Bahrain, officially the Kingdom of Bahrain, is a small Arab monarchy in the Persian Gulf. Bahrains population is 1,234,567, including 666,172 non-nationals and it is 780 km2 in size, making it the third smallest nation in Asia after the Maldives and Singapore. Bahrain is the site of the ancient Dilmun civilisation and it has been famed since antiquity for its pearl fisheries, which were considered the best in the world into the 19th century. Bahrain was one of the earliest areas to convert to Islam, following a period of Arab rule, Bahrain was occupied by the Portuguese in 1521, who in turn were expelled in 1602 by Shah Abbas I of the Safavid dynasty under the Persian Empire. In 1783, the Bani Utbah clan captured Bahrain from Nasr Al-Madhkur and it has since been ruled by the Al Khalifa royal family, in the late 1800s, following successive treaties with the British, Bahrain became a protectorate of the United Kingdom. Formerly a state, Bahrain was declared a Kingdom in 2002, in 2011, the country experienced protests inspired by the regional Arab Spring.
Bahrain had the first post-oil economy in the Persian Gulf, since the late 20th century, Bahrain has invested in the banking and tourism sectors. Many large financial institutions have a presence in Manama, the countrys capital, Bahrain has a high Human Development Index and was recognised by the World Bank as a high income economy. In Arabic, Bahrayn is the form of bahr, so al-Bahrayn means the two seas, although which two seas were originally intended remains in dispute. The term appears five times in the Quran, but does not refer to the modern island—originally known to the Arabs as Awal— but rather to all of Eastern Arabia. Today, Bahrains two seas are generally taken to be the bay east and west of the island. In addition to wells, there are areas of the sea north of Bahrain where fresh water bubbles up in the middle of the water as noted by visitors since antiquity. An alternate theory with regard to Bahrains toponymy is offered by the al-Ahsa region, another supposition by al-Jawahari suggests that the more formal name Bahri would have been misunderstood and so was opted against.
Until the late Middle Ages, Bahrain referred to the region of Eastern Arabia that included Southern Iraq, Kuwait, Al-Hasa, the region stretched from Basra in Iraq to the Strait of Hormuz in Oman. This was Iqlīm al-Bahrayns Bahrayn Province, the exact date at which the term Bahrain began to refer solely to the Awal archipelago is unknown. The entire coastal strip of Eastern Arabia was known as Bahrain for a millennium, the island and kingdom were commonly spelled Bahrein into the 1950s. Bahrain was home to the Dilmun civilization, an important Bronze Age trade centre linking Mesopotamia, Bahrain was ruled by the Assyrians and Babylonians. From the 6th to 3rd century BC, Bahrain was part of the Persian Empire ruled by the Achaemenian dynasty, by about 250 BC, Parthia brought the Persian Gulf under its control and extended its influence as far as Oman
Colonel Sir Thomas Hungerford Holdich, KCMG, KCIE, CB was an English geographer and president of the Royal Geographical Society. He saw active service in the Bhutan expedition of 1865, the Abyssinian campaign of 1867-68 and he was engaged in The Cordillera of the Andes Boundary Case by the governments of Argentina and Chile in 1902 to define the boundary along the Andes Mountains. He was awarded the Founders Gold Medal of the Royal Geographical Society in 1887 in recognition of his work on the Afghan frontier and he was placed on the Retired list with an Indian pension 13 February 1900. In years, he wrote and lectured extensively on geographical issues and he contributed a number of entries to the eleventh edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. - Sir Thomas Hungerford Holdich Sir Thomas was married to Ada Vanrenen and he died in 1929 at his home at Parklands in Merrow, near Guildford, at the age of 86. Boundaries in Europe and the Near East,1918, T H Holdich, L A Bethell and Hamilton Bower.
The Abor Expedition, Geographical Results, gates of India, Being an Historical Narrative of Early Relations Between the East and the West,1910. Countries of the King’s Award,1904, proceedings of the Central Asian Society,1904. M. G. Gerard, T. H. Holdrich, R. A. Wahab, report on the proceedings of the Pamir Boundary Commission. Calcutta, Office of the Superintendent of Government Printing, notes on the Antiquities and History of Las Bela and Makran,1894. Biography from the Holdich Family History Society In Memoriam, Colonel Sir Thomas Hungerford Holdich, k. c. m. g
Agriculture is the cultivation and breeding of animals and fungi for food, biofuel, medicinal plants and other products used to sustain and enhance human life. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of human civilization. The study of agriculture is known as agricultural science, the history of agriculture dates back thousands of years, and its development has been driven and defined by greatly different climates and technologies. Industrial agriculture based on large-scale monoculture farming has become the dominant agricultural methodology, genetically modified organisms are an increasing component of agriculture, although they are banned in several countries. Agricultural food production and water management are increasingly becoming global issues that are fostering debate on a number of fronts, the major agricultural products can be broadly grouped into foods, fibers and raw materials. Specific foods include cereals, fruits, meats, fibers include cotton, hemp and flax. Raw materials include lumber and bamboo, other useful materials are produced by plants, such as resins, drugs, perfumes and ornamental products such as cut flowers and nursery plants.
The word agriculture is a late Middle English adaptation of Latin agricultūra, from ager, Agriculture usually refers to human activities, although it is observed in certain species of ant and ambrosia beetle. To practice agriculture means to use resources to produce commodities which maintain life, including food, forest products, horticultural crops. This definition includes arable farming or agronomy, and horticulture, all terms for the growing of plants, even then, it is acknowledged that there is a large amount of knowledge transfer and overlap between silviculture and agriculture. In traditional farming, the two are often combined even on small landholdings, leading to the term agroforestry, Agriculture began independently in different parts of the globe, and included a diverse range of taxa. At least 11 separate regions of the Old and New World were involved as independent centers of origin, wild grains were collected and eaten from at least 105,000 years ago. Pigs were domesticated in Mesopotamia around 15,000 years ago, rice was domesticated in China between 13,500 and 8,200 years ago, followed by mung and azuki beans.
Sheep were domesticated in Mesopotamia between 13,000 and 11,000 years ago. From around 11,500 years ago, the eight Neolithic founder crops and einkorn wheat, hulled barley, lentils, bitter vetch, chick peas and flax were cultivated in the Levant. Cattle were domesticated from the aurochs in the areas of modern Turkey. In the Andes of South America, the potato was domesticated between 10,000 and 7,000 years ago, along with beans, llamas, alpacas and some root vegetables were domesticated in New Guinea around 9,000 years ago. Sorghum was domesticated in the Sahel region of Africa by 7,000 years ago, cotton was domesticated in Peru by 5,600 years ago, and was independently domesticated in Eurasia at an unknown time
Muharraq is Bahrains third largest city and served as its capital until 1932 when it was replaced by Manama. The population of Muharraq in 2012 was 176,583, the city is located on Muharraq Island and has long been a centre of religiosity. Bahrain International Airport is located on the island, adjacent to Muharraq are the man-made Amwaj Islands, known for their large buildings and beaches. Muharraq is home to Muharraq Club, which is Bahrains most successful football club, the city is known for its souq and as a home of traditional arts and music, Ali Bahar, a popular and successful Bahraini singer is from Muharraq. Muharraqs origins are ancient phoencian birthplace Tylos, its ancient name was Arwad, the citys inhabitants, who depended upon seafaring and trade for their livelihood, worshipped Awal in the form of a large statue of a shark located in the city. By the 5th century AD, Muharraq had become a centre of Nestorian Christianity. As a sect, the Nestorians were often persecuted as heretics by the Byzantine Empire, the names of several of Muharraqs villages today reflect this Christian legacy, with Al-Dair meaning the monastery and Qalali meaning a monks cloisters.
Taken by the Portuguese and the Persians, Al-Muḥarraq passed to the control of the Āl Khalīfah dynasty in 1783 with the rest of Bahrain, Gulf Air has its headquarters in Muharraq, and Bahrain Air formerly had its headquarters in the Mohamed Centre in Muharraq. Building 586 in Muharraq houses the headquarters of the Civil Aviation Affairs, the Ministry of Education operates government schools. The French School of Bahrain is located in Busaiteen, in Muharraq Municipality, firjan is the plural of the Arabic word Fareej which translates to district. The oldest and largest Fareej in Muharraq is Fareej Al Bin Ali and it was established by Sunni Arabs belonging to the Al Bin Ali tribe in the 17th century and until recently, members of the tribe still lived in that Fareej. Freej station is divided into two parts one part there are Sunni and in another there are Shia. Amwaj Islands, man-made islands near Al Muharraq
Muharraq Island, formerly known as Moharek, is the second largest island in the archipelago of Bahrain after Bahrain Island. It has a distance of 4 km east of the capital, Manama and it is named after Muharraq City, the former capital of Bahrain. The Al Khalifa dynasty settled there in the century and resided there until 1923. The island dominated trade and especially pearls industries in Bahrain, the Pearl center was made a UNESCO world heritage site in 2012. In recent years, north of Muharraq Island have a major reclamation of some islands like Amwaj Islands. The south of the island, at Hidd district, the new Bahrain International Investment Park of the zone was built. And in the far south, new Khalifa bin Saruman harbor, the island has the 4,000 metres Bahrain International Airport that follows the long east–west axis. The island has the 900 metres Muharraq Airfield adjacent to Bahrain International Airport. S, ed. Bahrein, Encyclopædia Britannica,3, New York, Charles Scribners Sons, p.240.
Holdich, Thomas Hungerford, Bahrein Islands, in Chisholm, Encyclopædia Britannica,3, Cambridge University Press, p.212
Governorates of Bahrain
There are four Governorates in Bahrain, the Capital, Northern and Muharraq. There had previously been five until September 2014, when the Central Governorate was abolished, the first municipality in Bahrain was the 8-member Manama municipality which was established in July 1919. Members of the municipality were elected annually, the municipality was said to have been the first municipality to be established in the Arab world, the municipality was in charge of cleaning roads and renting buildings to tenants and shops. By 1929, it undertook road expansions as well as opening markets, in 1958, the municipality started water purification projects. In 1960, Bahrain comprised four municipalities including Manama, Hidd, Al Muharraq, over the next 30 years, the 4 municipalities were divided into 12 municipalities as settlements such as Hamad Town and Isa Town grew. These municipalities were administered from Manama under a municipal council whose members are appointed by the king. After September 22nd,2014, Bahrain was split into four governorates and these governorates are, The first municipal elections to be held in Bahrain after independence in 1971, was in 2002.
The most recent was in 2014, a specific number of adjacent city blocks are grouped together to form an area. Each of these forms a constituency in the countrys electorate. Every four years, elections are held in these constituencies, with each electing its own MP. The most recent election was in the Bahraini parliamentary by-election in 2011, each governorate has its own municipality council, with separate elections for them
Shia is a branch of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad designated Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor. Shia Islam primarily contrasts with Sunni Islam, whose adherents believe that Muhammad did not appoint a successor, instead they consider Abu Bakr to be the correct Caliph. Adherents of Shia Islam are called Shias of Ali, Shias or the Shia as a collective or Shii individually, Shia Islam is the second-largest branch of Islam, in 2009, Shia Muslims constituted 10–13% of the worlds Muslim population. Twelver Shia is the largest branch of Shia Islam, in 2012 it was estimated that perhaps 85 percent of Shias were Twelvers. Shia Islam is based on the Quran and the message of Muhammad attested in hadith, Shia consider Ali to have been divinely appointed as the successor to Muhammad, and as the first Imam. The word Shia means follower and is the form of the historic phrase shīʻatu ʻAlī, meaning followers of Ali, faction of Ali. Shia and Shiism are forms used in English, while Shiite or Shiite, as well as Shia, the term for the first time was used at the time of Muhammad.
At present, the word refers to the Muslims who believe that the leadership of the community after Muhammad belongs to Ali, nawbakhti states that the term Shia refers to a group of Muslims that at the time of Muhammad and after him regarded Ali as the Imam and Caliph. Al-Shahrastani expresses that the term Shia refers to those who believe that Ali is designated as the Heir and caliph by Muhammad, for the Shia, this conviction is implicit in the Quran and history of Islam. And Allah is Hearing and Knowing, Shia search for the true meaning of the revelation to get the purpose of the life blood and the human destiny. Shia Muslims believe that just as a prophet is appointed by God alone and they believe God chose Ali to be Muhammads successor, the first caliph of Islam. The Shias believe that Muhammad designated Ali as his successor by Gods command, Ali was Muhammads first cousin and closest living male relative as well as his son-in-law, having married Muhammads daughter Fatimah. Ali would eventually become the fourth Muslim caliph, after the Farewell Pilgrimage, Muhammad ordered the gathering of Muslims at the pond of Khumm and it was there that Shia Muslims believe Muhammad nominated Ali to be his successor.
The hadith of the pond of Khumm was narrated on 18th of Dhu al-Hijjah of 10 AH in the Islamic calendar at a place called Ghadir Khumm, located near the city of al-Juhfah, Saudi Arabia. Muhammad there stated, Shia Muslims believe this to be Muhammads appointment of Ali as his successor, when Muhammad died in 632 CE, Ali and Muhammads closest relatives made the funeral arrangements. While they were preparing his body, Abu Bakr, Umar and his family accepted the appointment for the sake of unity in the early Muslim community. Alis rule over the early Muslim community was often contested, as a result, he had to struggle to maintain his power against the groups who betrayed him after giving allegiance to his succession, or those who wished to take his position. This dispute eventually led to the First Fitna, which was the first major civil war within the Islamic Caliphate, the Fitna began as a series of revolts fought against Ali ibn Abi Talib, caused by the assassination of his political predecessor, Uthman ibn Affan
To be distinguished from Ras al Hadd, a district with a famous turtle breeding beach in Oman Al Hidd is a town in Bahrain, located on a sand spit on the southeastern extremity of Muharraq Island. The town has a large native Sunni population, of bedouin tribal origin, the altitude of Al Hidd is 3m. Before the discovery of oil in Bahrain, the inhabitants of Hidd were largely involved in the fishing or pearl diving industries, many of Bahrains fijiri performance groups are based in Hidd. Hadd used to be administered under its own municipality, but today it falls under the Muharraq Governorate, South of Hadd town lies the Hadd Industrial Area, built on reclaimed land. In addition to factories, the Industrial Area has built on it a large power plant, a water desalination plant. Hadd lies south of the Bahrain International Airport and Arad, the Shaikh Khalifa Causeway connects Hadd to Juffair on Bahrain Island. The Office of Ports and Maritime Affairs of the Ministry of Transportation has its headquarters in Building 702 in Hidd, the Ministry of Education operates government schools.
Government schools for boys include Al-Hidd Primary Intermediate Boys School and South Hidd Primary Boys School, government schools for girls include Asma That Al-Nequin Primary Intermediate Girls School and Al-Hadd Secondary Girls School
Sunni Islam is the largest group of Islam. Its name comes from the word Sunnah, referring to the behavior of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. According to Sunni tradition, Muhammad did not clearly designate a successor and this contrasts with the Shia view, which holds that Muhammad intended his son-in-law and cousin Ali ibn Abi Talib to succeed him. Political tensions between Sunnis and Shias continued with varying intensity throughout Islamic history and they have been exacerbated in recent times by ethnic conflicts, as of 2009, Sunni Muslims constituted between 87–90% of the worlds Muslim population. Sunni Islam is the worlds largest religious denomination, followed by Catholicism and its adherents are referred to in Arabic as ahl as-sunnah wa l-jamāʻah or ahl as-sunnah for short. In English, its doctrines and practices are sometimes called Sunnism, while adherents are known as Sunni Muslims, Sunnites, Sunni Islam is sometimes referred to as orthodox Islam. The Quran, together with hadith and binding juristic consensus form the basis of all traditional jurisprudence within Sunni Islam, sunnī, commonly referred to as Sunnīism, is a term derived from sunnah meaning habit, usual practice, tradition.
The Muslim use of this term refers to the sayings and living habits of the prophet Muhammad, in Arabic, this branch of Islam is referred to as ahl as-sunnah wa l-jamāʻah, the people of the sunnah and the community, which is commonly shortened to ahl as-sunnah. One common mistake is to assume that Sunni Islam represents a normative Islam that emerged during the period after Muhammads death, and that Sufism and Shiism developed out of Sunni Islam. This perception is due to the reliance on highly ideological sources that have been accepted as reliable historical works. Both Sunnism and Shiaism are the end products of centuries of competition between ideologies. Both sects used each other to further cement their own identities and doctrines, the first four caliphs are known among Sunnis as the Rashidun or Rightly-Guided Ones. Sunni recognition includes the aforementioned Abu Bakr as the first, Umar who established the Islamic calendar as the second, Uthman as the third, Sunnis believe that the companions of Muhammad were the best of Muslims.
Support for this view is found in the Quran, according to Sunnis. Sunnis believe that the companions were true believers since it was the companions who were given the task of compiling the Quran, narrations that were narrated by the companions are considered by Sunnis to be a second source of knowledge of the Muslim faith. A study conducted by the Pew Research Center in 2010 and released January 2011 found that there are 1.62 billion Muslims around the world, Islam does not have a formal hierarchy or clergy. Leaders are informal, and gain influence through study to become a scholar of Islamic law, according to the Islamic Center of Columbia, South Carolina, anyone with the intelligence and the will can become an Islamic scholar. During Midday Mosque services on Fridays, the congregation will choose a person to lead the service
Arabic is a Central Semitic language that was first spoken in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. Arabic is the language of 1.7 billion Muslims. It is one of six languages of the United Nations. The modern written language is derived from the language of the Quran and it is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic, which is the language of 26 states. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the standards of Quranic Arabic. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-Quranic era, Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics. As a result, many European languages have borrowed many words from it. Many words of Arabic origin are found in ancient languages like Latin.
Balkan languages, including Greek, have acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has borrowed words from languages including Greek and Persian in medieval times. Arabic is a Central Semitic language, closely related to the Northwest Semitic languages, the Ancient South Arabian languages, the Semitic languages changed a great deal between Proto-Semitic and the establishment of the Central Semitic languages, particularly in grammar. Innovations of the Central Semitic languages—all maintained in Arabic—include, The conversion of the suffix-conjugated stative formation into a past tense, the conversion of the prefix-conjugated preterite-tense formation into a present tense. The elimination of other prefix-conjugated mood/aspect forms in favor of new moods formed by endings attached to the prefix-conjugation forms, the development of an internal passive. These features are evidence of descent from a hypothetical ancestor. In the southwest, various Central Semitic languages both belonging to and outside of the Ancient South Arabian family were spoken and it is believed that the ancestors of the Modern South Arabian languages were spoken in southern Arabia at this time.
To the north, in the oases of northern Hijaz and Taymanitic held some prestige as inscriptional languages, in Najd and parts of western Arabia, a language known to scholars as Thamudic C is attested
Education in Bahrain
Bahrain has the oldest public education system in the Arabian Peninsula. The system was established in 1930 when the Bahraini government assumed responsibility for operating two pre-existing primary public schools for boys, separate girls schools and various universities were established in the 20th century. According to data from the 2010 census, the rate of Bahrain stands at 94. 6%. As of 2008, education expenditure accounts for 2. 9% of Bahrains GDP, quranic schools were the only source of education in Bahrain prior to the 20th century, such schools were primarily dedicated to the study of the Quran. Leading merchants in the country sent their children to the school until it was closed down in 1933 due to financial difficulties, the school reopened some years under the name of Al Raja School where it operates till the present day. Parents who could afford to fund their childrens studies often sent them to schools in Bombay or Baghdad. As a result of traditional religious education, there was a negative stigma attached to the American Mission School.
Prior to the establishment of a school in the country, Shia. The school was founded by prominent citizens of Muharraq and was endorsed by the Bahraini royal family, the Education Committee was responsible for managing the Al-Hidaya Boys school. The school was in fact the brainchild of Shaikh Abdulla, who suggested the idea after returning from post-World War I celebrations in England, in 1926, a second public school for boys opened up in the capital city, Manama. Two years later, in 1928, the first public school for girls was established, due to financial constraints suffered by the Education Committee, the Bahraini government took control of the schools in 1930. In the 1986–87 academic year,88,152 students attended 139 public schools, Education in the public system, which included six-year primary schools, three-year intermediate schools, and three-year secular secondary schools, is free. Students receive supplies, uniforms and transportation to, almost all children in the six- to eleven-year-old age-group attend primary school, and about two-thirds of all twelve- to fourteen-year-olds are enrolled in intermediate schools.
However, there was a significant drop-out rate, especially for girls, in the 1986–87 academic year, only 41 percent of fifteen- to seventeen-year-olds attended secondary schools. In the academic year of 2008/2009 the number of classes in Bahrain are 4326, with the number of male students 62381. With a distribution of 62172 in primary classes,32327 in preparatory classes and 31115 in secondary schools, in addition to the American Mission School, another foreign private school was opened in 1910, Al-Ittihad school, funded by the Persian community of Bahrain. In addition to the education system, there are forty-eight private and religious schools, including the United States operated and accredited Bahrain School. In Bahrain there were 5,000 teachers in 1988, of whom 65 percent were native Bahrainis, egyptians constituted the largest group of foreign teachers