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SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Araceae

The Araceae are a family of monocotyledonous flowering plants in which flowers are borne on a type of inflorescence called a spadix. The spadix is accompanied by, sometimes enclosed in, a spathe or leaf-like bract. Known as the arum family, members are colloquially known as aroids; this family of 114 genera and about 3750 known species is most diverse in the New World tropics, although distributed in the Old World tropics and northern temperate regions. One of the largest collections of living Araceae is maintained at the Missouri Botanical Gardens. Species in the Araceae are rhizomatous or tuberous and are found to contain calcium oxalate crystals or raphides; the leaves can vary from species to species. The inflorescence is composed of a spadix, always surrounded by a modified leaf called a spathe. In monoecious aroids, the spadix is organized with female flowers towards the bottom and male flowers towards the top. In aroids with perfect flowers, the stigma is no longer receptive when the pollen is released, thus preventing self-fertilization.

Some species are dioecious. Many plants in this family are thermogenic, their flowers can reach up to 45 °C when the surrounding air temperature is much lower. One reason for this unusually high temperature is to attract insects to pollinate the plant, rewarding the beetles with heat energy. Another reason is to prevent tissue damage in cold regions; some examples of thermogenic Araceae are: Symplocarpus foetidus, Amorphophallus titanum, Amorphophallus paeoniifolius, Helicodiceros muscivorus, Sauromatum venosum. Species such as titan arum and the dead horse arum give off a pungent smell resembling rotten flesh, to attract flies to pollinate the plant; the heat produced by the plant helps to convey the scent further. Phylogeny based on the Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. F One of the earliest observations of species in the Araceae was conducted by Theophrastus in his work Enquiry into Plants; the Araceae were not recognized as a distinct group of plants until the 16th century. In 1789, Antoine Laurent de Jussieu classified all climbing aroids as Pothos and all terrestrial aroids as either Arum or Dracontium in his book Familles des Plantes.

The first major system of classification for the family was produced by Heinrich Wilhelm Schott, who published Genera Aroidearum in 1858 and Prodromus Systematis Aroidearum in 1860. Schott's system was based on floral characteristics, used a narrow conception of a genus. Adolf Engler produced a classification in 1876, refined up to 1920, his system is different from Schott's, being based more on vegetative characters and anatomy. The two systems were to some extent rivals, with Engler's having more adherents before the advent of molecular phylogenetics brought new approaches. Modern studies based on gene sequences show the Araceae to be monophyletic, the first diverging group within the Alismatales; the APG III system of 2009 recognizes the family, including the genera segregated in the Lemnaceae. The sinking of the Lemnaceae into the Araceae is not universally accepted. For example, the 2010 New Flora of the British Isles uses a paraphyletic Araceae and a separate Lemnaceae. A comprehensive genomic study of Spirodela polyrhiza was published in February 2014.

Anthurium and Zantedeschia are two well-known members of this family, as are Colocasia esculenta and Xanthosoma roseum. The largest unbranched inflorescence in the world is that of the arum Amorphophallus titanum; the family includes many ornamental plants: Dieffenbachia, Caladium and Epipremnum, to name a few. In the genus Cryptocoryne are many popular aquarium plants. Philodendron is an important plant in the ecosystems of the rainforests and is used in home and interior decorating. Symplocarpus foetidus is a common eastern North American species. An interesting peculiarity is that this family includes the largest unbranched inflorescence, that of the titan arum erroneously called the "largest flower" and the smallest flowering plant and smallest fruit, found in the duckweed, Wolffia. Within the Araceae, genera such as Alocasia, Caladium, Colocasia and Philodendron contain calcium oxalate crystals in the form of raphides; when consumed, these may cause edema, vesicle formation, dysphagia accompanied by painful stinging and burning to the mouth and throat, with symptoms occurring for up to two weeks after ingestion.

Food plants in the family Araceae include Amorphophallus paeoniifolius, Colocasia esculenta, Typhonium trilobatum and Monstera deliciosa. While the aroids are little traded, overlooked by plant breeders to the extent that the Crop Trust calls them "orphan crops", they are grown and are important in subsistence agriculture and in local markets; the main food product is the corm, high in starch. List of foliage plant diseases Bown, Deni. Aroids: Plants of the Arum Family. Timber Press. ISBN 0-88192-485-7 Croat, Thomas B. "History and Current Status of Systematic Research with Araceae". Aroideana. 21. Online Grayum, Michael H. "Evolution and Phylogeny of the Araceae". Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden. 77: 628–697. Doi:10.2307/2399668. JSTOR 2399668. Keating R C. "Vegetative anatomical data and its r

Baths of Chapultepec

The Baths of Chapultepec as a series of deposits used from the pre-Columbian period until the beginning of the 20th century, to houses the waters of the springs of the hill of Chapultepec that served to provide drinking water to Mexico City. Among the remains of these are the so-called Baths of Moctezuma in Chapultepec, remodeled, the remains of some colonial baths in the Well 5 or Manantial Chico of Chapultepec; when Tenochtitlan began to grow and look for alternatives to supply water to its inhabitants, the Huey Tlatoani Tenochca Chimalpopoca in 1381 requested his grandfather the Huey Tlatoani of Azcapotzalco Tezozomoc to allow him to take advantage of the waters of the springs of Chapultepec to supply the population of his city, permission granted to him and for this reason the Tenochcs began to build the aqueduct. This aqueduct was not well performed by the Tenochcs and was one of the reasons for the war in which Tenochtitlan joined Texcoco to gain hegemony in the Valley of Mexico and form the Aztec Triple Alliance.

As the hill of Chapultepec had several springs located on the south side of the hill, the Texcocans led by their Huey Tlatoani Nezahualcoyotl in 1466 carried out a series of works, between canals and reservoirs to water the aqueduct of Chapultepec, for this they built the so-called baths which were intended to increase the water level and the water pressure in the aqueduct pipeline. In addition to allowing irrigation of the Chapultepec Forest. During the siege of Mexico City by the Spanish and their Indigenous allies, Hernán Cortés ordered the destruction of part of these baths and the taking of the site that had a small town on the west side of the hill of Chapultepec, which left the city without drinking water. Having taken the city and determined to use it as the seat of the capital of New Spain, Hernán Cortés ordered to rebuild them, over time these baths underwent a series of modifications, tending to increase their level, which did not always mean to increase their volume. Since 1740 a decrease of the volumes of water was noticed which determined in 1929 the total closure of the baths.

At present one of them was reconstructed and only presents an exhibition of sculptures and alusional maps, this one is popularly called The Baths of Moctezuma, on the eastern side of the hemicycle dedicated to the 201 Squadron are the remains of some of the colonial baths, where you can see pre-Columbian remains, inside it is the Well Five of Chapultepec, dependent of the Comisión Nacional del Agua. At its height the baths were not only used for it drinking water, since concessions to private individuals allowed the construction of private baths for irrigation and public baths; the baths were made of masonry and lime, of the several that existed there are only information available from three of them, which had the following names: Alberca Grande or Alberca de los Llorones. Alberca de los Nadadores. Alberca Chica or Alberca de Moctezuma The Alberca Grande located in what would now be the boundary fence between the forest and the Avenue of los Constituyentes was rectangular in shape, 17.47 m long and 1.39 m wide with a depth of 2.67 m or 12 m deep, this was used for irrigation in the Tacubaya area and belonged to the Count of Peñasco.

The Alberca de los Nadadores was more extensive but of less depth, it was located more to the east and was the first public swimming bath or spa in Mexico City. The Alberca Chica or Alberca de Moctezuma was the highest height with respect to Mexico City and it is likely that the oldest, from this goes the pipes for aqueducts, for it was the only one of which we know the years of its renovation, thanks to a series of lap of which were in a quarter of a pump situated at its side to provide service to the Castle of Chapultepec, these reconstructions made the bath out each time smaller and more high, this bath was studied in 1974 by archaeologists Ruben Cabrera, María Antonieta Cervantes and Felipe Solís, who found six boxes inside each other, which were reducing in size, the oldest one, destroyed, was about 15 m long and was square with rounded corners, until the fourth there are traces of baked brick, dated in 1870, with the fifth and sixth there is the use of cement, this last one that could be seen before its reconstruction in 2010, had 5.70 m by side concrete ceiling and glass, a staircase of iron, at its entrance towards south was the room of bombs.

There is a popular belief that these baths were the Baths of Moctezuma, in which he swam and cleaned, so it is believed that other characters like Emperor Maximilian used them for swimming, which would be from every point unhygienic and there are the prohibitions that several rulers imposed on the use of those waters for bathing, if they were in the facilities of the aqueduct and the baths, in the last case it is most that the other baths that had a use for irrigation were used for that purpose. List of pre-columbian archaeological sites in Mexico City

St Peters Church, St Peters

St Peter's Anglican Church is a heritage-listed Anglican church located at 187-209 Princes Highway, St Peters, in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. It is one of the oldest churches in Sydney. Designed by Thomas Bird, the church is sometimes referred to as St Peter's Church, Cooks River, as it is located in the Anglican Parish of Cooks River, New South Wales; the church is listed on the Register of the National Estate. The Cooks River, named by James Cook in 1770 when he sailed into Botany Bay, is crossed by the Princes Highway, about 3 kilometres to the south of the church; the suburb of St Peters, in which the church is located, was named as a result of the area's proximity to the church. The church site forms part of the core of the territory of the Darug Coastal Nation; the geological formation of the study area is described as part of the Wianamatta Group and chiefly Ashfield Shale resulting in clay soils supporting an indigenous forest vegetation structure dominated by Turpentine and Ironbark tree association.

The church site forms part of the land granted to Thomas Smyth in 1799 following the colonial invasion of the east coast of New South Wales. Lands including the study area were acquired by Robert Campbell and the original grant was referred to as Bulanaming was subdivided and 6 acres 14 perch, on the higher ground on the low ridge between Gumbramorra Creek to the north west and Shea's Creek to the south east, were reserved for the erection of a church. Much of the indigenous forest was cleared to obtain timber and get access to the fertile soils for agricultural pursuits; this resulted in an open landscape character with scattered remnant trees. Thirteen of the forty two allotments of Campbell's subdivision were purchased by Alexander Brodie Spark along with three smaller grants on the southern side of the Cooks River in 1826. Spark was an established Sydney merchant, a leading member of the community and a considerable land speculator holding land at the Glebe, Potts Point and the Hunter Valley besides his Cooks River land.

Spark was a classically educated man and this influenced his decision to name his major Cooks River property "Tempe" after the Vale of Tempe, a beautiful valley in ancient Greek legend which lay at the foot of Mount Olympus. Spark employed architect John Verge to design his Tempe house, he had employed Verge to design "Tusculum" on Woolloomooloo Hill but preferred the Cooks River property by moving to the Tempe estate in 1833 to oversee the implementation of the new residence and its picturesque garden setting. Spark and his estate played a key role in the establishment of a community at St Peters and in the building of the St Peter's Anglican Church. Spark was one of the original trustees of St Peters; when Spark died he was buried in St. Peter's graveyard; the location of the grave is uncertain. The Cooks River area was popular as a location for well-to-do estates from the mid 1800s onwards, it was not until the 1880s that the Cooks River area was settled. The church site comprising 6 acres 14 perches was transferred by Campbell, in December 1837, to the "Bishop of Australia" for the erection of the church.

A. B. Spark, as the largest landowner in Campbell's subdivision, was active in the local community and was involved in business dealings with many of his neighbours including John Lord, his co-director of the Bank of Australia. Bishop Broughton proceeded to establish the church and tenders were called for the erection of the church appearing on 16 March 1838 to the designs of the architect Thomas Bird. Spark may have been influential in the selection of the architect who had worked with him on another project and had engaged Bird to work on improvements to his residence "Tempe" in April 1839. Spark was elected as one of the five trustees as elected on 16 April 1838; the other trustees were. A temporary church was constructed of ironbark slabs on a stone foundation on the land dedicated by Campbell, intended, as a permanent church site, to the north of the site of the intended permanent structure; this was opened 13 May 1838. A foundation stone was laid on 13 July 1838 and the church licensed on 20 November 1839.

Spark hosted the celebrations for the licensing and afterwards at his residence Tempe House. The church was described at the time of the licensing that; the contractor was Henry Knight of Macdonaldtown. Spark appeared the major agitator for the church as he had approached the Governor to gain additional funds for the church and a parsonage. In his diary Spark records the acquisition of a Seraphin and Communion Service; the building was constructed of sun dried bricks, ironbark internal columns, plaster vaulted ceiling and imported stain glass windows from England. The church footprint fronted the main road, Cook's River Road; the bricks were made by Henry Knight. He was responsible for the first practical experiment in the field of individual home ownership for the working population, he subdivided his land at Macdonaldtown and sold it for 1 pound per foot on long terms, free of interest. In 1872 he became; the parsonage was a single storey verandahed structure located behind the church and towards the south west and had a timber shingled roof.

The gr

Nishi-Chiba Station

Nishi-Chiba station is a railway station in Chūō-ku, Japan, operated by East Japan Railway Company. Nishi-Chiba Station is served by the Chūō-Sōbu Line; the elevated station consists of an island platform serving two tracks. There are two express tracks north of track 2; the station opened on October 1, 1942. Chiba University Nishi-Chiba campus University of Tokyo Institute of Industrial Science Chiba campus Chiba Keizai University Keiai University Chiba Prefectural Chiba Commerce High school Chiba Prefectural Chiba-Higashi High school JR East Nishi-Chiba Station

Maj Bylock

Maj Bylock was a Swedish children's writer and teacher. Her works have been translated into Danish, Finnish, Dutch, Norwegian, Sami and German, she is the recipient of the Artibus medal among other awards. Maj Kerstin Andersson was born in Visby, on the Swedish island of Gotland, March 21, 1931. At the age of 12, the family moved to Värmland, she completed her studies to be a primary school teacher, worked in that profession until 1961. The first books she wrote were textbooks in history and religion, when she, as a teacher, found that there were no good books for children in these subjects. Over the years, she wrote books for children and young people as well as adults, her authorship has a clear historical mark. In 2010, her contribution to improving children's education was the subject of Mary Ingemansson's thesis The Historical Novel and Historical Consciousness in ten- to twelve-year-olds - Maj Bylocks, she is translated into Danish, Finnish, Dutch, Norwegian, Sami and German. Bylock contributed a hymn, No.

524, Är dagen fylld av oro och bekymmer, in the Swedish hymn book, music by Anfinn Øien. Her award-winning Solstenen, became a musical. In years, in addition to her own writing, Bylock recounted a number of notable classics in world literature; the intention was to make them accessible to a greater number of readers and to contribute to a rich, international cultural heritage being passed on. Bylock was awarded the Astrid Lindgren Prize in 1990, she received an honorary doctor from Karlstad University in 2006. Bylock died in Karlstad, August 18, 2019, she is buried at Nyed's cemetery. 1967 - Swedish State Cultural Scholarship 1969 - Karlstad City Culture Scholarship to Gustaf Frödings Minne 1969 - 1st prize in Bonniers et al. foreign publisher's competition for the best children's book for Äventyret med grodan 1972 - 2nd prize in the Vecko-Journalen competition The new short story for the novel Honda 1980 - 1st prize in Harrier's novel prize competition for De sjunkna skeppens vik 1981 - Swedish Writers Fund Work Scholarship 1983 - Swedish Writers Fund Work Scholarship, two-year 1983 - 1st prize in Rabén & Sjögren's jubilee prize competition for Solstenen 1986 - Swedish Writer's Fund premium 1987 - 1st prize in Bonnier's jubilee prize for Karusell och kärleksbrev 1988 - 96 - The Swedish Writers' Fund's guaranteed author's allowance 1985 - The Swedish Writers' Association's and the Swedish Journalist's Association's scholarship 1990 - Astrid Lindgren Prize 1999 - County Council of Värmlands Frödings scholarship 2002 - Wettergrens barnbokollon 2005 - Karlstad Municipality's Merit Medal of Merit 2005 - Warm Country Author of the Year 2006 - Honorary Doctor at Karlstad University 2008 - Värmland Academy Academy Lagerlöv 2009 - Litteris et Artibus medal 2010 - The Mårbacka Award

Young (Korean name)

Young spelled Yeong, or Yong, Yung, is an uncommon Korean surname, a single-syllable Korean given name, an element in many two-syllable Korean given names. As given name meaning differs based on the hanja used to write it. There are 44 hanja with the reading "young" on the South Korean government's official list of hanja which may be registered for use in given names; as a Korean family name, Young can be written with three different hanja, indicating different lineages. According to the 2000 South Korean Census, a total of 259 people had these family names. 永: 132 people and 40 households. Reported bon-gwan included Gangnyeong and Pyeonghae; this family name was known in historical records, but had not been believed to have survived into the modern era until a 1930 survey by the Japanese colonial administration found one family with this name living in Seoul. 榮: 86 people and 20 households. There was one reported bon-gwan and two people whose bon-gwan was not recorded; this character is used to write a Chinese family name pronounced Róng.

影: 41 people and 15 households. There was one reported bon-gwan and one person whose bon-gwan was not recorded. Seoncheon is located in an area. There are 34 hanja with this reading, variant forms of three of those, on the South Korean government's official list of hanja which may be used in personal names. Korean names which begin with this element include: Korean names which end with this element include: List of Korean given names