azizuddin Vakili. Zendeh Roudi, Jalil Rasouli, Parviz Tanavoli, Nima Behnoud use Persian calligraphy and Rumi poetry in dress designing. Abol atighetchi, abolghassem uses combination of colored naskh and kufic style calligraphy with large letters in a single large format acrylic painting for his work presentation and circles in gold leaf or simple color to decorate but in the nastaligh style lots of colorful geometrical forms and lines are used to modernize the painting and the same technique is used to modernize the large format birds of bessmel, all drawn with large letters.this style of work can be classified as post modern.
Nasta'liq script Shekasteh Nastaʿlīq Naghashi-khat Mir Ali Tabrizi Mir Emad Mirza Buzurg-i-Nuri Mishkín-Qalam Gholam Hossein Amirkhani Calligraphy Islamic calligraphy List of Persian calligraphers Brief history of Persian Calligraphy About history of Persian Calligraphy and its different styles
Abdul Hamid I
Abdülhamid I, Abdul Hamid I or Abd Al-Hamid I was the 27th Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, reigning over the Ottoman Empire from 1773 to 1789. He was born in a younger son of Sultan Ahmed III and his consort Şermi Kadın. Ahmed III abdicated in favor of his nephew Mahmud I, succeeded by his brother Osman III, Osman by Ahmed's elder son Mustafa III; as a potential heir to the throne, Abdul Hamid was imprisoned in comfort by his cousins and older brother, as was customary. This lasted until 1767. During this period, he received his early education from his mother Rabia Şermi, who taught him history and calligraphy; when his brother Mustafa III died, Abdul Hamid succeeded him on 21 January 1774. Abdul Hamid's long imprisonment had left him indifferent to state affairs and malleable to the designs of his advisors, yet he was very religious and a pacifist by nature. At his accession the financial straits of the treasury were such that the usual donative could not be given to the Janissary Corps; the new Sultan told the Janissaries "There are no longer gratuities in our treasury, as all of our soldier sons should learn."
Despite his pacific inclinations, the Ottoman Empire was forced to renew the ongoing war with Russia immediately. This led to complete Turkish defeat at Kozludzha and the humiliating Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca, signed on 21 July 1774; the Ottomans ceded territory to Russia, the right to intervene on behalf of the Orthodox Christians in the Empire. Abdul Hamid now sought to reform the Empire's armed forces, he enumerated the Janissary corps and tried to renovate it, the navy. He established a new artillery corps, he was credited with the creation of the Imperial Naval Engineering School. Abdul Hamid tried to strengthen Ottoman rule over Syria and Iraq. However, slight successes against rebellions in Syria and the Morea could not compensate for the loss of the Crimean Peninsula, which had become nominally independent in 1774, but was in practice now controlled by Russia. Russia exploited its position as protector of Eastern Christians to interfere in the Ottoman Empire, explicitly; the Ottomans declared war against Russia in 1787.
Austria soon joined Russia. Turkey held its own in the conflict, at first, it is said. In spite of his failures, Abdul Hamid was regarded as the most gracious Ottoman Sultan, he directed the fire brigade during the Constantinople fire of 1782. He was admired by the people for his religious devotion, was called a Veli, he outlined a reform policy, supervised the government and worked with statesmen. In 1789, Tipu Sultan, ruler of the Sultanate of Mysore sent an embassy to Abdul Hamid, urgently requesting assistance against the British East India Company, proposed an offensive and defensive alliance. Abdul Hamid informed the Mysori ambassadors that the Ottomans were still entangled and exhausted from the ongoing war with Russia and Austria. Abdul Hamid died on 7 April 1789, in Constantinople, he was buried in a tomb he had built for himself. He bred Arabian horses with great passion. One breed of Küheylan Arabians was named "Küheylan Abdülhamid" after him. ConsortsAbdul Hamid had nine wives: Baş Kadın.
Korean calligraphy known as Seoye, is the Korean tradition of artistic writing. While early Korean calligraphy was written in Chinese characters, including Hanja, modern Korean calligraphy may be written using Hangul, the native Korean alphabet. Chinese calligraphy was introduced to Korea as early as the 2nd or 3rd century CE, became popular in the 7th century. In the 8th century, Kim Saeng became known as the earliest Korean calligraphic master, producing work, compared with that of master Chinese calligrapher Wang Xizhi. In the 9th century, poet Choe Chiwon became known for his calligraphy both in his home country Silla and in the Tang Dynasty; the angular calligraphy styles of the early Tang masters, Yu Shinan, Ouyang Xun, Yan Zhenqing, persisted in popularity until the 14th century, when the more rounded style of Zhao Mengfu came into vogue. Korean calligraphy became formalistic in the years that followed. Kim Jung-hee revolutionized Korean calligraphy in the early 19th century, introducing what is known as the chusa style after his pen name 秋史, inspired by the ancient Chinese lishu script.
As the scholarly classes used Chinese characters, Korean calligraphy used hanja until the 1910–1945 Japanese occupation of Korea. Nationalist sentiment led to the popularization of the native hangul alphabet, calligraphic works using hangul have since seen a revival, although hanja calligraphy is still popular today; the Korean calligraphy is developing its own style, steadfastly. Fonts that are not square are being developed, considering jong-sung, or sound coming after the vowel. There are five major types of Korean Hanja calligraphy, they are: Jeonseo, meaning seal script Choseo, meaning cursive script Haeseo, meaning block script Haengseo, meaning semi-cursive script Yeseo, meaning official script Newspaper article with visuals on Korean calligraphy
Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria
The Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria is an Oriental Orthodox Christian church based in Egypt and the Middle East. The head of the Church and the See of Alexandria is the Patriarch of Alexandria on the Holy See of Saint Mark, who carries the title of Coptic Pope; the See of Alexandria is titular, today the Coptic Pope presides from Saint Mark's Coptic Orthodox Cathedral in the Abbassia District in Cairo. The church follows the Alexandrian Rite for its liturgy and devotional patrimony. With 18–22 million members worldwide, whereof about 15 to 20 million are in Egypt, it is the country's largest Christian church. According to its tradition, the Coptic Church was established by Saint Mark, an apostle and evangelist, during the middle of the 1st century. Due to disputes concerning the nature of Christ, it split from the rest of the Christendom after the Council of Chalcedon in AD 451, resulting in a rivalry with the Byzantine Orthodox Church. In the 4–7th centuries the Coptic Church expanded due to the Christianization of the Aksumite empire and of two of the three Nubian kingdoms and Alodia, while the third Nubian kingdom, recognized the Coptic patriarch after being aligned to the Byzantine Orthodox Church.
After AD 639 Egypt was ruled by its Islamic conquerors from Arabia, the treatment of the Coptic Christians ranged from tolerance to open persecution. In the 12th century, the church relocated its seat from Alexandria to Cairo; the same century saw the Copts become a religious minority. During the 14th and 15th centuries, Nubian Christianity was supplanted by Islam. In 1959, the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church was granted independence; this was extended to the Eritrean Orthodox Tewahedo Church in 1998 following the successful Eritrean War of Independence from Ethiopia. Since the Arab Spring in 2011, the Copts have been suffering increased religious discrimination and violence; the Egyptian Church is traditionally believed to be founded by St Mark at around AD 42, regards itself as the subject of many prophecies in the Old Testament. Isaiah the prophet, in Chapter 19, Verse 19 says "In that day there will be an altar to the LORD in the midst of the land of Egypt, a pillar to the LORD at its border".
The first Christians in Egypt were common people. There were Alexandrian Jewish people such as Theophilus, whom Saint Luke the Evangelist addresses in the introductory chapter of his gospel; when the church was founded by Saint Mark during the reign of the Roman emperor Nero, a great multitude of native Egyptians embraced the Christian faith. Christianity spread throughout Egypt within half a century of Saint Mark's arrival in Alexandria, as is clear from the New Testament writings found in Bahnasa, in Middle Egypt, which date around the year AD 200, a fragment of the Gospel of John, written in Coptic, found in Upper Egypt and can be dated to the first half of the 2nd century. In the 2nd century, Christianity began to spread to the rural areas, scriptures were translated into the local languages, namely Coptic; the Coptic language is a universal language used in Coptic churches in every country. It uses Greek letters. Many of the hymns in the liturgy have been passed down for several thousand years.
The language is used to preserve Egypt's original language, banned by the Arab invaders, who ordered Arabic to be used instead. Some examples of these hymns are Coptic: translit. Ep.ouro, lit.'The King',Coptic: Ⲉⲕⲥⲙⲁⲣⲱⲟⲩⲧ, translit. Ek.esmaro'oot, lit.' Blessed', Coptic: Ⲧⲁⲓϣⲟⲩⲣⲏ, translit. Tai.shouri, lit.'This Censer', many more. The Catechetical School of Alexandria is the oldest catechetical school in the world. St. Jerome records. Around AD 190, under the leadership of the scholar Pantanaeus, the school of Alexandria became an important institution of religious learning, where students were taught by scholars such as Athenagoras, Clement and the native Egyptian Origen, considered the father of theology and, active in the field of commentary and comparative Biblical studies. Many scholars such as Jerome visited the school of Alexandria to exchange ideas and to communicate directly with its scholars; the scope of this school was not limited to theological subjects. The question-and-answer method of commentary began there, 15 centuries before Braille, wood-carving techniques were in use there by blind scholars to read and write.
The Theological college of the catechetical school was re-established in 1893. The new school has campuses in Ireland, New Jersey, Los Angeles, where Coptic priests-to-be and other qualified men and women are taught among other subjects Christian theology, the Coptic language and art – including chanting, music and tapestry. Many Egyptian Christians went to the desert during the 3rd century, remained there to pray and work and dedicate their lives to seclusion and worship of God; this was the beginning of the monastic movement, organized by Anthony the Great, Saint Paul of Thebes, the world's first anchorite, Saint Macarius the Great and Saint Pachomius the Cenobite in the 4th century. Christian monasticism was born in Egypt and was instrumental in the formation of the Coptic Orthodox Church character of submission and humility, thanks to the teachings and writings of the Great Fathers of Egypt's Deserts. By the end of the 5th century, the