click links in text for more info

Arabic maqam

Arabic maqam is the system of melodic modes used in traditional Arabic music, melodic. The word maqam in Arabic means location or position; the Arabic maqam is a melody type. It is "a technique of improvisation" that defines the pitches and development of a piece of music and, "unique to Arabian art music". There are seventy two heptatonic tone scales of maqamat; these are constructed from major and minor seconds. Each maqam is built on a scale, carries a tradition that defines its habitual phrases, important notes, melodic development and modulation. Both compositions and improvisations in traditional Arabic music are based on the maqam system. Maqamat can be realized with either vocal or instrumental music, do not include a rhythmic component. An essential factor in performance is that each maqam describes the "tonal-spatial factor" or set of musical notes and the relationships between them, including traditional patterns and development of melody, while the "rhythmic-temporal component" is "subjected to no definite organization".

A maqam does not have an "established recurring bar scheme nor an unchanging meter. A certain rhythm does sometimes identify the style of a performer, but this is dependent upon their performance technique and is never characteristic of the maqam as such." The compositional or rather precompositional aspect of the maqam is the tonal-spatial organization including the number of tone levels and the improvisational aspect is the construction of the rhythmic-temporal scheme. The designation maqam appeared for the first time in the treatises written in the fourteenth century by al-Sheikh al-Safadi and Abdulqadir al-Maraghi, has since been used as a technical term in Arabic music; the maqam is a modal structure that characterizes the art of music of countries in North Africa, the Near East and Central Asia. In this area we can distinguish three main musical cultures which all belong to the maqam modal family, Arabic and Turkish; the notes of a maqam are not tuned in equal temperament. A maqam determines other things, such as the tonic, the ending note, the dominant note.

It determines which notes should be emphasized and which should not. Arabic maqams are based on a musical scale of 7 notes; some maqams have 2 or more alternative scales. Maqam scales in traditional Arabic music are microtonal, not based on a twelve-tone equal-tempered musical tuning system, as is the case in modern Western music. Most maqam scales include a perfect fifth or a perfect fourth, all octaves are perfect; the remaining notes in a maqam scale may or may not land on semitones. For this reason maqam scales are taught orally, by extensive listening to the traditional Arabic music repertoire. Since microtonal intervals are impractical to notate, a simplified musical notation system was adopted in Arabic music at the turn of the 20th century. Starting with a chromatic scale, the Arabic scale is divided into 24 equal quarter tones, where a quarter tone equals half a semitone in a 12 tone equal-tempered scale. In this notation system all notes in a maqam scale are rounded to the nearest quarter tone.

This system of notation is not exact since it eliminates microtonal details, but is practical because it allows maqam scales to be notated using Western standard notation. Quarter tones can be notated using the half-sharp sign; when transcribed with this notation system some maqam scales happen to include quarter tones, while others don't. In practice, maqams are not performed in all chromatic keys, are more rigid to transpose than scales in Western music because of the technical limitations of Arabic instruments. For this reason, half-sharps occur in maqam scales, the most used half-flats are E, B and less A; the 24-tone system is a notational convention and does not affect the actual precise intonation of the notes performed. Practicing Arab musicians, while using the nomenclature of the 24-tone system, still perform the finer microtonal details which have been passed down through oral tradition. Maqam scales that do not include quarter tones can be performed on equal-tempered instruments such as the piano, however such instruments cannot faithfully reproduce the microtonal details of the maqam scale.

Maqam scales can be faithfully performed either on fretless instruments, or on instruments that allow a sufficient degree of tunability and microtonal control. On fretted instruments with steel strings, microtonal control can be achieved by string bending, as when playing blues; the exact intonation of every maqam scale changes with the historical period, as well as the geographical region. For this reason, because it is not common to notate and microtonal variations from a twelve-tone equal tempered scale, maqam scales are, in practice, learned auditorally; each passage consists of one or more phases that are sections "played on one tone or within one tonal area," and may take from seven to forty seconds to articulate. For example, a tone level centered on g: The tonal levels, or axial pitches, begin in the lower register and rise to the highest at the climax before descending again, for example: "When all possibilities of the music

Board of Control for Lunacy and Mental Deficiency

The Board of Control for Lunacy and Mental Deficiency was a body overseeing the treatment of the mentally ill in England and Wales. It was created by the Mental Deficiency Act 1913 to replace the Commissioners in Lunacy, under the Home Office however it was independent in that it reported to the Lord Chancellor who had responsibility for investigating breaches of care and integrity; the Board was transferred to the Ministry of Health by the Ministry of Health Act 1919, reorganised in 1930. The Board consisted of a Chairman, two Senior Medical Commissioners, one Senior Legal Commissioner, six Commissioners including lawyers and doctors, six Inspectors and administrative staff. By law, at least one of these had to be a woman; the Commissioners of the Board travelled around England and Wales ensuring that those detained under mental health legislation were in custody, their care was appropriate, moneys and other properties owned by patients were not being misused or stolen. The Board was based in Northumberland Avenue, until 1939 when it was moved to Hobart House, Grosvenor Place.

Its functions were transferred to the Minister of Health by the National Health Service Act 1946 Announcements of members were carried in the major national newspapers, including The Times. On inception of the Board in 1913, the chairman was Sir William Byrne with Arthur Rotherham and Mary Dendy joining the ex officio members of the previous Lunacy Commissioners. H. Bond, Marriott Cooke, S. Coupland, B. T. Hodgson, S. J. F. MacLeod, F. Needham L. L. Shadwell, A. H. Trevor In 1916, due to Sir William Byrne moving on, Marriott Cooke became acting chairman, Robert Welsh Braithwaite was appointed to the board. In 1921, Dr Ruth Darwin was appointed to the Board In 1926 due to Robert Welsh Braithwaite's retirement, Robert Cunyngham Brown was appointed a commissioner. In 1928, due to the retirement of the chairman, Sir Frederick Willis, Laurence George Brock was appointed chairman. In 1929, Dr Bedford Pierce was appointed a commissioner. From the start of 1931, the Board was reconstituted, with four other members.

L. G. Brock continued as chairman, with S. J. Fraser MacLeod, C. Hubert Bond, Arthur Rotherham, Ellen Pinsent. William Rees-Thomas was appointed to the Board in 1931. In 1931, Dr Isabel Wilson was appointed as a Commissioner, holding the position until 1948. From 1949 to 1960 she was a Senior Commissioner, after which the Board was abolished and her position was changed to the Principal Medical Officer, Ministry of Health. Phil Fennell. Treatment without consent: law and the treatment of mentally disordered people since 1845. Social ethics and policy series. Routledge. P. 75. ISBN 0-415-07787-7

Consecration of Russia

The Consecration of Russia to the Immaculate Heart of Mary by a specific act of a Pope along with all the other Catholic bishops of the world was ordered in an apparition by Our Lady of Fátima in 1917. The Carmelite nun Sister Lúcia, one of the three visionaries of the apparitions, stated that at different times the Virgin Mary had given her messages that emphasized praying the Rosary, that she had made a number of prophecies and promises, one of these being that the consecration of Russia would usher in a period of world peace; the Vatican claimed that Sister Lúcia declared in writing during the 1980s that the consecration performed by Pope John Paul II in St. Peter's Square, in the Vatican City, on March 25, 1984 had been properly accomplished and was accepted in Heaven; the authenticity of this is not accepted, however, by experts at the Fatima Centre including Fr. Nicholas Gruner and Christopher Ferrara. In addition to this Consecration, Pope Pius XII, Pope John Paul II, Pope Benedict XVI and Pope Francis have consecrated the world to the Immaculate Heart, with Pius XII specifically consecrating "the peoples of Russia" in 1952, sometimes worded as "acts of entrustment".

The teaching of the Roman Catholic Church distinguishes between "public Revelation" and "private revelations". The term "public Revelation" finds its literary expression in the Bible and "reached its fulfilment in the life and resurrection of Jesus Christ". In this regard, The Catechism of the Catholic Church quotes John of the Cross:In giving us his Son, his only Word, he spoke everything to us at once in this sole Word—and he has no more to say... Any person questioning God or desiring some vision or revelation would be guilty not only of foolish behavior but of offending him, by not fixing his eyes upon Christ and by living with the desire for some other novelty. In a meeting with Cardinal Sodano, Sister Lucia pointed out that she had received the vision but not its interpretation. According to Sister Lúcia, the Virgin Mary requested the consecration of Russia to her Immaculate Heart on several occasions. Lúcia lived in Spain from 1925 to 1946, during the time of the Second Spanish Republic and the Spanish Civil War.

Her first mention of the Blessed Virgin's request for the consecration of Russia is in the autumn of 1929. In 1929 Lúcia Santos was a novice at the Sisters of St. Dorothy convent in Spain. Lúcia reported that on the night of 13 June 1929, while she was praying in chapel, that she experienced a vision in which the Blessed Virgin said that it was God's will that the Pope, in union with all the Bishops of the world, consecrate Russia to her Immaculate Heart. Sister Lúcia reported this to her confessor. In two letters she sent in May 1930 to Fr. Gonçalves, her confessor, Lúcia linked the consecration of Russia with the Devotion of the Five First Saturdays, which she had first discussed in context of the apparitions she had purportedly experienced as a postulant at Pontevedra in 1925. (The Church has issued no decision regarding the reported visions at either Pontevedra or Tuy. In August 1941 Sister Lúcia wrote her third memoir in which she described the apparition of 13 July 1917, she said that the Virgin told them: "God wishes to establish in the world devotion to my Immaculate Heart.

If what I say to you is done, many souls will be saved and there will be peace. The war is going to end; when you see a night illumined by an unknown light, know that this is the great sign given you by God that He is about to punish the world for its crimes, by means of war and persecutions of the Church and of the Holy Father. To prevent this, I shall come to ask for the consecration of Russia to my Immaculate Heart. If my requests are heeded, Russia will be converted, there will be peace. If not, she will spread her errors throughout the world, causing wars and persecutions of the Church; the good will be martyred, the Holy Father will have much to suffer, various nations will be annihilated. In the end, my Immaculate Heart will triumph; the Holy Father will consecrate Russia to me, she will be converted, a period of peace will be granted to the world." Two popes consecrated Russia within the Roman Catholic Church based on the messages of Fátima and Tuy. One was Pope Pius XII, appointed Archbishop in the Sistine Chapel on May 13, 1917, the same day the Fátima apparitions were reported.

The other was Pope John Paul II, shot in Rome on May 13, 1981 and credited Our Lady of Fátima with his recovery, saying that it was "in mysterious coincidence with the anniversary of the first apparition". Pope Pius XII in October 1942 performed the Consecration to the Immaculate Heart of Mary for the entire world, in July 1952 he consecrated the Peoples of Russia to the Immaculate Heart of Mary by his apostolic letter Sacro Vergente Anno. Pius XII stated:"Just as a few years ago We consecrated the entire human race to the Immaculate Heart of the Virgin Mary, Mother of God, so today We consecrate and in a most special manner We entrust all the peoples of Russia to this Immaculate Heart…" Pope John Paul II on 25 March 1984 consecrated Russia and the world in a public ceremony at St. Peter's in Rome. Cardinal Bertone said to the press many times. Cardinal Bertone reported that Lúcia dos Santos had said that the consecration requested by the Virgin Mary had been fulfilled and accepted in Heaven, that everyone should live out the consecration person

Project Euler

Project Euler is a website dedicated to a series of computational problems intended to be solved with computer programs. The project attracts students interested in mathematics and computer programming. Since its creation in 2001 by Colin Hughes, Project Euler has gained notability and popularity worldwide, it includes with a new one added once every one or two weeks. Problems are of varying difficulty, but each is solvable in less than a minute of CPU time using an efficient algorithm on a modestly powered computer; as of June 2019, Project Euler has more than 900,000 users, from all over the world, who have solved at least one problem. A forum specific to each question may be viewed after the user has answered the given question. Problems can be sorted on number solved and difficulty. Participants can track their progress through achievement levels based on the number of problems solved. A new level is reached for every 25 problems solved. Special awards exist for solving special combinations of problems, for instance, there is an award for solving fifty prime numbered problems.

A special "Eulerians" level exists to track achievement based on the fastest fifty solvers of recent problems so that newer members can compete without solving older problems. The first Project Euler problem is If we list all the natural numbers below 10 that are multiples of 3 or 5, we get 3, 5, 6 and 9; the sum of these multiples is 23. Find the sum of all the multiples of 3 or 5 below 1000. Though this problem is much simpler than the typical problem, it serves to illustrate the potential difference that an efficient algorithm makes; the brute-force algorithm examines every natural number less than 1000 and keeps a running sum of those meeting the criteria. This method is simple to implement, as shown by the following pseudocode: total:= 0 for NUM from 1 through 999 do if NUM mod 3 = 0 or NUM mod 5 = 0 total:= total + NUM return total For harder problems, it becomes important to find an efficient algorithm. For this problem, we can reduce 1000 operations to a few by using the inclusion–exclusion principle and a closed-form summation formula.

S u m 3 or 5 = s u m 3 + s u m 5 − s u m 15 s u m k = ∑ i = 1 ⌊ n − 1 k ⌋ k i ∑ i = 1 p k i = k p 2 Here, s u m k denotes the sum of multiples of k below n. In big O notation, the brute-force algorithm is O and the efficient algorithm is O. List of computer science awards List of things named after Leonhard Euler Home page Links to Translation Projects into several other languages

Lathyrus lanszwertii

Lathyrus lanszwertii is a species of sweet pea known by the common names Nevada sweet pea or peavine. It is found in western North America from California to Texas to British Columbia, it is a tender vining perennial which bears lavender, fuchsia, or white pea flowers, pods containing inedible peas. There is much variation among individuals of this species, there are several distinct varieties: L. lanszwertii var. aridus - Nevada pea L. lanszwertii var. brownii - Brown's pea L. lanszwertii var. lanszwertii - Lanszwert's pea L. lanszwertii var. leucanthus - Nevada pea L. lanszwertii var. tracyi - Tracy's pea Calflora Database: USDA Plants Profile Jepson Manual Treatment

The Legend of Zelda: Majora's Mask

The Legend of Zelda: Majora's Mask is an action-adventure game developed and published by Nintendo for the Nintendo 64. It was released in 2000 as the sixth main installment in The Legend of Zelda series and was the second to use 3D graphics, following 1998's The Legend of Zelda: Ocarina of Time. Designed by a creative team led by Eiji Aonuma, Yoshiaki Koizumi, Shigeru Miyamoto, Majora's Mask was completed in less than two years, it featured enhanced graphics and several gameplay changes from its predecessor, though it reused a number of elements and character models, which the game's creators called a creative decision made necessary by time constraints. Majora's Mask is set in Termina, an alternate reality to Ocarina of Time's Hyrule, to be destroyed along with its inhabitants in three days by a giant falling moon unless the player, as Link, can save it from imminent doom; the plot's antagonist is a mischievous imp called the Skull Kid who has stolen a powerful, ancient artifact called Majora's Mask from an enigmatic traveling mask salesman.

The game introduced several novel concepts, revolving around the perpetually repeating three-day cycle and the use of various masks that can transform Link into different beings. As the player progresses through the game, Link learns to play numerous melodies on his ocarina, which allow him to control the flow of time or open passages to four temple dungeons. Characteristic of the Zelda series, completion of the game involves traversing through several dungeons, each of which contain a number of complex puzzles and enemies. On the Nintendo 64, Majora's Mask required the Expansion Pak, unlike Ocarina of Time, which provided additional memory for more refined graphics and greater flexibility in generating on-screen characters, it has been recognized for its dark themes and undertones, distinct art style, level design. Majora's Mask earned widespread acclaim from critics, who praised the gameplay and complex story, it has since been cited as one of the greatest video games of all time and generated a substantial cult following.

3.3 million copies of the game were sold worldwide. The game was re-released in 2003 for the GameCube as part of The Legend of Zelda: Collector's Edition, for the Wii's Virtual Console service in 2009, for the Wii U's Virtual Console service in 2016. An enhanced remake for the Nintendo 3DS, titled The Legend of Zelda: Majora's Mask 3D, was released in February 2015; the gameplay of Majora's Mask expands on that of Ocarina of Time. It retains the concept of dungeon puzzles and ocarina songs and introduces new elements including character transformations and a three-day cycle; as in previous installments, Link can perform basic actions such as walking and limited jumping, must use items to battle enemies and solve puzzles. Link's main weapon is a sword, other weapons and items are available — Link can block or reflect attacks with a shield, stun enemies by throwing Deku Nuts, attack from a distance with a bow and arrow, use bombs to destroy obstacles and damage enemies, he can latch onto objects or paralyze enemies with the Hookshot.

Magic power allows the use of special items. While the masks in Ocarina of Time are limited to an optional side-quest, they play a central role in Majora's Mask, which has twenty-four masks in total. Link can transform himself at will into different creatures: the Deku Mask transforms Link into a Deku Scrub, the Goron Mask into a Goron, the Zora Mask into a Zora; each form features unique abilities: Deku Link can perform a spin attack, shoot bubbles, skip on water, fly for a short time by launching from Deku Flowers. Many areas can be accessed only by use of these abilities. Link and his three transformations receive different reactions from non-player characters. For instance and Zora Link can exit Clock Town at will, but Deku Link is not permitted to leave due to his childlike appearance. Animals interact differently to Link's four forms, they are indifferent to Link's normal form, attack Deku Link, are frightened by Goron Link, chase Zora Link. The final obtainable mask is the Fierce Deity's Mask.

Although the use of this mask is limited to boss battles, it is possible to wear it anywhere using a glitch. Upon donning this mask, Link grows to nearly two-and-a-half times his normal height and gains white clothes and war paint on his face. Fierce Deity Link's sword is helix-shaped and shoots beams at enemies. Other masks provide situational benefits. For example, the Great Fairy's Mask helps retrieve stray fairies in the four temples, the Bunny Hood increases Link's movement speed, the Stone Mask renders Link invisible to most non-playable characters and enemies. Less valuable masks are involved only in optional side-quests or specialized situations. Examples include the Postman's Hat, which grants Link access to items in mailboxes, Kafei's Mask, which initiates a long side-quest to receive the Couple's Mask. Majora's Mask imposes a time limit of three days in game-time, about 54 minutes in real time. An on-screen clock tracks the time. Link can return to 6:00 am of the first day by playing the Song of Time on the Ocarina of Time.

If he does not before the 72 hours expire the moon will destroy Termina and Link will lose everything he accomplished during these three days. A real-time countdown will begin wh